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# Overview of processes

Module 8

Metal
forming

Structure

Process modeling

Defects

## Design For Manufacturing (DFM)

Process variation
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## Principle of Metal Forming

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Metal Forming
Metal forming includes a large group of manufacturing
processes in which plastic deformation is used to change
the shape of metal work pieces
Plastic deformation: a permanent change of shape, i.e.,
the stress in materials is larger than its yield strength
Usually a die is needed to force deformed metal into the
shape of the die
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Metal Forming
Metal with low yield strength and high ductility is in
favor of metal forming
One difference between plastic forming and metal
forming is
Plastic: solids are heated up to be polymer melt
Metal: solid state remains in the whole process
- (temperature can be either cold, warm or hot)
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Metal Forming
Metal forming is divided into: (1) bulk and (2) sheet
Bulk: (1) significant deformation
(2) massive shape change
(3) surface area to volume of the work is small
Sheet: Surface area to volume of the work is large

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Forging
Rolling
Hot

Extrusion

Drawing

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Drawing

Bending

Shearing

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Actually
Cutting

## In the following series of lecture, we discuss:

1. General mechanics principle
2. Individual processes:
- mechanics principles
- design for manufacturing (DFM) rules
- equipment

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## 1. General mechanics principle

The underlying mechanics principle for metal forming is
the stress-strain relationship; see Figure 1.

Figure 1
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## True Stress: Applied load divided by instantaneous

value of cross-section area

F/A
True strain: Instantaneous elongation per unit length of
the material

dL
L

ln
L0 L
L0
L

L:

## the length of the specimen at time t

the true strain at time t
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## In the forming process we are more interested in the

plastic deformation region (Figure 1)

Plastic
deformation
region

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## The stress-strain relationship in the plastic deformation

region is described by

Called
FLOW
CURVE

Where
K= the strength coefficient, (MPa)
= the true strain, =the true stress
n= the strain hardening exponent,
The flow stress (Yf) is used for the above stress
(which is the stress beyond yield)
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FLOW STRESS
As deformation occurs, increasing STRESS is required
to continue deformation (shown in curve)
Flow Stress: Instantaneous value of stress required to
continue deforming the material (to keep metal
flowing)

Yf K
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## AVERAGE FLOW STRESS

For many bulk deforming processes, rather than
instantaneous stress, average stress is used (extrusion)
The average flow stress can be obtained by integrating
the flow stress along the trajectory of straining, from
zero to the final strain value defining the range of
interest

k
Yf
1 n

Strength Coefficient

## Max. strain during

deformation
Strain hardening exponent

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Example 1:
Determine the value of the strain-hardening exponent for a
metal that will cause the average flow stress to be threequarters of the final flow stress after deformation.
According to the statement of the problem, we have

Yf 3/ 4

Yf

of

Y f 0.75Y f
K /(1 n) 0.75 K
n

1 /(1 n) 0.75
n 0.333

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## The above analysis is generally applicable to the cold

working, where the temperature factor is not considered.
The metal forming process has three kinds in terms of
temperature: (1) cold, (2) warm, (3) hot
In the case of warm and hot forming, the temperature
factor needs to be considered, in particular
Temperature up The (yield) strength down and
ductility up

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## Strain rate (related to elevated temperatures)

- Rate at which metal is strained in a forming process
- In the hot forming or warm forming, the strain rate
can affect the flow stress
Instantaneous
hh

Strain Rate

Speed of
deformation (could
be equal to velocity
of ram)

height of
work-piece
being
deformed

v / h

Flow Module
stress8

Y f C

m
18

Y f C

Strength
coefficient but not
the same as K

where
C strength constant
m strain-rate sensitivity exponent

Yf K
C and m are determined by the following figure
which is generated from the experiment
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## C and m are affected by temperature

Temperature Up

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Down

Up

21

Even in the cold work, the strain rate could affect the
flow stress. A more general expression of the flow stress
with consideration of the strain rate and strain is
presented as follows:

Y f A
n

## A is a strength coefficient, a combined effect of K, C

All these coefficients, A, n, m, are functions of
temperature
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Example 2:
A tensile test is carried out to determine the strength
constant C and strain-rate sensitivity exponent m for a
certain metal at 1000oF. At a strain rate = 10/sec, the
stress is measured at 23,000 lb/in2; and at a strain rate =
300/sec, the stress=45,000 lb/in2. Determine C and m

Solution:
23000=C(10)^m
45000=C(300)^m
From these two equations, one can find m=0.1973
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