OFDM
Orthogonal
Frequency Division
Multiplexing
Aditra Vito Abdulkadir
Arief Nurwanto
Fadilla Putri Irintka
Kenneth Keulana Juda
Krishadi Anangga
M Rah Adi Satrio
Widoseno Nur Sukma Atri
Definition
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
is a technique, method or scheme for digital multicarrier modulation using many closely spaced
subcarriers a previously modulated signal
modulated into another signal of higher frequency
and bandwidth.
Why OFDM?
In contrast to conventional Frequency Division
Multiplexing, the spectral overlapping among
sub carriers are allowed in OFDM since
orthogonality will ensure the subcarrier
separation at the receiver, providing better
spectral efficiency and the use of steep band
pass filter was eliminated.
Advantages
Makes efficient use of the spectrum by allowing
overlap.
By dividing the channel into narrowband flat
fading subchannels, OFDM is more resistant to
frequency selective fading than single carrier
systems are.
Using adequate channel coding and interleaving
one can recover symbols lost due to the
frequency selectivity of the channel.
Channel equalization becomes simpler than by using
adaptive equalization techniques with single carrier
systems.
It is possible to use maximum likelihood decoding with
reasonable complexity.
OFDM is computationally efficient by using FFT techniques
to implement the modulation and demodulation functions.
Is less sensitive to sample timing offsets than single carrier
systems are.
Provides good protection against cochannel interference
and impulsive parasitic noise.
Disadvantages
The OFDM signal has a noise like amplitude with a
very large dynamic range; hence it requires RF power
amplifiers with a high peak to average power ratio.
It is more sensitive to carrier frequency offset and drift
than single carrier systems are due to leakage of the
DFT.
It is sensitive to Doppler shift.
It requires linear transmitter circuitry, which suffers
from poor power efficiency.
It suffers loss of efficiency caused by cyclic prefix.
Principles of OFDM
Overview
Using all orthogonal subcarrier so that data rate can be
increased with each subchannel requires a longer symbol
period.
By implementing this, OFDM can overcome Intersymbol
Interference (ISI)
OFDM is based on the concept of frequencydivision multiplexing
(FDD), the method of transmitting multiple data streams over a
common broadband medium. That medium could be radio
spectrum, coax cable, twisted pair, or fiberoptic cable. Each data
stream is modulated onto multiple adjacent carriers within the
bandwidth of the medium, and all are transmitted
simultaneously. A good example of such a system is cable TV,
which transmits many parallel channels of video and audio over
a single fiberoptic cable and coax cable.
Modulation
Serialtoparallel conversion
1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
1, 1,
FFT and IFFT
The functional block diagram of how the signal
is modulated/demodulated is given below
Orthogonal sub carrier
The OFDM scheme differs from traditional FDM
in the following interrelated ways:
1. Multiple carriers (called subcarriers) carry the
information stream,
2. The subcarriers are orthogonal to each other,
and
3. A guard interval is added to each symbol to
minimize the channel delay spread and inter
symbol interference.
Fading
Fading effect occurs when the path from the
transmitter to the receiver has either reflection
or obstructions
When fading occurs, the signal reach the
transmitter by using several path with slightly
different delay and gain
The time delay causes phase shift in the signal
causing it to be degraded
Fading
Fading
Fading
Intercarrier Interference
Problem and Solutions
Intercarriers interference (ICI) is a special
problem in the OFDM system
ICI is different from the cochannel interference
in MIMO systems.
The cochannel interference is caused by reused
channels in other cells, while ICI results from the
other subchannels in the same data block of
the same user.
Doppler Effect
The relative motion between receiver and
transmitter, or mobile medium among them,
would result in the Doppler effect, a frequency
shift in narrowband communications.
the Doppler effect would influence the quality of
a cell phone conversation in a moving car
There are 3 kind of dopler effect models:
the classical model
the uniform model
the tworay model
Classical model
In classical model, the transmitter was assumed
to be fixed with vertically polarized antenna.
There was no Light of Sight (NLOS) path
In classical model the spectrum of this kind of
Doppler shift could be given:
Uniform model and Two
ray model
The uniform model is much simpler.
Both velocity and angle are supposed to be uniformly
distributed
The power spectrum could be written as:
The tworay model assumed that there were only two
paths between the transmitter
the resulting power spectrum is given as:
Synchronization Error
It can be assumed that most of the wireless receivers
cannot make perfect frequency synchronization.
