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Frequency Division
Aditra Vito Abdulkadir
Arief Nurwanto
Fadilla Putri Irintka
Kenneth Keulana Juda
Krishadi Anangga
M Rah Adi Satrio
Widoseno Nur Sukma Atri

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
is a technique, method or scheme for digital multicarrier modulation using many closely spaced
subcarriers- a previously modulated signal
modulated into another signal of higher frequency
and bandwidth.

In contrast to conventional Frequency Division
Multiplexing, the spectral overlapping among
sub- carriers are allowed in OFDM since
orthogonality will ensure the subcarrier
separation at the receiver, providing better
spectral efficiency and the use of steep band
pass filter was eliminated.

Makes efficient use of the spectrum by allowing

By dividing the channel into narrowband flat

fading subchannels, OFDM is more resistant to
frequency selective fading than single carrier
systems are.

Using adequate channel coding and interleaving

one can recover symbols lost due to the
frequency selectivity of the channel.

Channel equalization becomes simpler than by using

adaptive equalization techniques with single carrier

It is possible to use maximum likelihood decoding with

reasonable complexity.

OFDM is computationally efficient by using FFT techniques

to implement the modulation and demodulation functions.

Is less sensitive to sample timing offsets than single carrier

systems are.

Provides good protection against cochannel interference

and impulsive parasitic noise.

The OFDM signal has a noise like amplitude with a
very large dynamic range; hence it requires RF power
amplifiers with a high peak to average power ratio.

It is more sensitive to carrier frequency offset and drift

than single carrier systems are due to leakage of the

It is sensitive to Doppler shift.

It requires linear transmitter circuitry, which suffers
from poor power efficiency.

It suffers loss of efficiency caused by cyclic prefix.

Principles of OFDM

Using all orthogonal subcarrier so that data rate can be
increased with each sub-channel requires a longer symbol

By implementing this, OFDM can overcome Inter-symbol

Interference (ISI)

OFDM is based on the concept of frequency-division multiplexing

(FDD), the method of transmitting multiple data streams over a
common broadband medium. That medium could be radio
spectrum, coax cable, twisted pair, or fiber-optic cable. Each data
stream is modulated onto multiple adjacent carriers within the
bandwidth of the medium, and all are transmitted
simultaneously. A good example of such a system is cable TV,
which transmits many parallel channels of video and audio over
a single fiber-optic cable and coax cable.


Serial-to-parallel conversion

1, 1, -1, -1, 1, 1, 1, -1, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, 1, -1, -1,

-1, 1,


The functional block diagram of how the signal

is modulated/demodulated is given below

Orthogonal sub carrier

The OFDM scheme differs from traditional FDM
in the following interrelated ways:
1. Multiple carriers (called subcarriers) carry the
information stream,
2. The subcarriers are orthogonal to each other,
3. A guard interval is added to each symbol to
minimize the channel delay spread and inter
symbol interference.

Fading effect occurs when the path from the
transmitter to the receiver has either reflection
or obstructions

When fading occurs, the signal reach the

transmitter by using several path with slightly
different delay and gain

The time delay causes phase shift in the signal

causing it to be degraded




Intercarrier Interference
Problem and Solutions
Inter-carriers interference (ICI) is a special
problem in the OFDM system

ICI is different from the co-channel interference

in MIMO systems.

The co-channel interference is caused by reused

channels in other cells, while ICI results from the
other sub-channels in the same data block of
the same user.

Doppler Effect
The relative motion between receiver and
transmitter, or mobile medium among them,
would result in the Doppler effect, a frequency
shift in narrow-band communications.

the Doppler effect would influence the quality of

a cell phone conversation in a moving car

There are 3 kind of dopler effect models:

the classical model

the uniform model
the two-ray model

Classical model
In classical model, the transmitter was assumed
to be fixed with vertically polarized antenna.

There was no Light of Sight (NLOS) path

In classical model the spectrum of this kind of
Doppler shift could be given:

Uniform model and Two

ray model
The uniform model is much simpler.
Both velocity and angle are supposed to be uniformly

The power spectrum could be written as:

The two-ray model assumed that there were only two

paths between the transmitter

the resulting power spectrum is given as:

Synchronization Error
It can be assumed that most of the wireless receivers
cannot make perfect frequency synchronization.

