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17th Feb,2015

Internal Combustion Engines


ME 4143
Syed Hassan Shah
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical
Engineering

EDUCATION PROFILE
BACHELORS: MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING, NED UNIVERSITY 2003

MASTERS: MATERIALS SCIENCE AND


ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF
DELAWARE,USA 2008

RESEARCH PROFILE

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE
DEPARTMENT: MATERILAS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
ADVISER: Valeria Gabriela Stoleru
Assistant Professor Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Delaware(2004-2008)

RESERCH AREAS:

UDRF: Directed Assembly of III-V Quantum-Dot Nanostructures for


Photonic and Optoelectronic Devices
UDRF: Design and Fabrication of Electro-Optic Devices based on
Quantum Dots
DOE/EPSCoR National Laboratory Partnership: Key Physical
Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells in collaboration with
Andrew G. Noman (NREL, Golden, CO)
URL:
1. http://www.mseg.udel.edu/faculty_research/vita/StoleruCV_0507.pdf
2. http://www.mseg.udel.edu/images/projects/Stoleru/Titanium_oxidation.
pdf
3. http://www.yatedo.com/p/Gabriela+Stoleru/normal/e7e67fad73d442
ee737dda862d313a86

UNIVERTSITY OF TEXAS AT
ARLINGTON
DEPARTMENT: MATERILAS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
ADVISER: SAMIR IQBAL (EE DEPT.)
RESERCH FUNDING: CONTACT - Nanotechnology
Research for Air Force Applications
RESEARCH AREAS
1. Nanoscale heat transfer, fluidics, manufacturing, optics,
nano- and mciro-scale electro-mechanical devices (NEMS
and MEMS)
2. NANOBIO DEVICES: DNA ANALYZER,CANCER DETECTION
DEVICES
URL:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4
617229&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fab
s_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4617229

King Abdullah University of Science


and Technology
DEPARTMENT: MATERILAS SCIENCE AND
ENGINEERING
ADVISER: Osman M. Bakr
RESERCH FUNDING: Office of Competitive
Research Funds (OCRF)
RESEARCH AREAS
1. Synthesis of Si Nano particles
2. Separation and characterization of Nanoparticles
using Ultra Centrifugation

COURSE OVERVIEW I
Instructor: Syed Hassan Shah (SEC-2)
Time: Tues/Thurs as per time table
Class Activities:
Present new material
Announce homework, exams, etc.
Casual quiz
No small talk or irrelevant discussion at all!!!

COURSE OVERVIEW II
TEXT BOOK
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
FUNDAMENTALS by J.B.Heywood (Intern. Edit)
Reference Books:
1. Internal Combustion Engines: Applied
Thermosciences by Colin R. Ferguson
2. Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal
Combustion Engine (2nd Ed) by W.P
Pulkrabek

COURSE OVERVIEW II
We will start with review of ME-2123
Thermodynamics II
Important topics reviewed will be
Thermodynamic processes
Thermodynamic Cycles
Otto Cycle/ Diesel Cycle

THERMODYNAMIC
PROCESSES
A thermodynamic process may be defined as the
energetic evolution of a thermodynamic system
proceeding from an initial state to a final state. Paths
through the space of thermodynamic variables are
often specified by holding certain thermodynamic
variables constant.

Thermodynamic Processes Isothermal


To keep the

temperature
constant both the
pressure and volume
change to
compensate.
(Volume goes up,
pressure goes down)
BOYLES LAW

Thermodynamic Processes - Isobaric


Heat is added to the
gas which increases
the Internal Energy
(U) Work is done by
the gas as it changes
in volume.
The path of an isobaric
process is a
horizontal line called
an isobar.
U = Q - W can be used
since the WORK is
POSITIVE in this case

Thermodynamic Processes Isovolumetric

Thermodynamic Processes Adiabatic


ADIABATIC- (GREEKadiabatos"impassable")
In other words, NO
HEAT can leave or
enter the system.

Polytropic Process

When a gas undergoes a reversible process in


which there is heat transfer, the process
frequently takes place in such a manner that a
plot of the Log P (pressure) vs. Log V (volume)
is a straight line. Or stated in equation form
PVn = constant.
This type of process is called a polytropic
process. An example of a polytropic process is
the expansion of the combustion gasses in the
cylinder of a water-cooled reciprocating engine

The Polytropic process:


PVn=Const.

