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# Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1
CE-313

## Flexural Analysis and

Design of Beams
(Ultimate Strength Design of
Beams)
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Balanced Steel Ratio, ρb
It is corresponding to that amount of steel which will cause
yielding of steel at the same time when concrete crushes
At ultimate stage:
εcu =

εs = ε y
0.003
cb
and fs = f y d- cb
ε cu = 0.003 ε
Strain y
From the internal Force diagram Diagram

C c = 0.85f c '×b × a b
ab = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block when balanced
steel ratio is used.
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Balanced Steel Ratio, ρb (contd…)

T = A sf y = (ρ b × b × d) × f y
For the longitudinal equilibrium

T = Cc
(ρ b × b × d) × f y = 0.85f c '×b × a b

fc ' a b
ρ b = 0.85 (1)
fy d
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Balanced Steel Ratio, ρb (contd…)
εcu =
From the strain diagram 0.003
B C
Δ s ABC & ADE cb
A
0.003 εy
= d- cb
cb d − cb
E D
0.003d εy
cb =
0.003 + ε y Strain
Diagram

0.003 Es
cb = ×d×
f Es
0.003 + y
Es
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Balanced Steel Ratio, ρb (contd…)
0.003E s
cb = ×d
0.003Es + f y

600
cb = ×d
600 + f y

As we know a b = β1 × C b
600
a b = β1 × ×d (2
600 + f y )
Put (2) in
(1)
fc ' 600
ρ b = 0.85 × β1 ×
fy 600 + f y
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Types of Cross Sections w.r.t. Flexure at
1. Tension Controlled Section
A section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension
steel is greater than or equal to 0.005 when the corresponding
concrete strain at the compression face is 0.003.
εcu =
0.003 0.005 0.003

c d−c c
0.003
c≤ d
0.008 d- c

3 3
c≤ d and a ≤ β1 d εs=>0.00
8 8 Strain 5
Diagram
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Types of Cross Sections w.r.t. Flexure at
2. Transition Section
The section in which net tensile strain in the extreme tension
steel is greater than εy but less than 0.005 when
corresponding concrete strain is 0.003. εcu =
0.003

c
3
a > β1 d a < ab d- c
8
εy<εs<0.0
Strain 05
Diagram
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Types of Cross Sections w.r.t. Flexure at
2. Transition Section (contd…)

## To ensure under-reinforced behavior,

ACI code establishes a minimum net
tensile strain of 0.004 at the ultimate εcu =
stage. 0.003
0.003 0.004
= c
c d−c
3 3 d- c
c= d a = β1 d
7 7
0.004
Strain
Diagram
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Types of Cross Sections w.r.t Flexure at Ultimate
Both the “Tension Controlled Section” and Transition
Controlled Section” are “Under-Reinforced Section”

## In Under-Reinforced Sections steel starts yielding before the

crushing of concrete and:

ρ<ρ b

## It is always desirable that the section is under-reinforced

otherwise the failure will initiate by the crushing of concrete.
As concrete is a brittle material so this type of failure will be
sudden which is NOT DESIREABLE.
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Types of Cross Sections w.r.t Flexure at Ultimate
3. Compression Controlled Section (over-reinforced
section)
The section in which net steel strain in the extreme
tension steel is lesser than εy when corresponding
concrete strain is 0.003.
 Capacity of steel remain unutilized.

##  It gives brittle failure without warning.

a > ab C > Cb
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Strength Reduction Factor (Resistance Factor), Φ
 Tension Controlled Section, Φ = 0.9
 Compression Controlled Section

## Member with lateral ties, Φ = 0.65

Members with spiral reinforcement, Φ =
0.7
 Transition Section

## For transition section Φ is permitted to be

linearly interpolated between 0.65 or 0.7 to 0.9.
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Strength Reduction Factor (Resistance Factor), Φ
 Transition Section (contd…) Φ

0.9
For members with
ties Φ 0.2

Φ = 0.65 +
0.25
0.005 − ε y
( εt − εy ) 0.65
5

Compression
Controlled Transition Tension

ε
Controlled

## For members with εy εt 0.005

Spirals
Φ = 0.7 +
0.20
(ε t − ε y ) εt = strain in extreme tension
0.005 − ε y
steel when concrete crushes.
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Maximum Steel Ratio, ρmax
For
T=C
A s × f y = 0.85f c '×b × a
ρ × bd × f y = 0.85f c '×b × a
fc ' a
ρ = 0.85 ×
fy d
3
For tension controlled section ε s = 0.005 a = β1 d
8
So
fc '  3 
ρ max = 0.85 ×  β1 
fy  8 
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Maximum Steel Ratio, ρmax (contd…)

For transition
section 3
ε s = 0.004 a = β1 d
7

fc '  3 
ρ max = 0.85 ×  β1 
fy  7 
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members
(ACI – 10.5.1)

f c ' 1.4
ρ min = ≥
4f y fy
 The minimum steel is always provided in structural
members because when concrete is cracked then all load
comes on steel, so there should be a minimum amount of
steel to resist that load to avoid sudden failure.
 For slabs this formula gives a margin of 1.1 to 1.5.
 This formula is not used for slabs.
Concluded