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14/01/14 Development of a Bicycle Simulation Model to Study the Evolution of the Roll Center Ride
14/01/14 Development of a Bicycle Simulation Model to Study the Evolution of the Roll Center Ride
14/01/14
14/01/14

Development of a Bicycle Simulation Model to Study the

Evolution of the Roll Center Ride Height and the Slip Angle in a Steady State Cornering Condition, on a Formula 4

CHATREAUX Clément

Single-seater Race Car

Supervisors: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dipl.-Math. Michael

Gipser M. Stephen Cosgrove

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PLAN               
PLAN               

PLAN

PLAN               

S1: Title S2: Plan S3: Company Location & History S4: Company History S5: The F4 Car S6 - 11: F4 Technical Specification S12: Barcelona Circuit S13: Car Data S14: Data Analysis S15: Set Up F4 Excel S16 – 18: Project Motivation S19: Simulation Choice S 20 - 24: Half Car Model S 25: Matlab/Simulink Simulation S26: Future Work

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COMPANY LOCATION & HISTORY Lys s Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation  Location: - Lyss –

COMPANY LOCATION & HISTORY

Lys s
Lys
s

Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation

COMPANY LOCATION & HISTORY Lys s Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation  Location: - Lyss –

Location:

  • - Lyss – Canton of Bern.

  • - Esslingen – Lyss: 320 – 380 kms.

History:

  • - Swiss Auto racing team for single- seater cars.

  • - Created in 1993 by Andreas Jenzer (Former Formula Ford 1600 Driver).

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COMPANY HISTORY  Series Raced: - Formula Ford 1800 – Swiss Championship : 1993-2000 International Championships
COMPANY HISTORY  Series Raced: - Formula Ford 1800 – Swiss Championship : 1993-2000 International Championships

COMPANY HISTORY

COMPANY HISTORY  Series Raced: - Formula Ford 1800 – Swiss Championship : 1993-2000 International Championships

Series Raced:

  • - Formula Ford 1800 – Swiss Championship: 1993-2000 International Championships: 1995-2000

  • - Formula Renault 2.0 – Swiss Championships: 2007-2010 International Championships: 2000-2013

  • - Formula Abarth (F4 Italy) : 2010-2014

  • - Formula Renault V6 : 2003 – 2004

  • - Formula Renault 3.5: 2005-2006

  • - International Formula Master: 2007-2009

  • - GP3 Series: 2010-2014

Series to be raced in 2015:

  • - Italian & German F4 / GP3 Series

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THE F4 CAR  Formula Abarth (F4 Italy & Germany): International drivers between 15 & 18
THE F4 CAR
 Formula Abarth (F4 Italy & Germany):
International drivers between 15 & 18 years old (2014 regulation)
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Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation
F4 TECH SPECS  General Information: - Wheel base: 2.75 m - Length/Width/Height: 4.35/1.75/0.95 m -
F4 TECH SPECS  General Information: - Wheel base: 2.75 m - Length/Width/Height: 4.35/1.75/0.95 m -

F4 TECH SPECS

F4 TECH SPECS  General Information: - Wheel base: 2.75 m - Length/Width/Height: 4.35/1.75/0.95 m -

General Information:

  • - Wheel base: 2.75 m

  • - Length/Width/Height: 4.35/1.75/0.95 m

  • - Minimum Legal Weight with Driver: 555 kg

  • - Max Speed: 230 km/h

  • - Max RPM: 6400 rpm

  • - Total Price: 47 500 euros

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F4 TECH SPECS  Chassis & Bodywork: - Tatuus Monocoque Carbon - Front & Rear Carbon
F4 TECH SPECS  Chassis & Bodywork: - Tatuus Monocoque Carbon - Front & Rear Carbon

F4 TECH SPECS

F4 TECH SPECS  Chassis & Bodywork: - Tatuus Monocoque Carbon - Front & Rear Carbon

Chassis & Bodywork:

  • - Tatuus Monocoque Carbon

  • - Front & Rear Carbon Crashboxes

  • - Carbon/Composite Bodywork

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F4 TECH SPECS  Engine: - 1.4 L Fiat Abarth Turbocharged Engine with ECU - Max
F4 TECH SPECS  Engine: - 1.4 L Fiat Abarth Turbocharged Engine with ECU - Max

F4 TECH SPECS

F4 TECH SPECS  Engine: - 1.4 L Fiat Abarth Turbocharged Engine with ECU - Max

Engine:

  • - 1.4 L Fiat Abarth Turbocharged Engine with ECU

  • - Max Power/Torque: 160 HP/235 N.m

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F4 TECH SPECS  Front Suspensions: - Double Wishbone with Pushrods - Double Springs/Shock Absorbers -
F4 TECH SPECS  Front Suspensions: - Double Wishbone with Pushrods - Double Springs/Shock Absorbers -

