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APPENDICES

Shalihuddin Djalal Tandjung


Suwarno Hadisusanto
Laboratory of Ecology and Conservation
Faculty of Biology UGM
2015

31

(Ecosystems, Ecological System)

Business

RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIP

The Ecology

Entropy, Residue
* Environment Poll.:Air, Water, Land, Cross Media. * Non Point Pollution: Chemical substances

P Int Co Cu Pu Indon
ub ern mp sto bli esian
lic
etit me c
Instru
de tra ive r
de -ment
m de req de ma for
an agr uir ma nd Envir
d ee em nd for onl
fo me ent for en Mana
r
nt. for cle vir geme
Planning
Utilization
Control
Maintenance Supervision Law Enforcement
re Eq eco an
on nt &
gu ual pr l
SNI;
op lab o
pr Intl
Natural Resources
Business
opportunity
Environmental
lat por elin ce ote Envir
Conservation
and threats
Management
system
io tun g
ss cti onme
n ity,
es on. ntal Sustainable Development
Eq
an CS Mana

Natural Environment and Sustainable Development

32

UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON


ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCED)
STOCKHOLM CONFERENCE, 1972
WORLD COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENT
AND DEVELOPMENT
BRUNDTLAND REPORT 1987.
OUR COMMON FUTURE
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
33

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL
RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT
CONTROL, REGULATION, MAINTENANCE,
RESTORATION, SUPERVISION, UTILIZATION,
AND DEVELOPMENT
33

SUSTAINABILITY
More efficient use of natural resources
and the introduction of new holistic
environmental technologies
(Rosemarin, 1990)

SUSTAINABLE

VS

ELEMENTS OF LONG TERM :


RENEWAL ~ REUSE
MAINTENANCE ~ RECOVERY
RECYCLING.
MINIMAL RAW MATERIAL EXPLOITATION ~ REDUCE
MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE
NEED ON COLLECTIVE BASIS
~ REPLENISH

DEVELOPMENT
INDUSTRIAL BASED CULTURE :
SHORT TERM PLANNING
MINIMAL MAINTENANCE
WASTE, POLLUTION
MAXIMAL EXPLOITATION OF
RAW MATERIAL
EMPHASIZE ON THE
INDIVIDUAL

ECOLOGICAL CRISIS
1. Danora, USA, 1948: Toxic chemical from
factories caused air pollution which killed 20
people, 6000 suffering
2. London, 1952: Smog (smoke + fog) in air
killed 4000 people

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3. USA, 1962: Insecticides pollute the air, land,


and water exterminated all animals and
other living form
4. Sidoarjo (East Java), Indonesia,
2006: Mud Vulcano Blow out.
Present: 11.000 buildings/constructions
inundated unterwater; 25000 person
evacuated.
Future: river and ocean pollution forever.
35

The cancellation of all uses of several


insecticides in USA
Pro Ye Pro Ye
duc ar duc ar
t
t
19 Dia 19
DD 68 zino 78
T
n
Aldr 19 Par 19
in 75 athi 79
on
Diel 19 Par 19
drin 75 athi 79

The Living Environment


The spatial entity with all objects, potentials,
conditions and living organisms, including
man and his behavior, which influence the
continuence of the life and welfare of man
and other living organisms

(Tandjung, 2012)

37

Resources
Elements of the living environment
consisting of :
human resources,
organic natural resources,
in-organic natural resources, and
man-made resources.

38

ABC Environment, the components of


natural environment
The inorganic natural resources ( Physical
environment) is A-biotic Environment.
The organic natural environment is the Biotic
Environment.

The human resources and their creation so


called manmade resources is combined as
the Cultural Environment.
In short, the ABC environment consists of
A-biotic, Biotic and Cultural Environment.

A-biotic or physical/chemical environment


consists of 3 elements : water, land, and air.
(eg.: Geology; Pedology; Hydrology;
Climatology; Stratigraphy; etc.)

Biotic or ecological environment consists of


plants (flora), animals (fauna) and microbes
(bacteria, yeasts, fungi).
(eg.: Ecology; Genetics; Systematics;
Biochemistry; etc.)