In fact, practical oscillators for synchronization are
usually unstable, which introduce frequency offset.
the oscillator frequency offset varies from 20 ppm
(Parts Per Million) to 100 ppm.
Provided an OFDM system operates at 5 GHz, the
maximum offset would be 100 KHz to 500 KHz (20100
ppm.)
Hence, the frequency offset could not be ignored.
the frequency offset can be normalized by the reciprocal of
symbol duration
if a system has a bandwidth of 10 MHz, and the number of
subcarriers is 128, then the subcarrier frequency spacing would
be 10M/128= 78 KHz.
If the receiver frequency offset is 1 KHz
normalized frequency =1/78=1.3%
If the normalized frequency offset is larger than 1, only the
decimapart needs to be considered.
Multipath Fading
the multipath fading does not cause ICI, but it
will make the ICI problem worse.
Because there are many timedelayed versions
of received signals with different gains and
different phase offsets, the ICI is more
complicated to calculate.
Solutions for ICI
There are 3 scheme were proposed to overcome
ICI problem:
1. CFO estimation
2. windowing technique
3. ICI selfcancellation
In order to compensate CFO, CFO must be
estimated at first.
Once a precise CFO estimate is obtained, a
perfect equalizer then can be designed to
eliminate ICI.
Signal processing methods are applied to solve
this problem (proposed MUSICbased and
ESPRITbased algorithms)
Windowing
windowing is Windowing is a popular method of
reducing the spectral sidelobes of OFDM.
windowing is capable to reduce the bandwidth
of the channel matrix.
windowing mitigate the ICI induced by timevarying frequencyselective channels.
Hanning window, the Nyquist window, and the
Kaiser window are used for windowing.
The ICI selfcancellation has introduced by
Yuping Zhao and Gustav Hangman in 2001 to
combat supress ICI in OFDM.
The ICI selfcancellation scheme is a method
involving with encoded redundancy.
The main idea is to modulate the input data
symbol onto a group of subcarriers with
predefined coifficient such that the generated
ICI within the group cancel each other.
Application
High spectral efficiency: provides more
data services
Resiliency to RF interference: good
performance in unregulated frequency
bands
Lower multipath distortion: works in
complex indoor environments as well as
at speed in vehicles.
The ISM Band (Industrial Scientific and
Medical) is a set of frequency ranges that are
unregulated.
Typical RF transmitters in the ISM band
 Analog Cordless Phones (900MHz)
 Microwave Ovens (2.45 GHz)
 Bluetooth Devices (2.45 GHz)
 Digital Cordless Phones (2.45 GHz or
5.8 GHz)
Wireless LAN (2.45 GHz or 5.8 GHz)
Single Carrier Single
Symbol
Bluetooth, GSM, CDMA and other
communications standards use a single carrier to
transmit a single symbol at a time.
Data troughput is achieved by using a very fast
symbol rate.
WCDMA 3.14 Msymbols/sec
Bluetooth 1 Msymbols/sec
A primary disadvantages is that fast symbol rates
are more susceptible to Multipath distortion.
Digital Audio Broadcasting
Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a
digital radio technology for broadcasting
radio stations, used in several countries,
especially in Europe.
The DAB transmitted data consists of signals number
sampled at a rate of 48 kHz with a 22bit resolution.
This signal is then compressed at rates ranging from 32
to 384 kbps, depending upon the desired quality.
DAB uses differential QPSK modulation for the subcarriers.
DVBH (Digital Video
Broadcast to Handheld)
DVBH is one of the established mobile TV formats.
Can operate for transmission on 5, 6, 7 or 8 MHz
bandwidth.
(DVBH Receiver)
Advantages of DVBH

Carriers  In DVBH, carriers can use any
additional spectrum that they might own for
DVBH broadcasting
and be an infrastructure
player.
Spectrum Availability  In U.S., DVBH will be
organized using clear and readyforuse
spectrum available today, without interfering
with existing analog TV
stations or other TV
or wireless services.
Reference:
Advance network Computing and communication 3
ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING MODULATION
AND INTERCARRIER INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION, Thesis, by
Yao Xiao B.S., Dalian University of Technology, 1998 M.S., Institute
of Automation, C.A.S, 2001 May 2003
WINDOWING TECHNIQUES FOR ICI MITIGATION IN MULTICARRIER
SYSTEMS, Journal, Luca Rugini and Paolo Banelli
Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex
Technology (Keithley.com)
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing and its Applications
(Beena R.Ballal, Ankit Chadha, Neha Satam) IJSR.
Thank You for Your
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