F4 TECH SPECS

F4 TECH SPECS  Front Suspensions: - Double Wishbone with Pushrods - Double Springs/Shock Absorbers -

Front Suspensions:

  • - Double Wishbone with Pushrods

  • - Double Springs/Shock Absorbers

  • - Bump & Rebound Adjustable

  • - Toe & Camber Adjustable

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F4 TECH SPECS  Rear Suspensions: - Same as Front - + Roll Center & Anti-Squat
F4 TECH SPECS  Rear Suspensions: - Same as Front - + Roll Center & Anti-Squat

F4 TECH SPECS

F4 TECH SPECS  Rear Suspensions: - Same as Front - + Roll Center & Anti-Squat

Rear Suspensions:

  • - Same as Front

  • - + Roll Center & Anti-Squat Adjustable

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F4 TECH SPECS  Transmission & Wheels: - Sequential 6 speeds Gearbox with Paddleshift - 13”
F4 TECH SPECS  Transmission & Wheels: - Sequential 6 speeds Gearbox with Paddleshift - 13”

F4 TECH SPECS

F4 TECH SPECS  Transmission & Wheels: - Sequential 6 speeds Gearbox with Paddleshift - 13”

Transmission & Wheels:

  • - Sequential 6 speeds Gearbox with Paddleshift

  • - 13” Aluminum Rims with Centre Bolt

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BARCELONA CIRCUIT 12  Location: Montmeló, Catalonia, Spain  Track Length: 4,665 km  Corner 4
BARCELONA CIRCUIT 12  Location: Montmeló, Catalonia, Spain  Track Length: 4,665 km  Corner 4

BARCELONA CIRCUIT

BARCELONA CIRCUIT 12  Location: Montmeló, Catalonia, Spain  Track Length: 4,665 km  Corner 4
BARCELONA CIRCUIT 12  Location: Montmeló, Catalonia, Spain  Track Length: 4,665 km  Corner 4

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Location: Montmeló, Catalonia, Spain Track Length: 4,665 km Corner 4 to Simulate:

  • - Entry Speed: 202 km/h

  • - Entry Gear: 5 th

  • - Entry RPM: 6000 rpm

  • - Apex Speed: 125 km/h

  • - Apex Gear: 4 th

  • - Apex RPM: 4500 rpm

  • - To brake and take an early apex before carrying lots of speed out of the exit

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CAR DATA Data Logger: AIM Evo 4  Car Available Channels:  - Gear (1 sensor)
CAR DATA Data Logger: AIM Evo 4  Car Available Channels:  - Gear (1 sensor)

CAR DATA

CAR DATA Data Logger: AIM Evo 4  Car Available Channels:  - Gear (1 sensor)
CAR DATA Data Logger: AIM Evo 4  Car Available Channels:  - Gear (1 sensor)

Data Logger: AIM Evo 4 Car Available Channels:

  • - Gear (1 sensor)

  • - Steering angle (1 sensor)

  • - Lap timer/trigger (1 sensor)

  • - Acceleration (1 tri-axial sensor)

  • - Wheels speeds front (2 sensors)

  • - Brake pressure front/rear (2 sensors)

  • - Throttle pedal or valve (1 sensor)

Analysis Software: Race Studio 2 Analysis v2.54.02

  • - To download & process data from AIM data logger.

  • - To see how your vehicle, engine and driver perform. (Plot vs. Time or Distance, XY Plot, Track Map Tool, Histograms Graphs, Split Time or Distance Report, Engine Analysis, etc…)

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DATA ANALYSIS  Analysis Example with Race Studio Analysis: - Cursor on Barcelona Corner 4 -
DATA ANALYSIS
 Analysis Example with Race Studio Analysis:
-
Cursor on Barcelona Corner 4
-
Obtaining data for the Driver Model to simulate
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Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation
SET UP  Excel File for F4 Setup: Comparison of 2 Set Up - Obtaining Different
SET UP  Excel File for F4 Setup: Comparison of 2 Set Up - Obtaining Different

SET UP

SET UP  Excel File for F4 Setup: Comparison of 2 Set Up - Obtaining Different

Excel File for F4 Setup: Comparison of 2 Set Up

  • - Obtaining Different Values for Geometric Motion, Aero & Tires, ….

