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Chapters 20 & 21

Fourth Declension; Ablatives


of Place from Which and
Separation; Third and Fourth
Conjugations in the Passive
Voice and Present System

Chapter 20
OBJECTIVES
Upon

completion of this chapter, students


should be able to:
1. Recognize, form, and translate fourth
declension nouns.
2. Define, recognize, and translate the
ablative of place from which and ablative
of separation constructions, and distinguish
between the two.
3. Recognize and translate certain verbs that
commonly take an ablative of separation.

Chapter 21
OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this lesson students
should be able to:
1. Recognize, form, and translate the
passive voice of third and fourth conjugation
verbs in the present system.
2. Recognize, form, and translate the
present passive infinitive of third and fourth
conjugation verbs.

3. Provide a synopsis of a verb in the


indicative mood.

Declension Review

1st Declension mostly feminine, but a handful are


masculine (poeta, nauta, agricola); the nominative singular
ending is a and the genitive singular ending is ae.
rosa, -ae, f. (rose); sapientia, -ae, f. (wisdom)
2nd Declension (Masculine) the nominative singular
will end in -us, -er, or ir while the genitive singular will
end in i.
amicus, -i, m. (friend); puer, pueri, m. (boy); vir,
viri, m. (man)
2nd Declension (Neuter) the nominative singular will
end in um while the genitive singular will end in i.
bellum, -i, n. (war); basium, -ii, n. (kiss)
3rd Declension can be masculine, feminine or neuter;
there is no consistent nominative singular ending, but the
genitive singular ending will always be is.

Chapter Twenty: Fourth


Declension

Chapter Twenty introduces the Fourth Declension nouns.


The 4th declension presents fewer problems than the 3 rd,
mostly because there are fewer 4th declension nouns. As
previously mentioned, the most common declension of
nouns in the Latin language are 3rd declension nouns.

Most 4th declension nouns are masculine with the


nominative singular ending of us, but there are some
feminine nouns that will also end in us, as well as very
few neuters that have a nominative singular ending of .
The genitive singular ending for all 4th declension
nouns is s. That u MUST have the necessary
macron.

Fourth Declension

As with all nouns, in order to decline a 4th


declension noun, simply add the appropriate
endings to the base of the noun.
Remember that to find the base, use the second
part of the noun and drop the genitive singular
ending. (For example, for 3rd declension
nouns, drop the is ending.)
Note that for 4th declension nouns, the
characteristic vowel u appears in all of the
endings except for the dative and ablative plural.
Also, of all the us endings, only the masculine
and feminine nominative singular has a short

Fourth Declension
Remember

that noun and adjectives


must always agree in case, gender,
and number. This agreement may
not necessarily have the same
endings.

Fourth Declension
Masculine/Feminine
Singular
Plural
Nom.
-us
-s
Gen.
-s
-uum
Dat.
-u
-ibus
Acc.
-um
-s
Abl.
-
-ibus

Fourth Declension
Neuter
Singular
Plural
Nom. -
-ua
Gen.
-s
-uum
Dat.
-
-ibus
Acc.
-
-ua
Abl. -
-ibus

Fourth Declension Nouns


Case:

Fructus, -us (masc)


= Fruit

Cornu, -us (neut) =


Horn

Nom.

Fructus

Cornu

Gen.

Fructus

Cornus

Dat.

Fructui

Cornu

Acc.

Fructum

Cornu

Abl.

Fructu

Cornu

Nom.

Fructus

Cornua

Gen.

Fructuum

Cornuum

Dat.

Fructibus

Cornibus

Acc.

Fructus

Cornua

Abl.

Fructibus

Cornibus

Fourth Declension Nouns


Remember

that there are also nouns in 2 nd


and 3rd declensions that have a nominative
singular ending of us; do not confuse these
with 4th declension nouns!
spiritus, -s, m. (spirit)
servitus, servitutis, f. (slavery)
fructus, -s, m. (fruit)
amicus, -i, m. (friend)

It

is the genitive singular ending of a noun


which determines declension number, so
make sure and memorize both parts of a
noun in order to avoid this confusion.

