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CONTROL CHARTS

Process Control

Control Charts for

Attributes

System Capability Analysis

Introduction

In market economy, the maintenance of quality has a profound importance in

manufacturing and servicing environment. For doing so, one of the earliest tools is

Statistical Process Control(SPC).

The application of statistical techniques to control a process.

While its key aspect is to obtain predictable processes that produce

consistent results by quickly detecting the occurrence of assignable causes

of process shifts, be it above or below control limits or unnatural patterns,

so that investigation of the process and corrective action may be

undertaken before many nonconforming units are manufactured.

In a nutshell, the eventual goal of SPC is the elimination of variability in the process.

SPC can be applied to any process. Its seven major tools are:

1) Histogram

5)

Defect

concentration

2) Check sheet

diagram

3) Pareto Chart

6) Scatter diagram

4) Cause and effect diagram

7) Run chart

Dr.Gere K

cont.

While these tools , often called the magnificent seven, are an important part of

SPC, they comprise only its technical aspects. SPC builds an environment in

which it is the desire of all individuals in an organization for continuous

improvement in quality and productivity.

Of the seven tools, the Shewhart control chart is probably the most

technically

sophisticated. It was developed in the 1920s by Walter A. Shewhart of

the Bell Telephone Laboratories.

To understand the statistical concepts that form the basis of SPC, we

must first describe Shewharts theory of variability.

In any production process, regardless of

how

well

designed

or

carefully

maintained it is, a certain amount of

inherent or natural variability will always

exist.

Dr.Gere K

Variation

There is no two natural items in any category are the same.

Variation may be quite large or very small.

If variation is very small, it may appear that items are identical,

Categories of variation

Within-piece variation

One portion of surface is rougher than another portion.

Apiece-to-piece variation

Variation among pieces produced at the same time.

Time-to-time variation

Service given early would be different from that given later

in the day.

Dr.Gere K

Sources of Variation

Equipment:-Tool wear, machine vibration,

Material:- Raw material quality

Environment:-Temperature, pressure, humidity,

lighting

Operator:-Operator performs- physical &

Types of Variation

emotional

1. Common or Chance Causes

Variation due to chance (common) causes is inevitable in any process or

product. They are difficult to trace and control even under best conditions of

production. Since these variations may be due to some inherent

characteristics of the process or machine which functions at random. W.E.

Deming contended that only management can address common cause

variation since it is inherent in the process as designed by management.

2. Assignable Causes or Special Causes

those due to chance causes and can be traced or detected. The power of

Shewhart control chart lies in its ability to separate out the assignable causes

of variations.

Dr.Gere K

Separate common and special causes of variation

Determine whether a process is in a state of statistical control or out-ofcontrol

Estimate the process parameters (mean, variation) and assess the

performance of a process or its capability.

The control chart is an on-line process-monitoring technique widely used for this

purpose. Control charts may also be used to estimate the parameters of a production

process, and, through this information, to determine process capability. The control chart

may also provide information useful in improving the process. Finally, remember that the

eventual goal of statistical process control is the elimination of variability in the process.

Types of Data

Variable data

Product

Attribute data

Good/bad, yes/no

Dr.Gere K

1.Select a quality characteristic to be measured

Identify a characteristic to study - for example, part length or any other variable

affecting performance.

2. Choose a subgroup size to be sampled

Choose homogeneous subgroups

Homogeneous subgroups are produced under the same conditions, by the

same machine, the same operator, the same mold, at approximately the same

time.

Try to maximize chance to detect differences between subgroups, while

minimizing chance for difference with a group.

3. Collect data

Generally, collect 20-25 subgroups (100 total samples) before calculating the control

limits.

Each time a subgroup of sample size n is taken, an average is calculated for the

subgroup and plotted on the control chart.

Dr.Gere K

Control Charts

The key instrument of SPC is the control chart invented by W. A. Shewhart in the

1920s. A control chart is a graphical comparison of performance data to

computed control limits drawn as limit line on the chart.

The primary function of control chart is to determine which type of variation is

present and whether adjustments need to be made to the process. It can be as

damaging to adjust a process which is operating in control (only common causes

variation present) as it is to fail to adjust a process which is operating out of control

(assignable causes of variation present). It is, therefore, important to be able to

determine what type of variation is present in a process.

