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D O M ESTIC W IRIN G
D IAG RAM S
SEM IN AR BYD ES A I K A R A N A LP ES H
In d ia

SYN O PSIS
I.

Beginning of domestic wiring.

II. Evolution of domestic wiring diagram.


III. Importance of wiring diagram.
IV.Domestic wiring diagram.
V. Principles of circuit design in lighting and
power circuits.
VI.Simple control circuit in domestic
installation.
VII.General guidelines for wiring diagrams.

1.B eg in n in g of d om estic
w irin g
Quick shots
31 S T D EC EM B ER 1879: ED IS O N S H O W ED
W O R LD H IS D IS C O V ER Y O F ELEC TR IC ITY.
1881: ED IS O N D IS C O V ER ED IN C A N D ES C EN T
LA M P W H IC H LED TO EA R LY W IR IN G
S Y S TEM .
1892 O N W A R D S : S IM P LE TO C O M P LIC ATED
D O M ES TIC W IR IN G M ETH O D S A N D TH ER EB Y

1.Beginning of dom estic w iring.


(contd.)

WOODEN
PLANK
BULB OR
LAMP
VERY SIMPLE AND PRIMITIVE WIRING TYPE..

SIMPLE WIRE

GENERALLY ONE LAMP IN ONE HOUSE


DEPICTED RICHNESS

LIMITATION: USE OF WOODEN ELECTRICAL DEVICES


CAUSED GREAT LOSS DUE TO OCCASIONAL FIRE.

2. Evolution of dom estic w iring


Frequent fires caused porcelain electrical devices
in great demand
The first manufacturers of electrical porcelain
wereEmpire China Worksin Green point
andUnion Porcelain Worksin Green point, NY in
1889-90.

2.Evolution of dom estic w iring

(contd)

Gradually the electrical


instruments evolved with more
materials and complex wirings.
Presently the domestic electrical
wirings are made of following
materials:

Copper
wire

Aluminum wires

1.Copper
2.Copper alloys
3.Aluminum

3.Im p ortan ce of w irin g d iag ram .


An important tool for installing and testing
home electrical circuits.
Also help you understand how electrical devices
are wired.
Will depict how various electrical devices and
controls operate.
Diagram consist of standard symbols of
electrical devices, illustrated colored wires etc;
which easily shows what wire goes where.
A GOOD DIAGRAM IS, THUS, IMPORTANT FOR

4.D O M ESTIC
W IRIN G D IAG RAM
SEQUENCE OF EQUIPMENTS IN
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

FOR DOMESTIC
APPLIANCES,
SINGLE PHASE
230V, 50 HZ AC
SUPPLY IS MADE
AVAILABLE.

Incoming
supply
Energy meter
Main switch board
Main distribution
board
Sub distribution
board or power

4.D om est
ic w irin g
d iag ram
con t

Light loads

Heavy
Loads

5. P rin cip les of circu it d esig n in lig h tin g an d


p ow er circu its.

(A)DISADVANTAGE OF HAVING LOAD POINTS AFTER


THE MAIN DISTRIBUTION BOARD.
(B)REASON FOR INTRODUCING SUBCIRCUITS.

5.P rin cip les of circu it d esig n in


lig h tin g an d p ow er circu its (con td )
Types of
sub circuits

Light and
fan circuit

Power
circuit

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A.Light and fan circuit:


I. <10 units
II. Includes fans, lights
etc.
III.Load should not
exceed by 800 watts
IV.Two lighting sub
circuits should be
provided in each
house .
B. Power circuit
V. <15 ampere
VI.Maximum load:1500
watts

5.P rin cip les of circu it d esig n in


lig h tin g an d p ow er circu its (con td )

1
2

TO ENSURE THE CONTINUITY OF SUPPLY, THE ENTIRE INSTALLATION IS DIVIDED


INTO NUMBER OF BRANCHES. THIS BRANCHING IS CALLED AS DIVERSIFICATION OF
LOAD.

DIVERSIFICATION OF LOAD ENABLES MAINTENANCE AND


EXTENSION OF WORK ON CERTAIN PARTS OF INSTALLATION WITHOUT

6. S im p le con trol circu it in d om estic


in stallation .
1. Control of
one lamp from
one point.

2. Control of
two or more
lamp using
separate
switchesLOOPING IN

13

3.Control of
one lamp
from two
points-STAIR
CASE

G EN ERAL G U ID ELIN ES FO R D O M ESTIC W IRIN G D IAG RAM

Energy meter and main switch board should


be installed close to each other
Energy meter should not be made in contact
with rains or magnet.
Wires or cables used for bathrooms or
terraces should be weather proof.
Every sub circuit should start from the main
distribution board.
There should be fuse or pull-down switch

G EN ERAL G U ID ELIN ES FO R D O M ESTIC W IRIN G D IAG RAM

The height of energy meter should not be


less than 1.5 m from ground level.
Maximum number of switches in sub
distribution board should be 10.
Wattage capacity of each sub distribution
board should be less than 800 watts.
Separate distribution board should be
provided to each power circuits.
Location of control switches for fans and
lights should be near to entrance.

CO N CLU SIO N AN D
SU M M ARY
Wiring diagrams evolved after 1882 when
domestic installations increased.
Domestic wiring started with wooden electrical
equipments at early stages which were replaced
by porcelain in later periods due to frequent fires.
Presently components used for domestic wirings
are copper, aluminum, tungsten and their alloys.
Wiring in present era needs earlier planning
which is possible only by diagram. Diagram easily
depicts the complex electrical wiring on paper

CO N CLU SIO N AN D SU M M ARY


cont

FOR DOMESTIC APPLIANCES, SINGLE PHASE 230V, 50 HZ


AC SUPPLY IS MADE AVAILABLE.

Sequential and logical use of domestic


equipments can be possible by drawing diagram
There are two types of sub circuits: lighting and
power circuit.
There are three ways for lighting circuit
connection:
1.Control of one lamp from one point.

ANY QUESTION ?

Sources:
Electrical Engineering, Mahajan publication
Howstuffworks.com
Google.com
wikipedia
The presentation is prepared on: Microsoft PowerPoint 2007

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