In fact, practical oscillators for synchronization are

usually unstable, which introduce frequency offset.

the oscillator frequency offset varies from 20 ppm

(Parts Per Million) to 100 ppm.

Provided an OFDM system operates at 5 GHz, the

maximum offset would be 100 KHz to 500 KHz (20-100

Hence, the frequency offset could not be ignored.

the frequency offset can be normalized by the reciprocal of

symbol duration

if a system has a bandwidth of 10 MHz, and the number of

subcarriers is 128, then the subcarrier frequency spacing would
be 10M/128= 78 KHz.

If the receiver frequency offset is 1 KHz

normalized frequency =1/78=1.3%

If the normalized frequency offset is larger than 1, only the

decimapart needs to be considered.

Multipath Fading
the multipath fading does not cause ICI, but it
will make the ICI problem worse.

Because there are many time-delayed versions

of received signals with different gains and
different phase offsets, the ICI is more
complicated to calculate.

Solutions for ICI

There are 3 scheme were proposed to overcome
ICI problem:

1. CFO estimation
2. windowing technique
3. ICI self-cancellation

In order to compensate CFO, CFO must be

estimated at first.

Once a precise CFO estimate is obtained, a

perfect equalizer then can be designed to
eliminate ICI.

Signal processing methods are applied to solve

this problem (proposed MUSIC-based and
ESPRIT-based algorithms)

windowing is Windowing is a popular method of
reducing the spectral sidelobes of OFDM.

windowing is capable to reduce the bandwidth

of the channel matrix.

windowing mitigate the ICI induced by timevarying frequency-selective channels.

Hanning window, the Nyquist window, and the

Kaiser window are used for windowing.

The ICI self-cancellation has introduced by

Yuping Zhao and Gustav Hangman in 2001 to
combat supress ICI in OFDM.

The ICI self-cancellation scheme is a method

involving with encoded redundancy.

The main idea is to modulate the input data

symbol onto a group of subcarriers with
predefined coifficient such that the generated
ICI within the group cancel each other.

High spectral efficiency: provides more
data services

Resiliency to RF interference: good

performance in unregulated frequency

Lower multi-path distortion: works in

complex indoor environments as well as
at speed in vehicles.

The ISM Band (Industrial Scientific and

Medical) is a set of frequency ranges that are

Typical RF transmitters in the ISM band

- Analog Cordless Phones (900MHz)
- Microwave Ovens (2.45 GHz)
- Bluetooth Devices (2.45 GHz)
- Digital Cordless Phones (2.45 GHz or
5.8 GHz)

Wireless LAN (2.45 GHz or 5.8 GHz)

Single Carrier Single

Bluetooth, GSM, CDMA and other
communications standards use a single carrier to
transmit a single symbol at a time.

Data troughput is achieved by using a very fast

symbol rate.

W-CDMA 3.14 Msymbols/sec

Bluetooth 1 Msymbols/sec
A primary disadvantages is that fast symbol rates
are more susceptible to Multi-path distortion.

Digital Audio Broadcasting

Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a
digital radio technology for broadcasting
radio stations, used in several countries,
especially in Europe.

The DAB transmitted data consists of signals number

sampled at a rate of 48 kHz with a 22-bit resolution.

This signal is then compressed at rates ranging from 32

to 384 kbps, depending upon the desired quality.

DAB uses differential QPSK modulation for the subcarriers.

DVB-H (Digital Video

Broadcast to Handheld)
DVB-H is one of the established mobile TV formats.
Can operate for transmission on 5, 6, 7 or 8 MHz

(DVB-H Receiver)

Advantages of DVB-H

Carriers - In DVB-H, carriers can use any

additional spectrum that they might own for
DVB-H broadcasting
and be an infrastructure

Spectrum Availability - In U.S., DVB-H will be

organized using clear and ready-for-use
spectrum available today, without interfering
with existing analog TV
stations or other TV
or wireless services.


Advance network Computing and communication 3

Yao Xiao B.S., Dalian University of Technology, 1998 M.S., Institute
of Automation, C.A.S, 2001 May 2003


SYSTEMS, Journal, Luca Rugini and Paolo Banelli

Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex

Technology (

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing and its Applications

(Beena R.Ballal, Ankit Chadha, Neha Satam) IJSR.

Thank You for Your