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Centroids & Moment of Inertia

EGCE201 Strength of Materials I


. (.)
: 6391
Instructor:

E-mail: egwpr@mahidol.ac.th

: 66(02) 889-2138
6391

Centroid
Centroid or center of gravity is the point within an object
from which the force of gravity appears to act.
Centroid of 3D objects often (but not always) lies
somewhere along the lines of symmetry.
Hollowed pipes, L shaped section have centroid
located outside of the material of the section
Centroidal axis
or Neutral

The centroid of any area can be found by taking


moments of identifiable areas (such as rectangles or
triangles) about any axis. Sum M = M + M + M + ...
Atotal

A1

A2

A3

The moment of an area about any axis is equal to the


algebraic sum of the moments of its component areas.
The moment of any area is defined as the product of the
area and the perpendicular distance from the centroid of
the area to the moment axis.

centroid example
simple rectangular shape
y
Sum MAtotal = MA1 + MA2 + MA3+ ...

h/2
centroid
h/2

area x distance | from the centroid


of the area to the moment axis

ZZ
b

Take ZZ as the reference axis


and take moment w.r.t ZZ axis

h h h
h h
(bh)Y (b ) (b )
2 2 4
2 4
h 3h h
(b )

2 4 4
h
(b ) h
2

Moment of Inertia (I)


also known as the Second Moment of the Area is a term
used to describe the capacity of a cross-section to resist
bending.
It is a mathematical property of a section concerned with a
surface area and how that area is distributed about the
reference axis. The reference axis is usually a centroidal
axis.
where

Moment of Inertia example


simple rectangular shape

Iz

y dA

I z y bdy
h
2

dA bdy

y3
b
3

h
2

dy

h/2

h
2

b h h


3 8
8
bh 3

12
3

h/2

Centroid
or Neutral axis

I is an important value!
It is used to determine the state of stress in a section.
It is used to calculate the resistance to bending.
It can be used to determine the amount of deflection in a
beam.
y
h
h/2

b/2

b/2

h/2

bh 3
Iz
12

hb 3
Iz
12

>
Stronger section

Built-up sections
It is often advantageous to combine a
number of smaller members in order to
create a beam or column of greater
strength.
The moment of inertia of such a built-up
section is found by adding the moments of
inertia of the component parts

Transfer formula
There are many built-up sections in which the
component parts are not symmetrically distributed about
the centroidal axis.
To determine the moment of inertia of such a section is
to find the moment of inertia of the component parts
about their own centroidal axis and then apply the
transfer formula.
The transfer formula transfers the moment of inertia of
a section or area from its own centroidal axis to another
parallel axis. It is known from calculus to be: