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OFDM

Orthogonal
Frequency Division
Multiplexing
Aditra Vito Abdulkadir
Arief Nurwanto
Fadilla Putri Irintka
Kenneth Keulana Juda
Krishadi Anangga
M Rah Adi Satrio
Widoseno Nur Sukma Atri

Definition
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
is a technique, method or scheme for digital multicarrier modulation using many closely spaced
subcarriers- a previously modulated signal
modulated into another signal of higher frequency
and bandwidth.

Why OFDM?
In contrast to conventional Frequency Division
Multiplexing, the spectral overlapping among
sub- carriers are allowed in OFDM since
orthogonality will ensure the subcarrier
separation at the receiver, providing better
spectral efficiency and the use of steep band
pass filter was eliminated.

Advantages
Makes efficient use of the spectrum by allowing
overlap.

By dividing the channel into narrowband flat


fading subchannels, OFDM is more resistant to
frequency selective fading than single carrier
systems are.

Using adequate channel coding and interleaving


one can recover symbols lost due to the
frequency selectivity of the channel.

Channel equalization becomes simpler than by using


adaptive equalization techniques with single carrier
systems.

It is possible to use maximum likelihood decoding with


reasonable complexity.

OFDM is computationally efficient by using FFT techniques


to implement the modulation and demodulation functions.

Is less sensitive to sample timing offsets than single carrier


systems are.

Provides good protection against cochannel interference


and impulsive parasitic noise.

Disadvantages
The OFDM signal has a noise like amplitude with a
very large dynamic range; hence it requires RF power
amplifiers with a high peak to average power ratio.

It is more sensitive to carrier frequency offset and drift


than single carrier systems are due to leakage of the
DFT.

It is sensitive to Doppler shift.


It requires linear transmitter circuitry, which suffers
from poor power efficiency.

It suffers loss of efficiency caused by cyclic prefix.

Principles of OFDM

Overview
Using all orthogonal subcarrier so that data rate can be
increased with each sub-channel requires a longer symbol
period.

By implementing this, OFDM can overcome Inter-symbol


Interference (ISI)

OFDM is based on the concept of frequency-division multiplexing


(FDD), the method of transmitting multiple data streams over a
common broadband medium. That medium could be radio
spectrum, coax cable, twisted pair, or fiber-optic cable. Each data
stream is modulated onto multiple adjacent carriers within the
bandwidth of the medium, and all are transmitted
simultaneously. A good example of such a system is cable TV,
which transmits many parallel channels of video and audio over
a single fiber-optic cable and coax cable.

Modulation

Serial-to-parallel conversion

1, 1, -1, -1, 1, 1, 1, -1, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, 1, -1, -1,


-1, 1,

FFT and IFFT

The functional block diagram of how the signal


is modulated/demodulated is given below

Orthogonal sub carrier


The OFDM scheme differs from traditional FDM
in the following interrelated ways:
1. Multiple carriers (called subcarriers) carry the
information stream,
2. The subcarriers are orthogonal to each other,
and
3. A guard interval is added to each symbol to
minimize the channel delay spread and inter
symbol interference.

Fading
Fading effect occurs when the path from the
transmitter to the receiver has either reflection
or obstructions

When fading occurs, the signal reach the


transmitter by using several path with slightly
different delay and gain

The time delay causes phase shift in the signal


causing it to be degraded

Fading

Fading

Fading

Intercarrier Interference
Problem and Solutions
Inter-carriers interference (ICI) is a special
problem in the OFDM system

ICI is different from the co-channel interference


in MIMO systems.

The co-channel interference is caused by reused


channels in other cells, while ICI results from the
other sub-channels in the same data block of
the same user.

Doppler Effect
The relative motion between receiver and
transmitter, or mobile medium among them,
would result in the Doppler effect, a frequency
shift in narrow-band communications.

the Doppler effect would influence the quality of


a cell phone conversation in a moving car

There are 3 kind of dopler effect models:

the classical model


the uniform model
the two-ray model

Classical model
In classical model, the transmitter was assumed
to be fixed with vertically polarized antenna.

There was no Light of Sight (NLOS) path


In classical model the spectrum of this kind of
Doppler shift could be given:

Uniform model and Two


ray model
The uniform model is much simpler.
Both velocity and angle are supposed to be uniformly
distributed

The power spectrum could be written as:

The two-ray model assumed that there were only two


paths between the transmitter

the resulting power spectrum is given as:

Synchronization Error
It can be assumed that most of the wireless receivers
cannot make perfect frequency synchronization.

