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Overview to

Subsea System
Sandeep S Rangapure
R 160206025
M.Tech – Pipeline
Engineering
Introduction

Subsea Pipelines are used for the


transportation of offshore Hydrocarbons
from one Platform to another and or
Platform to Shore
DIFFERENT TYPES OF OFFSHORE PRODUCTION UNITS
Pipelines are used for a number of purposes in the
development of offshore hydrocarbon resources These include
e.g.:

 Export (transportation) pipelines

 Pipeline bundles.

 Flowlines to transfer product from a platform to export


lines

 Water injection or chemical injection Flowlines

 Flowlines to transfer product between platforms

 Subsea manifolds and satellite wells;


SUBMARINE PIPELINE SYSTEMS

 PIPELINE
 Pipeline is defined as the part of a pipeline system which is
located below the water surface at maximum tide (except for
pipeline risers)
 Pipeline may be resting wholly or intermittently on, or buried
below, the sea bottom

 PIPELINE COMPONENTS
 Any items which are integral part of pipeline system such as
flanges, tees, bends, reducers and valves

 PIPELINE SYSTEM
 An inter connected system of submarine pipelines, their risers,
supports, isolation valves, all integrated piping components,
associated piping system and the corrosion protection system
Risers
A Riser is a conducting pipe connecting sub-sea wellheads, templates or
pipelines to equipment located on a buoyant or fixed offshore structure.

Types of riser

Rigid riser - for shallow water


Catenary steel riser - for deep water
Flexible riser - for deep and shallow water

Riser clamp
Riser are supported/guided from the jacket members
through clamps

Types of Clamp

Hanger clamp
Fixed clamp
Adjustable clamp
Riser Clamp (Welding to Jacket member)
estrained lines
Pipelines which cannot expand or contract in the longitudinal
irection due to fixed supports or friction between the pipe and soil

nrestrained lines
Pipelines without substantial axial restraint. (Maximum one fixed
upport and no substantial friction).

Platform

FL 1
SUBSEA PIPELINE DESIGN ACTIVITIES

 Pipeline Sizing
 Pipeline Material Selection
 Pipeline Mechanical Design
 Pipeline Stability Analysis
 Pipeline Span Analysis
 Pipeline Crossing Design
 Pipeline Cathodic Protection System Design
PIPELINE SIZING

 In general it means fixing up the pipeline nominal diameter


(6”,10” etc.,) which deals with the important aspects like...

⇒ MAXIMUM FLOW RATE CONDITION

⇒ CHECK FOR THE FLOW CONDITION (pressure drop & flow


velocity)

⇒ CHECK FOR SECONDARY CRITERIA like ….


# Flow regime (mix of hydro carbon, single/multi phase
flow) # Temperature profile

# Erosion velocity
D
D
tt
PIPELINE MATERIAL SELECTION

The governing parameters for the particular type of


material to be used are
⇒ Temperature
⇒ Pressure
⇒ Surrounding Environment.
⇒ Corrosive elements (CO2 and H2 S)
Carbon steel (Carbon - Manganese Steel) C.S.Nace, C.R.A.
→ API - 5L of Grade Ranges From X - 42 to X - 80
→ > X-80 - Toughness and Weldability are limitations
→ API - 5L X- 52 ,60 & 65 Grades are commonly used.
PIPELINE MECHANICAL DESIGN

The mechanical design of the pipeline is carried to with stand


factors like
Internal pressure
External Pressure
Hydrostatic Collapse
Buckle initiation
Buckle Propagation
PIPELINE SPAN ANALYSIS

Causes of the Pipeline Spans are


 Uneven Seabed on Selected route
 Pipeline Crossing seabed rock outcrop
 Sand Waves
 Scour

All these result in spanning and cause


 Excessive yielding (Results in High Bending
Moments)
 Buckle Initiation and there by Propagation