Omnivore - predators+grazers
(man, bear, monkey, etc.)

Carnivore - predators
(tiger, snake, crocodile, etc.)

Herbivore - grazers

(deer, cow, rabbit, etc.)

Producers - vegetations

(plant, phytoplankton, etc.)

THE TROPHIC LEVELS


(Food Chain)

decomposers
(bacteria and fungi)

Cultural environment consists of individual


environmental interests, individual well
being, social interactions and community
well- being
(eg.: Economics; Sociology; Culture; etc.)

Each component of the environment, e.g.


the biotic environment consists of living
organisms, which interact with each other
and are inseparably interrelated with their
a-biotic and cultural environment.

43

Proposed
Action

A biotic
Environment
(A)
AC

AB

Biotic
Environment
ABC
(B)
BC

Cultural
Environment
(C)

The effect of proposed actions on B will also affect A on AB and C on B-C. Interaction of environmental components
occur on A-B-C

44

An ecosystem is an ordering of an element


of the environment which costitutes a
whole and complete unit which interacts to
produce environment balance, stability,
and productivity
(Riema, 1997)

45

Features of Indonesia ecosystem


THE LARGEST ISLAND COUNTRY IN THE WORLD

The most number of Islands, 17,508

The longest coastline, 81,000 KM


The most number of volcanoes, more than 100
The most stretch of altitude from -8,000 (Banda Sea)
to + 5,000 M (Cartenz)
INDONESIAS LAND AREA = 2,027,870 KM2
47

Abiotic Natural Environment of


Indonesia
Indonesia is an archipelago of 17,508 islands
stretching between two continents, Asia and
Australia. Total coastline of Indonesias 80,791
km (FAO, 1991 cit. Anon., 1995), this is the
longest in the world.
The abiotic or physical natural environment of
Indonesia is composed of:

48

A.Lan 1.91
d
millio
n sq
km
B.Oce
an
5.10
millio
Terr n sq
itori km
al
3.00
wat millio
ers

48

C.
Coastal
Area

81,
000
km
Coastal 10,
length
000
,00
Marshe 0km
s
3,6
00,
Mangro 000
ve
km

(Haeruman, 1987)
49

D.
Inland
Waters
Open
waters
(lake,
river,
swamp,
etc)
Fish
Pond

13,
700
,00
0ha
40,
000
ha
61,
000

(Haeruman, 1987)
49

Biotic Natural Environment


On the million ha land of Indonesia there is
143,970 million ha tropical rain forest or 75.38%
of land is covered by forest . This is the highest
percentage among the tropical rain forest in the
world. Among the 143,970 million ha forest is
designed for the :
1. Production forest
: 64,392,000 ha
2. Conversion forest
: 30,537,000 ha
3. Conservation forest : 18,725,000 ha
4. Protected forest
: 30,316,000 ha
50

Indonesia highest degree of :


Biological diversity
Endemism
42 natural terrestrial &
5 marine ecosystems,

52

Ranging from:
Ice fields & alpine meadows (Papua)
to wide variety of humid lowland forest;
Deep lakes to shallow swamps;
Spectacular coral reefs to seagrass
beds & mangrove swamps.

52

Indonesia Ranks
First in the world for species richness for:
Mammals (515 species, 36% endemic);
Shallowtail butterflies (121 species, 44%
endemic);
Third for reptiles (600 species);
Fourth for bird (1,519 species, 28% endemic);
Fifth for amphibians (270 species);
Seventh for flowering plants
(Tandjung, 2012)

53

A high number of Indonesias


marine biodiversity are still
unknown & underutilized

A very large proportion of total biota


comprises unknown invertebrates

54

INDONESIA POSSESSES UP TO ABOUT 17% OF


THE TOTAL NUMBER SPECIES IN THE WORLD

10% of the worlds flowering plant species,


12% of the worlds mammal species,
16% of the worlds reptile & amphibian

species,,
25% of the worlds fish species,
Chelinnus undulatus (Napoleon wrasse)
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Krapu macan)
Cromileptis altivelis (Krapu bebek)
56

Main Taxa Prediction of Organisms


Taxa

Mam
malia
Aves

W In
or do
ld ne
si
a
4. 30
00 0
0
7.
8. 50
90 0
0

Reptil 8.
ia
00
0
Amph 6.