Ablatives of Place From Which


& Ablative of Separation
Summary

Ablative of Means

Ablative of Accompaniment

Ablative of Manner

Ablative of Time

Ablative of Personal Agent

Ablative of Place From


Which

The place from which (i.e. Out or away from) is


indicated with the ablative case.
This ablative, commonly used with a preposition,
is used to express the place from which the action
of the verb is taking place.
It only is used in the case of places -- the names
of cities, towns and home(domus).
They sailed from Sicily.
They walked from home.
They came from the city.
This is an adverbial ablative use; it is adverbial
because it answers the question where.

Ablative of Place From


Which

Question From which?


Latin Prepositions
a) ab/ away from
b) d down from
c) ex/ out of/from
Ablatives of Place from which almost always
involves a verb of active motion from one place
to another.
Example:
Rex populum ab urbe ducet. The king will lead
the people from the city.
Equi ex agro currunt. The horses run out of the
field.

Ablative of Separation
Ablative of Separation indicates a person or
thing that is separated from another person or
thing. The noun in the ablative is the thing from
which the separation occurs, not the one doing
the separation.
The man freed the people from the
tyrant.
The use of the Ablative of Separation does not
require a verb of active motion or the
prepositions ab, de, or ex.

The ablative of separation works with non-motion


verbs. Motion verbs work with ablatives of place

Careo, Carre, Carui, Cariturum


(to lack, to be without, to be deprive of)

This verb can be a little confusing when it is used


with the ablative of separation; it can be difficult
to distinguish between the ablative of separation
and the direct object of the sentence.
For instance, in the sentence below, it appears as
though their money is functioning as the direct
object; however, since it is being used with the
non-motion verb careo, carre, then it is
considered to be an ablative of separation.
The men were deprived of their money.
Homins su pecuni caruerunt.
Understand that whenever this verb is used, it will
have an ablative of separation as opposed to a

Ablative of Separation
Example:
Question From whom? From what?
Latin Preposition None; it is prepositionless.
English Translation from/away from
The man freed the people from the tyrant.
Vir populum tyrann liberavit.
We often lacked money.
Nos pecuni saepe caruimus.
Hostis carebat virtute. The enemy was
lacking courage.
The thing from which someone or something is
separated is placed in the ablative usually

Chapter 21
3rd & 4th Conjugations: Passive
Voice of the Present System
Chapter Twenty-one introduces the
Third, Third I-stem, and Fourth
Conjugations in the Passive Voice of the
Present System.
As in the active voice, these conjugations
do not use the Future tense markers (bo, -bi, -bu), but do use the Imperfect
tense marker (-ba).

Review of 3rd/4th
Conjugations
Remember

that for 3rd conjugation verbs, the


characteristic e stem vowel changes to an i in the
present tense, is retained in order to express the
future tense, and is elongated and conjoined with the
endings of bam, -bas, -bat in order to express the
imperfect tense.
ago, agere, eg, actum (to lead, drive, do, act)
agit 3rd singular present indicative active he
leads
aget 3rd singular future indicative active he will
lead
agbat 3rd singular imperfect indicative active
he was leading

Review of 3 /4
Conjugations
rd

For

th

4th conjugation verbs, the characteristic i stem


vowel is retained in the present tense, an e is added
to the i in order to express the future tense, which is
then elongated and conjoined with the endings of
bam, -bas, -bat in order to express the imperfect
tense.
invenio, invenire, invni, inventum (to find)
invenit 3rd singular present indicative active he
finds
inveniet 3rd singular future indicative active he
will find
invenibat 3rd singular imperfect indicative active
he did find

Review of 3 /4
Conjugations
rd

Remember

th

that there are also 3rd


conjugation io verbs. These verbs follow
the conjugational format of 4th conjugation
verbs except in the imperative mood.
capio, capere, cepi, captum (to take)
capit 3rd singular present indicative
active he takes
capiet 3rd singular future indicative active
he will take
capibat 3rd singular imperfect indicative
active he did take

3rd/4th Conjugations:
Present Passive System
For

the most part, these rules will hold true


for 3rd/4th conjugation verbs in the present
passive system.
You will continue to use the passive endings
learned in Chp. 18.
r, -ris, -tur, -mur, -mini, -ntur
The only exceptions to these rules occurs in
the 2nd person singular present indicative
passive, the 1st person singular future
indicative passive, and in the 3rd
conjugation present active infinitive.

