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Anatomy of the

Digestive System

Anatomy & Physiology


Chapter 25

Function

Altering the chemical & physical


composition of food so that it can be
absorbed & used by body cells (digestion)

Organs of the Digestive


System

Mouth
Oropharynx
Esophagus
Stomach

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

Large Intestine

Cecum
Colon

Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon

Rectum
Anal Canal

Accessory Organs

Salivary glands

Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual

Tongue
Teeth
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Vermiform appendix

Walls of the Gastrointestinal


(GI)Tract

Tube with 4
layers of tissue

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa

Mucosa
Inner most layer
Made of 3 layers of epithelium, connective
tissue & smooth muscle

Submucosa

Thicker than mucosal


layer
Connective tissue
layer that contains
glands, blood vessels,
nerve plexus
(Meissner plexus)

Muscularis
Thick layer of muscle tissue
Inner layer of circular smooth muscle
Outer layer of longitudinal smooth muscle
Myenteric plexus between the muscular
layers

Serosa
Outermost layer
Made of connective tissue & peritoneum
(visceral layer)
Layer of peritoneum that lines the
abdominal cavity= parietal layer
Mesentery is the fold of membrane that
connects the parietal & visceral layer of
peritoneum

Mouth (Oral cavity)

Lips
Cheek
Tongue
Hard & Soft Palates

Lips
Surround the orifice of the mouth & form
anterior boundary
Covered by skin externally & mucous
membrane internally
Philtrum: shallow vertical groove that
marks the midline of upper lip

Cheeks
Form lateral boundaries, continuous with
lips, lined by mucous membranes
Formed in large part by buccinator muscle

Hard & Soft Palates

Hard palate: consists


of 4 bones: 2 maxillae
& 2 palatines
Soft palate: partition
between mouth &
nasopharynx
Uvula: small cone
shaped process
extending from soft
palate

Tongue

Intrinsic muscle:
changes in size &
shape of tongue;
important for
mastication (chewing)
Extrinsic muscle:
origin outside the
tongue; important for
deglutition
(swallowing) & talking
3 parts: root, body, tip

Papillae

Vallate: large, form an


inverted V on posterior
part of tongue; 10-14;
taste buds on lateral
aspect
Fungiform: taste buds
on lateral aspect;
mostly on sides & tips
of tongue
Filiform: no taste
buds, over anterior 2/3
of tongue; whitish
appearance

Lingual Frenulum

Fold of mucous
membrane on the
undersurface of the
tongue that anchors
the tongue to the floor
of mouth

Salivary glands

Three pairs:

Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual

Secrete about 1 L of saliva/day

Parotid Glands

Largest
Between skin &
masseter muscle in
front of & below the
ear
Produce a serous
(watery) type of saliva

Submandibular glands

Mixed gland-contain
both serous & mucusproducing elements
Located below
mandibular angle

Sublingual glands

Smallest
Under the mucous
membrane covering
the floor of the mouth
Produce only a
mucous type of saliva

Tooth

3 main parts

Crown: exposed
portion, covered by
enamel
Neck: area
surrounded by
gingiva
Root: area that fits
into jaw

Tooth suspended
in place by
periodontal
membrane

Tooth structure

Dentin: makes up
greatest portion of
tooth shell, covered by
enamel on crown &
cementum in neck &
root
Dentin contains a pulp
cavity consisting of
vessels & nerves

Type of teeth

Deciduous teeth
(baby): 20; erupt
from 6 mos. to 20
mos.
Permanent teeth: 32

Pharynx

Food now called a


bolus leaves
mouth & enters
oropharynx
Food does not go
thru nasopharynx

Esophagus

Collapsible tube,
posterior to trachea
Mucosa: stratified
squamous epithelium
to resist abrasion
Muscularis: striated
in upper third,
smooth in lower third

Sphincters of esophagus

Upper esophageal
sphincter: helps
prevent air from
entering during
respiration
Lower esophageal
sphincter (cardiac
sphincter): between
stomach & esophagus

