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PHENOMENON,

HAZARDS ,

REMEDIATION

Associate Prof. Military College of Engg, Risalpur

AIM

HIGLIGHT THE IMPORTANCE OF

LIQUEFACTION IN ENGINEERING

PRACTICE

SEQUENCE OF

PRESENTATION

Introduction

Liquefaction phenomenon

Hazards Associated with Liquefaction

Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential

Remediation

travel vertically and rapid loading of

soil occurs under undrained conditions

i.e., pore water has no time to move

out.

In saturated soils the seismic

energy causes an increase in pore water

pressures

and

consequently

the

effective stresses decrease. This results

in loss of shear strength of soil and soil

starts to behave as a fluid. This fluid is

no longer able to sustain the load of

structure and the structure settles. This

phenomenon is known as liquefaction.

soft

young

water-saturated

uniformly graded

fine grained sands and silts

During liquefaction these soils behave as

viscous fluids rather than solids .

This can be better demonstrated by a video

clip in which a glass container with

saturated sand is resting on a vibrating

table.

STRUCTURE

GLASS

CONTAINER

SATURATED

SAND

can be well understood by

considering shear strength of

soils. Soils fail under externally

applied shear forces and the shear

strength of soil is governed by the

effective or inter-granular stresses

expressed as:

Effective stress = (total stress pore water pressure)

= - u

as :

c+

tan

soil such as sand will not posses

any shear strength when the

effective stresses approach zero

and it will transform into a

liquid state.

Assemblage of

particles

give rise to normal stresses that are

responsible for shear strength.

This box

represents

magnitude of

pore water

pressure

pressure which reduces the contact forces between the

individual soil particles, thereby softening and weakening

the soil deposit.

Increase in pore

pressure due to

dynamic loading

HAZARDS ASSOCIATED

WITH LIQUEFACTION

PHENOMENON

Historical Evidences

1964 Nigata (Japan)

1964 Great Alaskan earthquake

Seismically induced soil

liquefaction produced

spectacular and devastating

effect in both of these events,

thrusting the issue forcefully to

the attention of engineers and

researchers

decreases and, the ability of a soil deposit to suppo

foundations for buildings and bridges is reduced .

overturned apartment complex buildings in Niigata

1964.

cause them to tilt or slide. This movement can cause settlement of the

retained soil and destruction of structures on the ground surface

Kobe

1995

Increased water pressure can also trigger landslides and cause the

collapse of dams. Lower San Fernando dam suffered an underwater slide

during the San Fernando earthquake, 1971.

Sand boils and ground fissures were observed at various sites in Niigata.

Nigata ,Japan to move laterally so much that the simply supported spans

became unseated and collapsed

to the point where bridge spans loose support or are compressed to the

point of buckling

The strong ground motions that led to collapse of the Hanshin Express way also caused

severe liquefaction damage to port and wharf facilities as can be seen below.

1995 Kobe

earthquake, Japan

Lateral spreading caused 1.2-2 meter drop of paved surface and local flooding, Kobe

1995.

Alaska earthquake,

USA,1964

cracks such as those on the banks of the Motagua River

following the 1976 Guatemala Earthquake.

Quay walls have been pushed outward by 2 to 3 meters with

3 to 4 meters deep depressed areas called grabens forming

behind the walls, Kobe 1995.

over 2,400 people were killed, and 11,000 were injured

near Pajaro River, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

Chi-Chi earthquake

were caused by earthquake-induced liquefaction.

Evaluation of

Liquefaction

Potential

potential of soils at any site

requires parameters pertaining

to:

cyclic loads due to an

earthquake

and

soil properties which describe

the soil resistance under those

loads.

Where

v = effective vertical

stress

pressure coefficient

K0v = effective

horizontal stress

During

Earthquake

simulate field stress

conditions

Cyclic direct shear

test

Cyclic triaxial test

Relation between

cyclic direct shear and

(h/v) cyclic

= Cr (1/2test

x d/3 )

direct sheartriaxial

triaxial

(h/v) = cyclic stress ratio CSR

v = vertical stress

d = deviator stress

3 = effective confining pressure

Cr = Correction faactor obtained from

figure given on next slide

from field then the equation is

modified as follows:

(avg/v)= Cr(1/2 x d/3)triaxial

RD2/RD1

at RD1

lab and RD2 is relative density in

field

cyclic stress ratios CSR = (1/2 x d/3) on

undisturbed or remolded specimen till

liquefaction occurs, and corresponding number of

stress cycles is determined. A graph is plotted

between CSR and number of stress cycles.

CSR corresponding to any number of

stress cycles and this value is used in

following relationship to determine

shear resistance that will be

mobilized at any depth.

(avg/v)= Cr(1/2 x d/3)triaxial

RD2/RD1

at RD1

Graph can be used to determine CSR from Mean grain

Size D 50

Test can also be used to determine

CSR from this curve.

Subsequently shear resistance of

soil against cyclic loading can be

determined by:

= CSR x v

Where,

DETERMINATION OF

SHEAR STRESSES

INDUCED BY CERTAIN

EARTHQUAKE IN THE

FIELD BY SIMPLIFIED

PROCEDURE

body therefore a correction factor rD

must be applied as soil is not rigid.

Where,

= rD ( h amax )/g

=

earthquake

=

amax

=

earthquake

g

=

h

=

rD

=

of depth

can be obtained

unit weight of soil.

maximum acceleration due to

acceleration due to gravity

height of soil prism

stress reduction factor , a function

of point being analyzed. It

from next

slide

Acceleration v/s time

relationship

(accelerogram) looks

like

induced cyclic shear

stresses vary with time. On

the contrary in the

laboratory shear test the

specimen is subjected to a

uniform cyclic shear stress.