7
,
5
8
4
,
2
7
2. 2
00 5
0
1. 1

57

CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES
The management of resources which
ensures their wise utilization, and in the
case of renewal natural resources,
ensures their continued supply by
constantly maintaining and improving
their value and variety.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
ECODEVELOPMENT
58

The Management of Living Environment (for Sustainable


development) is an integrated effort in the:

utilization
regulation
maintenance
supervision
control
restoration
development

of the environment
(RIEMA, 1997)
59

Elevation > 4,000 m asl.


Low species diversity
High Moisture
Low temperature

Low temperature, high moisture


Dominantly moss ; low species diversity

Productivity relatively low;


Low Species diversity
Dominantly: Pine

Depterocarp plant, species diversity and


stratification, tropical, high productivity

High Productivity, stratification is complex


High diversity (Plants and Animals)
High Tempertaure and moisture
Climax Succession

Low diversity (vegetations), dominantly


Eucalyptus. Animals dominantly birds & reptile.
Low productivity and biomass.
Low moisture
Stratification not clear.

High plants : very rare, dominantly grass,


high temperature and low moisture

High temperature and low moisture


Subsystems: exokarst and endokarst
Low diversity both vegetations (dominantly:
xerophyt) and animals.

High temperature and low moist.


Low diversity (plants and animals)

Vegetations continuously:
Typha
Potamogeton
(lotus)
Scirpus
Sagitaria
Chara
Spirogyra

Nymphea

vegetations continuous:
Potamogeton
Scirpus
Polygonum
Ruppia
Chara
Echinochola
Vallisneria
Najas

Physical: brackishwater, mud, high turbidity,


Biotic: Uca, Sesarma,

Mudskipper as bio-indicators in mangrove

Physics: high slope; caves


Biotic: Nerita, Balanus, Aerodramus
(swallow)

Physics: high salinity, silica, high transparancy


Vegetations: Halophila, Thalassia, Enhalus (sea grass)
Animals: Asterias, Deadema, Echinus, Ophiopolis,
Pagurus (ghost crabs), sea turtles

Physics : brackishwater, high transparancy


Biotics on sand: Ocypoda, Chiridotes, Emerita,
Pagurus
Biotics on gravels:
Littorina,
Balanus, Ostrea,
Mytilus, Leptogorgia

physics: temperature > 22 C, very high transparancy, total


high intensity, salinity 33 35 , far of estuary
Biotics: sea horses, yellow tail fish, fat-fish, kerapu,
beronang, etc. There are 32 species of high commodity
fishes of 132 species.

Continuous ecosystems (vertical view)

coniferous

mangrove sea

decidous lake mix paddy-field village

Aerial view
watershed
river

river

coniferous
mangrove sea

decidous

lake mix paddy

village

Lake Ranjeng, Central Java


Elevation 1600 m. asl., depth >100 m

Water hyacin is growing because of


eutrophications (nutrient enrichment)

POPULATION

NATURAL
RESOUCES

POLLUTION

Population in Indonesia (million)


194,8
179,4
147,4
119,2

205,1

218,9

Colaboration
INDOTAN INC.
FACULTY OF BIOLOGY
UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA

NO SAFETY APPARATUS

TILLING WASTE WATER

HEALHTY IMPACT

f. Kadar merkuri dalam lumpur quarry dan tanah di sekitarnya.