Longitudinal
Longitudinal loads
loads

Unsupported length
PIPELINE STABILITY

Pipeline once installed at the sea bed should be sufficiently


stable to avoid any overstressing, deterioration of
coating etc., due to wave and current generated
movements

PIPELINE STABILITY

Vertical
Vertical stability
stability Lateral
Lateral stability
stability
Vertical stability
 Sinking in to the sea bed during maximum fluid density condition.
 Floating of Buried Pipeline during Empty condition & Soil Liquefaction.
 The Pipe sinkage is determined as the depth at which the applied pipe
pressure equals the soil bearing resistance.
 Soil deformation(pipe sinkage)δ ,is given by:

δ = D/2-[(D/2)2 – (B/2)2]1/2
Where,
D = Overall pipe outside diameter including pipe coatings
B = Projected contact area between pipe and soil =P/qu
Where,
qu = CNC +1/2Bγ N γ
qu = Ultimate bearing capacity of soil
P = Pipe submerged weight including pipe coatings and in water filled
condition per unit length.
Lateral stability
 It is the capacity to resist the lateral forces due to
Environmental loads.
 Forces to be considered for Lateral stability analysis
 Submerged weight WS
 Lateral resistance R
 Friction µ
 Drag force FD
 Lift force FL
 The stability criterion is expressed as

(Ws - FL) µ ≥ (FD + FI) S

Where,
S = safety factor (1.1)
W s= submerged weight of pipeline/unit length, for
nominal wall thickness (t), N/m
FL = hydrodynamic lift force, N/m
FD = hydrodynamic drag force, N/m
FI = hydrodynamic inertia force, N/m
µ = lateral coefficient of friction between
pipe and seabed.
Methods of Pipeline stabilization

 Increase Pipeline wall thickness


 Provide Concrete Weight Coating
 Lay the Pipeline in Open trench
 Trench and bury the Pipeline
 Provide Concrete Mattress over Pipeline
 Stabilize Pipeline by Rock dumping
Increase
Increase in
in
Pipewall
Pipewall thickness
thickness

Providing
Providing
Concrete
Concrete coating
coating
Sea bed

Trench wall

Natural fill
Buried pipe- Natural Fill
Jetted in pipe
Armor rock Tremie concrete

Back fill
Bedding
Bedding
Buried pipe- Armor Cover Buried pipe- Concrete Cover

Stabilization Methods for buried Submarine pipeline


Trenching Concrete Mattress
Rock dumping
PIPELINE CROSSING ANALYSIS

 Crossings are designed to Give a Physical


separation Between The Proposed Line & Existing
Line.

 To Avoid Interfacing Of Cathodic Protection


Between The Two Lines

A min of 300mm gap is Provided b/w the lines as per the


DNV-Code.
Crossing analysis methodology
» Pipeline Crossing Span Calculation.
» Pipeline Dynamic Span Calculation
» Number of Supports to be Provided.
» Pipeline Crossing Flexibility analysis
» Pipeline Crossing Support design against,
> Bearing capacity
> Over turning
> Sliding
> Settlement
PIPELINE CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM DESIGN

The Subsea pipelines are provided with sacrificial anodes made of


Aluminum or Zinc to protect against marine corrosion

Important parameters for Anode Design

** Surface
Surface area
area of
of the
the Pipeline
Pipeline
** Fluid
Fluid and
and Anode
Anode temperature
temperature
** Break
Break down
down
** Design
Design service
service life
life of
of Anodes
Anodes
MAJOR DESIGN CODES AND
STANDARDS
 DNV 1981 - Rules for submarine pipeline system
 DNV 2000 - Submarine pipeline system
 API 5L - Specification for line pipe
 BS 8010 - Code of practice for pipeline
 NACE RP 0169 - Recommended practice,control of external
corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping.
 OISD 141 - Design and construction requirements for cross
country hydrocarbon pipeline.
 ASME B 31.8 -Gas transmission and distribution piping system.
 ASME B 31.4 - Pipeline transportation systems for liquid
hydrocarbon and other liquids