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PROJECT MOTIVATION  Tires = components that constructors/teams: - Don’t produce - Cannot really alter Performances
PROJECT MOTIVATION  Tires = components that constructors/teams: - Don’t produce - Cannot really alter Performances

PROJECT MOTIVATION

PROJECT MOTIVATION  Tires = components that constructors/teams: - Don’t produce - Cannot really alter Performances

Tires = components that constructors/teams:

  • - Don’t produce

  • - Cannot really alter Performances

=> To understand for Better

  • - Have very little control on

PROJECT MOTIVATION  Tires = components that constructors/teams: - Don’t produce - Cannot really alter Performances

Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation

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PROJECT MOTIVATION  Tires Slip: Caused by deformation of the carcass and tread - Affects the
PROJECT MOTIVATION
 Tires Slip: Caused by deformation of the carcass
and tread
-
Affects the handling of the car & determines behaviour
-
Adjusted through F & R lateral load transfer (with RC
height, ARB…)
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Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation
PROJECT MOTIVATION  Roll Center (RC) Height: - Centrifugal force => push car outside corner=> car
PROJECT MOTIVATION  Roll Center (RC) Height: - Centrifugal force => push car outside corner=> car

PROJECT MOTIVATION

PROJECT MOTIVATION  Roll Center (RC) Height: - Centrifugal force => push car outside corner=> car

Roll Center (RC) Height:

  • - Centrifugal force => push car outside corner=> car rolls outside corner.

  • - Roll axis closer to CoG => less chassis roll corner

  • - One of the most powerful car adjustment => immediate effect on a car’s handling. Whereas ARB, shocks and springs: car rolling before they act

PROJECT MOTIVATION  Roll Center (RC) Height: - Centrifugal force => push car outside corner=> car

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SIMULATING CHOICE  Choice of Models: - Modelling = simplified abstract view of complex reality. -
SIMULATING CHOICE  Choice of Models: - Modelling = simplified abstract view of complex reality. -

SIMULATING CHOICE

SIMULATING CHOICE  Choice of Models: - Modelling = simplified abstract view of complex reality. -

Choice of Models:

  • - Modelling = simplified abstract view of complex reality.

  • - Choice of Models with evolving complexity. => Can be tested, validated & optimized as design process goes along.

SIMULATING CHOICE  Choice of Models: - Modelling = simplified abstract view of complex reality. -

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HALF CAR MODEL  Lateral Model: 14/01/2014 20 Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation
HALF CAR MODEL
 Lateral Model:
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HALF CAR MODEL  Longitudinal Model: Aero Forces - Drag Force - Side Force - Lift
HALF CAR MODEL
Longitudinal Model: Aero Forces
-
Drag Force
-
Side Force
-
Lift Force
-
Pitching Moment
Z
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HALF CAR MODEL  Longitudinal Model: Vehicle Dynamics Z 14/01/2014 22 Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation
HALF CAR MODEL
Longitudinal Model: Vehicle Dynamics
Z
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HALF CAR MODEL  Quarter Car Vertical Model (Front/Rear): 14/01/2014 23 Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation
HALF CAR MODEL
 Quarter Car Vertical Model (Front/Rear):
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Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation
HALF CAR MODEL  Vertical Model (Coupling 2 Quarter Car Models): Modification Sprung Mass Equation L
HALF CAR MODEL
 Vertical Model (Coupling 2 Quarter Car Models):
Modification Sprung Mass Equation
L
Z
Zc
θ
Ksf
Csf
Ksr
Csr
Zwf
Zw
Mwf
r
Mwr
Kusf
Cusf
Zrf
Zrr Kusr
Cusr
Z
X
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CURRENT SIMULINK 14/01/2014 25 Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation
CURRENT SIMULINK
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Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation
FUTURE WORK - Improve Lateral Model Because Only Valid Until 0.4g (Corner Stiffness Coefficients) - Engine
FUTURE WORK - Improve Lateral Model Because Only Valid Until 0.4g (Corner Stiffness Coefficients) - Engine

FUTURE WORK

FUTURE WORK - Improve Lateral Model Because Only Valid Until 0.4g (Corner Stiffness Coefficients) - Engine
  • - Improve Lateral Model Because Only Valid Until 0.4g (Corner Stiffness Coefficients)

  • - Engine Model to Implement

  • - Road Model to Improve (track = very smooth)

  • - Tire Pacejka Model (Non Linearity) to Implement

  • - Steering and Throttle to Enter from Data Logged Values

  • - Bump/Rebound Limits of Springs/Dampers

  • - Obtain or Estimate & Compare Constants like Tire Stiffness, Tire Load Sensitivity, …

  • - Include Non Linearity

  • - Driveline/Steering Flexibility

  • - Height of Roll Center (Not Full Vehicle Model)

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Thank you for your attention! 19/02/2014 Clément CHATREAUX – Individual Presentation 27

Thank you for your attention!

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VIDEO  Video System: Smarty Cam GP HD  Full Track Best Lap: 1´48´´037 4 th
VIDEO  Video System: Smarty Cam GP HD  Full Track Best Lap: 1´48´´037 4 th

VIDEO

VIDEO  Video System: Smarty Cam GP HD  Full Track Best Lap: 1´48´´037 4 th
VIDEO  Video System: Smarty Cam GP HD  Full Track Best Lap: 1´48´´037 4 th

Video System: Smarty Cam GP HD

Full Track Best Lap: 1´48´´037 4 th Corner: 0´30 – 0´44

Video

Barcelona

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