To incorporate this effect

a multiplication factor of

0.65 has been suggested.

Seed et al have

recommended a weighted

procedure to derive the

number of uniform stress

cycles Neq (at an amplitude

of 65% of the peak cyclic

shear stresses i.e. cyc=0.65

max) from recorded strong

ground motion

equivalent number of stress cycles for

an earthquake of certain magnitude.

incorporated by determining equivalent

number of stress cycles for an earthquake

and shear stresses induced during an

earthquake are computed by the following

equation:

Where,

=

amax =

g

=

h

=

maximum acceleration due to earthquake

acceleration due to gravity

height of soil prism

rD

=

stress reduction factor , a function of

depth

of point being analyzed. It can be obtained

from next slide

Can be used to

Determine max

Ground

acceleration

shear stresses induced by an

earthquake

and

the shear resistance mobilized at

the point under consideration, a

graph is plotted between depth

and the stresses determined

above.

stresses are more than

shear resistance

mobilized, liquefaction

will occur.

RESEARCH ON

KAMRA SAND

and Boring

SAND LAYER

0.5 m

SILT LAYER

Pit

CMTL WAPDA LAHORE

density

density

%

Relative Density From SPT

correlations =52.8 %

EVALUATION OF LIQUEFACTION

PHA at

Kamra =

0.24 g

Sr. No

Fault

Name

Khairabad

Fault

Distance

From

Length Kamra

(km)

(km)

370

Magnitude

of earthquake

From equation

logL=1.02M 5.77

8.2

It is concluded that an

earthquake of Magnitude 7 can

occur at Kamra with peak

horizontal acceleration of 0.24 g

Cyclic Triaxial Test.

liquefaction will occur under magnitude 7 earthquake

of SPT

Point

Depth

(m)

1.50

1.75

2.00

Shear stress

mobilized in

field

Shear

Resistance

avg (KN/m )

2

= 0.65 rD ( h

amax )/g

4.17

4.89

5.58

r (KN / m )

2

= CSR x v

Remarks

3.24

avg > r

3.24

avg > r

4.13

avg > r

CYCLIC TRIAXIAL TEST.

Analysis on the basis of triaxial was based on the method

proposed by SEED AND IDRIS

Shear resistance was computed from the following formula

RD2/RD1 Cr(1/2 x d / 3 )triaxial x RD2/RD1

h = Cr(1/2 x d / 3 ) x v x RD2/RD1

0.57

0.255

point

Shear

stress

mobilized

in field

Depth

(m) avg

(KN/m2)

= 0.65 rD ( h

amax )/g

1.50

4.17

Shear

resistance

by

Triaxial

r (KN / m2 )

Remarks

(avg/v)=Cr(1/2 x d/3)triaxial

4.08

at RD1

x RD2/RD1

avg > r

(Liquefaction will

occur)

1.75

4.89

4.46

avg > r

(Liquefaction will

occur)

2.00

5.58

5.20

avg > r

It

of these results that the sand

will liquefy under the event of

an earthquake of Magnitude

7.

REMEDIATION

HOW CAN LIQUIFACTION HAZARDS BE

REDUCED?

Avoid

Liquefaction Susceptible

Soils

Build Liquefaction Resistant

Structures

Improve the Soil

Soils

historical

Criteria

again in future earthquakes.

Geological

Criteria

created by sedimentation in rivers and lakes

deposition of debris or eroded material or

deposits formed by wind action can be very

liquefaction susceptible.

created by the process of hydraulic filling

Compositional

Criteria

AND

a coefficient of uniformity ranging from 2 to 10.

Uniformly graded soil deposits

Angularity of particles

satisfy the criteria given below.

Natural water content > 0.9 LL

Liquidity Index < 0.75

State Criteria

Relative density, Dr

Increasing confining pressure

REDUCED?

Build Liquefaction

Resistant Structures

Build

Liquefaction

foundation

elements

in a shallow

foundation are tied

together to make the

foundation move or

settle uniformly, thus

decreasing the

amount of shear

forces induced in the

structural elements

resting upon the

foundation.

Resistant Structures

A stiff foundation

Build

mat isLiquefaction

a good type

of shallow

foundation, which

can transfer loads

from locally liquefied

zones to adjacent

stronger ground.

Resistant Structures

sewage and water pipes,

should have ductile

connections to the

structure to

accommodate the large

movements and

settlements that can

occur due to liquefaction.

The pipes in the photo

connected the two

buildings in a straight

line before the

earthquake

REDUCED?

Vibroflotation

Vibroflotation

Dynamic Compaction

Stone Columns

Generally, the stone column ground improvement method is used to treat

soils where fines content exceeds that acceptable for vibrocompaction

Compaction Piles

Compaction Grouting

Compaction

technique that involves injection of a thickconsistency soil-cement grout under

pressure into the soil mass, consolidating,

and thereby densifying surrounding soils inplace. The injected grout mass occupies

void space created by pressuredensification. Pump pressure, as transmitted

through low-mobility grout, produces

compaction by displacing soil at depth until

resisted by the weight of overlying soils.

Drainage techniques

Drainage techniques

Verification of

A number of methods can be used to verify

Improvement

the effectiveness

of soil improvement. In-situ

limitations of many laboratory techniques.

Usually, in-situ test are performed to evaluate

the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit

before the improvement was attempted. With

the knowledge of the existing ground

characteristics, one can then specify a

necessary level of improvement in terms of

insitu test parameters.

Verification of

Improvement

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