Pelangan Selindungan

Kadar merkuri
(ppm)
P P Amb
Sa
P
S S ang
mp S
II I bata
el
II
I V
s
1
Lu
2
1 2
mp
4
5. 9
ur
.
6 .
Qua
9
0 8
rry
7
2
2
1
7 0
8
1 // 8. 0
.
0
9 .
5
5 7
9
1
2

Kadar merkuri di Tembowong dan Tawun

Kadar
merkuri
(ppm) di
berbagai
Stasiun
Sa pengamat
mp
an
el
T T T
T
G G W
G
P P
P
II I I
II
I V V
1 2
1 5 5
5
9 0 2
.
. . .
3
LP 0 7 9
8
Q
4 9 4
5 9
9 3 2 2

Am
ba
ng
bat
as
(pp
m)

Kadar merkuri di Selodong

Kadar merkuri
(ppm)
S
S
a
S
S
S
L
S
S
m
L
L
L
p MD D D L D L
D
D
e H
V
l N I I I
V
I
V
II
I
V
I
I
2 9 1 6 4 1
L 7 2 7 7 6 1
NAB:
P . 2 .ppm. . . . Q 6 1 7 1 8 5
1 6 4 1 9 5
1 1
1 1
5 1
0
1 1 5
8 4
. 8
.
// . .
. .
3 .
7
0 7 1
0 4
1 4
6
8 2
7 8

Kadar merkuri di Blongas


Stasiun
pengamatan
S
a
m
p
e
l

B B
B
B
B
L L
L
L
L
G G
G
G
G
I
II I
II
V
I V

1
L 0
P .
Q 1
1

2
9
.
3
2

4
6
.
1
8

B
L
G
V
I

3
5
8
9
2
.
.
.
8
3
4
2
8
9

4 1 1 2 1
6
1
4 6 3 0 5
.

A
m
b
a
n
g
b
a
t
a
s

g. Kadar merkuri dalam tumbuhan di sekitar quarry


Kadar merkuri dalam daun (ppm) di Pelangan-Selindungan

Kadar merkuri
(ppm)
Spesies

Stasiu
n
I

IV

Amb
ang
bata
s

Cyperu
0. 0.
s
00 04
rotundu 59 16
Kadar
merkuri
s
1 dalam
5 daun (ppm) di Tembowong dan Tawun
Kadar
Eupator 2.
0.
merkuri
ium
79
08
0.5*A)
(ppm)
inulifoliu 81
43
m
m
3 4
b
0.
a
Tectona 02
n
grandis 84
g
8
Spesi
T
T b
T
es
at
G :T
W merkuri
*) DirjenGPOM
kadar
dalam sayuran yang aman dikonsumsi
a
P W

Kadar merkuri dalam daun di Selodong

Kadar merkuri
(ppm)
Spesies

Stasiu
n
I

Amb
ang
bata
s

III

Cyperu
0. 1.
s
05 99
Kadar
merkuri
rotundu
25 dalam
71 daun di Blongas
s
3Kadar
9
Eupator 0.
0.
merkuri
)
ium
01(ppm)
73 0,5*
Am
inulifoliu 66
49
Stasiun
ban
m
3 9
g
Spesie
0. 2.
bat
s
05 63
as
Tectona 87I 47III (pp
grandis
5 0
m)

*) Dirjen POM : kadar merkuri dalam sayuran yang aman dikonsumsi

PAPER

SYSTEMATICS
1. Background
2. Emphirical Informations
3. Analysis
4. Discussion and Solutions
5. References

(Tandjung, 2012)

61

WRITTING

1. 5 pages
2. Font: Arial 11; space 1,5
3. Collect on April 6th, 2015
Reference in numbering or alphabetic
systems

61

Example
Marschner, P. and Z. Rengel. 2007. Nutrient Cycling in
Terrestrial Ecosystems. Springer, Heidelber.
Susintowati dan S. Hadisusanto. 2014. Bioakumulasi
Merkuri dan Struktur Hepatopankreas Tarebralia
sulcata dan Nerita argus (Gastropoda:Molusca) di
Muara Sungai Lampon, Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur.
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan . PSLH UGM. Vol.
21(1): 34-40.
Wilonoyudho, S. 2014. Migrasi dan Involusi di Kota
Semarang. Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan .
PSLH

Vol. 21(1): 114-120.


61