The Present System:


Review Tense Markers
Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4th
Present [
None
]
Imperfect -ba -ba -ba -ba -ba
Future -bi -bi -e -ie -ie

Present Indicative Passive of 3rd,


4th, and 3rd io Conjugations
Ago, Agere,
Egi, Actus

Capio, Capere,
Cepi, Captus

Agor
Ageris
Agitur

Audio, Audire,
Audivi,
Auditus
Audior
Audiris
Auditur

Agimur
Agimini
Aguntur

Audimur
Audimini
Audiuntur

Capimur
Capimini
Capiuntur

Capior
Caperis
Capitur

Future Indicative Passive of 3 rd,


4th, and 3rd io Conjugations
The Future Tense is formed in two different ways,
depending on the Conjugation of the verb.
Verbs of the 1st and 2nd Conjugation follow one
pattern or equation, while verbs of the 3rd and 4th
Conjugation follow a second pattern or equation.
Tense1st
2nd
3rd
3rdio 4th
Future -a -e -e -ie -ie
1st and 2nd = Present Stem (Ending in Tense Vowel) + bi
+ Personal Endings
(Tense Marker)
3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) +
Personal Endings
(e/ie = Future Tense
Marker)
NB: 1st Singular uses ar; -e of stem drops before

Future Indicative Passive of 3rd,


4th, and 3rd io Conjugations
Ago, Agere,
Egi, Actus

Audio, Audire, Capio, Capere,


Audivi,
Cepi, Captus
Auditus

Agar
Ageris
Agetur

Audiar
Audieris
Audietur

Capiar
Capieris
Capietur

Agemur
Agemini
Agentur

Audiemur
Audiemini
Audientur

Capiemur
Capiemini
Capientur

Imperfect Indicative Passive of


3rd, 4th, and 3rd io Conjugations
The Imperfect Tense is formed by adding
the Tense Marker ba to the verb
stem (after T.V) plus the Personal Endings.
Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.)
+ ba + Personal Endings (age+ba+r;
audie+ba+r)
(Tense Marker)
Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rdio 4th
Imperfect -a -e -e -ie-ie

Imperfect Indicative Passive of


3rd, 4th, and 3rd io Conjugations
Ago, Agere,
Egi, Actus

Audio, Audire, Capio, Capere,


Audivi,
Cepi, Captus
Auditus

Agebar
Agebaris
Agebatur

Audiebar
Audiebaris
Audiebatur

Capiebar
Capiebaris
Capiebatur

Agebamur
Agebamini
Agebantur

Audiebamur
Audiebamini
Audiebantur

Capiebamur
Capiebamini
Capiebantur

Passive Infinitives of the Third


and Fourth Conjugations
4th conjugation Drop the final e of the
active infinitive and replace with i. (i.e.
Audire active, becomes Audiri).
3rd conjugation Drop ere of the active
infinitive and replace it with i. (i.e. Agere
becomes Agi and Capere becomes Capi).

Tense
1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4th
Present Active -are -ere -ere -ere -ire
Present Passive -ari -eri -i -i -iri

The Present Passive


Infinitive
Conjugation Active Passive
1st
are
ari
2nd
ere

eri
3rd
ere

i
3rd io
ere

i
4th
ire
iri

CICERO URGES CATILINE'S


DEPARTURE FROM ROME

Habemus senatus consultum contra te, Catilina,


vehemens et grave; acre iudicium habemus, et
vires et consilium civitas nostra habet. Quid est,
Catilina? Cur remanes? O di immortales!
Discede nunc ex hac urbe cum mala manu
sceleratorum; magno metu me liberabis, si
omnes istos coniuratos tecum educes.
Nisi nunc discedes, te cito eiciemus. Nihil in
civitate nostra te
delectare potest. Age, age! Deinde curre ad
Manlium, istum amicum malum; te diu
desideravit.
Incipe nunc; gere bellum in civitatem! Brevi

VIRGILS MESSIANIC ECLOGUE

Venit iam magna aetas nova; de caelo mittitur


puer, qui vitam deorum habebit deosque videbit
et ipse videbitur ab illis. Hic puer reget mundum
cui virtutes patris pacem dederunt.
Paucamala, autem, remanebunt, quae homines
iubebunt laborare atque bellum asperum gerere.
Erunt etiam altera bella atque iterum ad Troiam
magnus mittetur Achilles. Tum, puer, ubi iam
longa aetas te virum fecerit, erunt nulli labores,
nulla bella; nautae ex navibus discedent,
agricolae quoque iam agros relinquent, terra ipsa
omnibus hominibus omnia parabit.
Currite, aetates; incipe, parve puer, scire