Types of control

charts:

1. Control charts for variables

2. Control charts for attributes

Dr.Gere K

Control charts for variables enable the monitoring of the natural variability

occurring in a process where the data is provided in measurable units rather than

counted ones. The charts will then be used to reduce this variability around the

nominal value. Charts are based on variability due to common causes and are

used to determine the presence of special causes.

Variable data are plotted on a combination of two charts. Using X bar chart and

range (R) chart. However, S chart (standard deviation) chart should be used in

place of a range chart for larger sample size (n>10).This is because; the range

method loses efficiency relative to S2 as sample size increases. For a sample size of

2, the two methods are equivalent. Where as, for a sample size of 10, the range

method efficiency is only 0.85% relative to S2.

The X chart plots sample means. It is a measure of between sample

variations and is used to assess the centering and long-term variation of the

process. The range chart and S chart measure the with in-sample variation

and assess the short-term variation of the process.

Dr.Gere K

The constructing of an

chart begins with the collection of a serious of samples

from a process. The samples consist of two or more observations (sample size of 3

to 10 are best) each. The individual observations are averaged for each sample to

determine the sample mean ( ). The averages of at least 25 to 30 sample means are

calculated that is X-double bar ( ). The underlying distribution for the

chart is

the normal distribution. The centerline (CL) of the chart is . The upper control limit

(UCL) is set at + 3sigma; the lower control limit (LCL) is set at - 3sigma.

Appropriate placement of the upper and lower control limits is an economic issue.

The intent would be to fix the limits in such a way as to balance the economic

consequences of failing to detect a special cause when it does occur and wrongly

identifying the presence of a special cause when it has really not occurred.

Experience has led to the use of 3 limits as a good balance of these risks.

The 25 to 30 sample means are then plotted on the control chart. If none of the

points fall outside the control limits and there are no discernible patterns in the plot,

then process is said to be in control.

Dr.Gere K

10

X

i 1

(1)

i 1

( 2)

i 1

( 4)

The centerline for the X-bar chart is X-double bar. The upper control limit and lower

control limit are calculated using

UCL X A2 R (5)

CL X A2 R (6)

UCL X A2 R (7)

X 3 x ,

R

,

n

d2

3

A2

n d2

Appendix Table VI.

Dr.Gere K

11

UCL D4 R (8)

R 3 R ,

CL R (9)

LCL D3 R (10)

R 3d 3

R d 3

, 1 3 d 3 D 4 , 1 3 d 3 D3

Appendix Table VI.

The range chart is evaluated first, because the limits of the X chart depends on the

magnitude of the common causes variation of the process measured by R , if it is in

control then the X chart is evaluated. An out of control signal on either chart is an

indication that the process is out of control.

Dr.Gere K

12

Centerline X A2 R 5.009

UCL X A2 R 5.009 (0.577)(.115) 4.943

Dr.Gere K

13

Dr.Gere K

14

C

o

n

t

r

o

l

C

h

a

r

t

:

X

B

a

r

O

b

s

1

.5

5

0

7

5

U

C

L

=

5

.

0

7

6

9

A

v

e

r

a

g

e

1

0

6

44

3

.0

M

ean

.5

5

0

2

5

.4

0

.4

9

7

5

.9

5

01234S

5

6

7

8

9

1

0

ig

m

a

le

v:3

Dr.Gere K

15

UCL

4

CL

LCL

R 0.115

D R 0 * 0.115 0

3

Dr.Gere K

16

C

o

n

t

r

l

C

h

a

r

t

:

R

C

h

a

r

t

bA

sveLr1a=g.0243150

00..225 O

U

C

R

ange

00..115

00..512345678910

S

igm

alev:3

Dr.Gere K

17

If the mean and standard deviation of a process are known, or if they are specified

by management, perhaps as goals to be achieved X and R control charts can be

constructed without analyzing past data. For 3-sigma limits, the control limits for

X are given by:

UC L x

C Lx

3

n

LC L x

(9)

(10)

3

n

(11)

UC L x A (12)

C L x (13)

LC L x A (14)

Dr.Gere K

18

UC L R R 3

C LR R

LC L R R 3

d , we can

Since = d and

UC L R d 2 3d 3

write

(15)

C LR d 2

(16)

LC L R d 2 3d 3

(17)

D d 3d

2

UC L R D2

C LR d 2

LC L R D1

D d 3d

and

We obtain

(18)

(19)

(20)

Dr.Gere K

19

estimate the process standard deviation directly instead of indirectly

through the use of the range R. This leads to control charts for X-bar and

S, where S is the sample standard deviation.