Assumptions
Changes in KE and PE are
zero
Quasistatic process
p

Ideal
gas
Quasi-Static processes are processes
in which every state of the process is
an equilibrium process. The process
is carried out so slow such that when
we look at the state it looks at
Expression
equilibrium. for work:

State 1

State
2

V2

W1 2,by PdV
V1

W1 2 ,by

V2

P (V )dV
V1

rocess equation:

P V C1 PV
n
1 1

C1

dV
V1 V n
P2V2 P1V1

1 n
V2

Note that n
cannot equal one,
which is the

(1)A constant-volume (isochoric) thermodynamic process in which the


system is confined by mechanically rigid boundaries. No direct
mechanical work can be done on the surroundings by a system with
rigid boundaries; therefore the heat transferred into or out of the
system equals the change of internal energy stored in the system.
An Isentropic Process is a process in which entropy of the system
remains constant. (no irreversibilities or heat transfers)

SUMMA
RY

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES
HEAT SOURCE

Working
Substance

Qin
Engine

Qout
Pump

HEAT SINK

Thermodynamic Cycles
Definition: a recurring series of
thermodynamic processes through
which an effect is produced by
transformation or redistribution of
energy
One classification:
Open: working fluid taken in, used, &
discarded
Closed: working medium never leaves
cycle, except through leakage;
medium undergoes state changes &
returns to original state

Five Basic Elements of all


Cycles

Working substance: transports energy within


system
Heat source: supplies heat to the working
medium
Engine: device that converts the thermal
energy of the medium into work
Heated: heat added in engine itself
Unheated: heat received in some device separate
from engine

Five Basic Elements of all


Cycles
Heat sink/receiver: absorbs heat from the
working medium
Pump: moves the working medium from the
low-pressure side to the high-pressure side of
the cycle
Examples:
Closed, unheated engine: steam cycle
Open, heated engine: gasoline engine

Second Law of
Thermodynamics
Reversibility:
the characteristic of a process which
would allow a process to occur in the
precise reverse order, so that the
system would be returned from its final
condition to its initial condition, AND
all energy that was transformed or
redistributed during the process would
be returned from its final to original form

Engines

Heat flows from a HOT


reservoir to a COLD
reservoir

QH W QC
Woutput QH QC

QH = remove from, absorbs = hot


QC= exhausts to, expels = cold

Engine Efficiency

In order to determine
the thermal
efficiency of an
engine you have to
look at how much
ENERGY you get OUT
based on how much
you energy you take
IN. In other words:
QH QC
QC
W
ethermal

1
Qhot
QH
QH

Rates of Energy Usage


Sometimes it is useful to express
the energy usage of an engine
as a RATE.
For example:
The RATE at which heat is
absorbed!
The RATE at which heat is
expelled.
The RATE at which WORK is DONE

QH
t
QC
t
W
POWER
t

Efficiency in terms of rates


W

W
P
t
ethermal

QH
QH
QH
t
t
QH P

t
e
QH QC
P

t
t

Is there an IDEAL engine


model?
Our goal is to figure out just how efficient
such a heat engine can be: whats the most
work we can possibly get for a given amount
of fuel?

The efficiency question was first posedand solvedby Sadi Carnot in 1820,
not long after steam engines had become efficient enough to begin replacing
water wheels, at that time the main power sources for industry. Not surprisingly,
perhaps, Carnot visualized the heat engine as a kind of water wheel in which
heat (the fluid) dropped from a high temperature to a low temperature,
losing potential energy which the engine turned into work done, just like a
water wheel.

Carnot Efficiency
Carnot temperatures must
be expressed in
KELVIN!!!!!!

The Carnot model has 4 parts


An Isothermal Expansion
An Adiabatic Expansion
An Isothermal Compression
An Adiabatic Compression
The PV diagram in a way shows us that the ratio of the heats are symbolic to the
ratio of the 2 temperatures

Example
A particular engine has a power output of 5000 W and an

efficiency of 25%. If the engine expels 8000 J of heat in


each cycle, find (a) the heat absorbed in each cycle and
(b) the time for each cycle
P 5000W
e 0.25
Qc 8000 J

QC
e 1
QH

0.25 1
QH

8000
QH

10,667 J

W QH QC W QH 8000
W 2667 J
W
W
P 5000
t
t

0.53 s

Example

The efficiency of a Carnot engine is 30%. The engine


absorbs 800 J of heat per cycle from a hot temperature
reservoir at 500 K. Determine (a) the heat expelled per
cycle and (b) the temperature of the cold reservoir

W
W
e
0.30
QH
800 J

W QH QC W 800 QC
QC

560 J

TC
TC
eC 1
0.30 1
TH
500
TC

350 K

240 J

NEXT TIME
Engine Terminology
Review of Air Standard Cycles