Stomach

Three divisions:

Fundus: enlarged portion to left & above opening of


esophagus
Body & Pylorus

Sphincter of Stomach

Pyloric sphincter: controls opening of


pylorus to duodenum

Gastric mucosa

Folds (rugae) with


depressions (gastric
pits)
Gastric glands are
located below the level
of the pits

Gastric glands

3 major secretory cells:

Chief cells: secrete


enzymes
Parietal cells:
secrete HCl &
intrinsic factor
(binds to Vitamin
B12 to protect it)
Endocrine cells:
secrete ghrelin
(stimulates
hypothalamus to
increase appetite) &
gastrin (regulates
gastric function)

Gastric muscle

Made of 3 layers instead of 2

Functions of stomach
Reservoir
Secretes gastric juice to aid in digestion
Churns food
Secretes intrinsic factor
Absorption-small amounts
Produces hormones
Protects by destroying pathogens

Small intestine
Main site of digestion & absorption
3 divisions:

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

Wall of Small
Intestine

Has circular folds


(plicae) with many
tiny projections
(villi)
Each villus contains
vessels & lacteal
Epithelial cells on
surface of villi have
microvilli which form
a brush border
which increases
surface area

Goblet cells

Large numbers of
mucus secreting
goblet cells on villi &
in crypts
Crypts serve as area
of rapid mitotic
division & at base of
crypts secretory cells
produce an enzyme
that is thought to
inhibit bacterial
growth

Large Intestine

Divisions:

Cecum: blind pouch


Colon
Ascending colon: right side, ileum attaches
at junction of cecum & ascending colon
Transverse colon: from hepatic flexure to
splenic flexure
Descending colon: left side
Sigmoid colon: S shaped
Rectum: terminal inch is anal canal

Wall of Large Intestine


Intestinal mucus glands which produce
mucus to lubricate feces
Longitudinal muscle fibers form strips
called taeniae coli & circular muscles are
grouped into rings that produce pouches,
haustra

Vermiform appendix

Wormlike tubular
organ, communicates
with cecum

Peritoneum

Large continuous sheet of serous


membrane that lines the walls of
abdominal cavity & forms outer serous
coat of organs

Mesentery: fan shaped projection of


peritoneum encloses the jejunum & ileum
Greater omentum: continuation of serosa of
stomach to transverse colon
Lesser omentum: from liver to lesser curvature
of stomach

Liver

Largest gland in body


2 lobes separated by
falciform ligament:

Left lobe (about 1/6)


Right lobe

Hepatic lobules

anatomical units of
liver
Branch of hepatic vein
through center of each
lobule
Outer corners of
lobules are the
branches of hepatic
artery, portal vein,
hepatic duct

Bile ducts

Small bile ducts join to


form right & left
hepatic duct which
join to form hepatic
duct which merges
with cystic duct from
gallbladder to form
common bile duct
which opens into
duodenum at major
duodenal papilla

Functions of liver
Detoxify substances
Secrete bile
Metabolism of foods
Store several substances
Produces plasma proteins & site of
hematopoiesis during fetal development

Gallbladder
Pear shaped on underside of liver
Serous, muscular & mucosal layer
Functions: stores, concentrates & ejects
bile

Pancreas

In curve of duodenum, extending behind stomach


Exocrine gland (most)
Acinar cells: secrete enzymes through
pancreatic duct that empties into duodenum
Endocrine gland-Islets
Alpha cells: produce glucagon
Beta cells: produce insulin

Image Citations

Slide 6: Brunners glands, 2/28/07,


http://w3.ouhsc.edu/histology/Text%20Sections
/Lower%20GI.html
Slide 25: Lower esophageal sphincter, 3/13/07,
http://hopkins-gi.nts.jhu.edu/pages/latin/temp
lates/index.cfm?pg=disease1&organ=1&disease=13
&lang_id=1
Slide 38: The human vermiform appendix,
3/13/07,
http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/vestiges/appendi
x.html