In fact, practical oscillators for synchronization are


usually unstable, which introduce frequency offset.

the oscillator frequency offset varies from 20 ppm


(Parts Per Million) to 100 ppm.

Provided an OFDM system operates at 5 GHz, the


maximum offset would be 100 KHz to 500 KHz (20-100
ppm.)

Hence, the frequency offset could not be ignored.

the frequency offset can be normalized by the reciprocal of


symbol duration

if a system has a bandwidth of 10 MHz, and the number of


subcarriers is 128, then the subcarrier frequency spacing would
be 10M/128= 78 KHz.

If the receiver frequency offset is 1 KHz

normalized frequency =1/78=1.3%

If the normalized frequency offset is larger than 1, only the


decimapart needs to be considered.

Multipath Fading
the multipath fading does not cause ICI, but it
will make the ICI problem worse.

Because there are many time-delayed versions


of received signals with different gains and
different phase offsets, the ICI is more
complicated to calculate.

Solutions for ICI


There are 3 scheme were proposed to overcome
ICI problem:

1. CFO estimation
2. windowing technique
3. ICI self-cancellation

In order to compensate CFO, CFO must be


estimated at first.

Once a precise CFO estimate is obtained, a


perfect equalizer then can be designed to
eliminate ICI.

Signal processing methods are applied to solve


this problem (proposed MUSIC-based and
ESPRIT-based algorithms)

Windowing
windowing is Windowing is a popular method of
reducing the spectral sidelobes of OFDM.

windowing is capable to reduce the bandwidth


of the channel matrix.

windowing mitigate the ICI induced by timevarying frequency-selective channels.

Hanning window, the Nyquist window, and the


Kaiser window are used for windowing.

The ICI self-cancellation has introduced by


Yuping Zhao and Gustav Hangman in 2001 to
combat supress ICI in OFDM.

The ICI self-cancellation scheme is a method


involving with encoded redundancy.

The main idea is to modulate the input data


symbol onto a group of subcarriers with
predefined coifficient such that the generated
ICI within the group cancel each other.

Application
High spectral efficiency: provides more
data services

Resiliency to RF interference: good


performance in unregulated frequency
bands

Lower multi-path distortion: works in


complex indoor environments as well as
at speed in vehicles.

The ISM Band (Industrial Scientific and


Medical) is a set of frequency ranges that are
unregulated.

Typical RF transmitters in the ISM band


- Analog Cordless Phones (900MHz)
- Microwave Ovens (2.45 GHz)
- Bluetooth Devices (2.45 GHz)
- Digital Cordless Phones (2.45 GHz or
5.8 GHz)

Wireless LAN (2.45 GHz or 5.8 GHz)

Single Carrier Single


Symbol
Bluetooth, GSM, CDMA and other
communications standards use a single carrier to
transmit a single symbol at a time.

Data troughput is achieved by using a very fast


symbol rate.

W-CDMA 3.14 Msymbols/sec


Bluetooth 1 Msymbols/sec
A primary disadvantages is that fast symbol rates
are more susceptible to Multi-path distortion.

Digital Audio Broadcasting


Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a
digital radio technology for broadcasting
radio stations, used in several countries,
especially in Europe.

The DAB transmitted data consists of signals number


sampled at a rate of 48 kHz with a 22-bit resolution.

This signal is then compressed at rates ranging from 32


to 384 kbps, depending upon the desired quality.

DAB uses differential QPSK modulation for the subcarriers.

DVB-H (Digital Video


Broadcast to Handheld)
DVB-H is one of the established mobile TV formats.
Can operate for transmission on 5, 6, 7 or 8 MHz
bandwidth.

(DVB-H Receiver)

Advantages of DVB-H
-

Carriers - In DVB-H, carriers can use any


additional spectrum that they might own for
DVB-H broadcasting
and be an infrastructure
player.

Spectrum Availability - In U.S., DVB-H will be


organized using clear and ready-for-use
spectrum available today, without interfering
with existing analog TV
stations or other TV
or wireless services.

Reference:

Advance network Computing and communication 3


ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING MODULATION
AND INTER-CARRIER INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION, Thesis, by
Yao Xiao B.S., Dalian University of Technology, 1998 M.S., Institute
of Automation, C.A.S, 2001 May 2003

WINDOWING TECHNIQUES FOR ICI MITIGATION IN MULTICARRIER


SYSTEMS, Journal, Luca Rugini and Paolo Banelli

Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex


Technology (Keithley.com)

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing and its Applications


(Beena R.Ballal, Ankit Chadha, Neha Satam) IJSR.

Thank You for Your


Attention