The 3-sigma limits for the S chart with the standards given are as follows

2

UC Ls c4 3 1 c4

C Ls c4

(21)

(22)

LC Ls c4 3 1 c4

(23)

Where

B c

6

( xi x )

i 1

n 1

S C4

3 1 c4

4

SD of S 1 c4

B5 c 4 3 1 c 4

UC Ls B6

( 24)

UCL A

C Ls c4

(25)

LC Ls B5

(26)

UCL A

Dr.Gere K

20

UC Ls S

3S

1 C4

(27)

C Ls S

(28)

LC Ls S

3S

1 C4

(29)

Where

B

B

1

1

1 C4

1 C4

C

The control limits can then be written as

3

UC Ls B4 S

(30)

C Ls S

(31)

LC Ls B3 S

(32)

UCL X A3 S

UCL X A3 S

Dr.Gere K

21

Standard is

given

Standard is given

Dr.Gere K

22

charts

Even

though, no points are above and below the control limits the process can be

said out-of-control by looking on the unnatural patterns produced by special causes.

Some of the patterns that are frequently seen are:

Cycles

Cycles are short trends in the data that occur in repeated patterns. Causes of cycles

on the X-bar chart include temperature and humidity changes, operator fatigue,

rotation of operators and electrical fluctuations. While, operators fatigue, shift (day

or night) and worn tools or dies are for the R chart. An example of a cycle is shown

in Fig. A

Mixture

In a mixture pattern, the points tend to fall near the UCL and LCL with an absence

of fluctuations near the middle. On the X-bar chart, mixtures can occur with over

control. Where as, difference in materials and measuring equipment can cause a

mixture on the R chart.

Dr.Gere K

23

Stratification

Stratification is characterized by artificial constancy. Instead of fluctuating naturally

inside limits, the points are very close to the CL. On the X-bar chart, this can be

caused by incorrect calculation of the control limits. The pattern may occur on the R

chart when the sampling process collects one unit from each of several underlying

distributions. If the largest and smallest unit in each sample are similar, unnaturally

small fluctuations will result.

Sudden Shift

A sudden shift in level is shown by an instantaneous change in one direction or the

other. On X-bar chart. On X-bar chart, a sudden shift could be caused by change to a

new type of material, new operator, new inspector, new machines and so on. On the

R chart, change in motivation of the operators, new operators and new equipment

are few of the many causes of a sudden shift.

Dr.Gere K

24

Trend

A trend is shown by a continuous movement in one direction.

On the X-bar chart, a trend is caused due to gradual

deterioration of equipment, worker fatigue and

accumulation of waste products.

On the R chart, improvement or deterioration of operators

skill work fatigue and gradual change in homogeneity of

incoming quality are come of the causes.

Interpreting unnatural patterns is a challenge for quality control personnel.

Some of the major problems associated with the analysis of control chart

patterns can be summarized as follows.

the random noise might contaminate the present pattern, the effect may

change with the magnitude of the unnatural pattern.

a pattern may sometimes resemble other patterns. For instance, a short trend

may be a subset of other patterns.

the problem is much more complicated if there is more than one pattern of

interest, or if the signal-to-noise ratio is low.

Dr.Gere K

25

process control. Over the years, the zone test or run tests have

been the major tool for interpreting control charts.

Although the zone tests or run tests have been proven to be effective in

detecting out-of-control situations the interpretation of process data is

still a very difficult task.

The major difficulty lies in the fact that there is no one-to-one mapping

between a supplementary rule and an unnatural pattern. In practice, the

types of unnatural patterns that a process may experience are not

known in advance.

Dr.Gere K

26

particular rule. For instance, the possible patterns

associated with the rule eight points in row on

both sides of the centerline with none in zone C

suggested by Nelson (1985), could be a mixture

or a systematic variation. These tests might

indicate that an unnatural pattern is present,

but do not explicitly indicate which pattern

really occurs. In addition, some of the supplementary

rule results in more false alarms without significantly

improving the performance of control charts. A typical

example is the commonly used trend rule. Davis and

Woodall (1988) evaluated the trend rule and concluded

that the trend rule is not effective in detecting a

linear trend. The limitations of supplementary tests

have motivated interests in developing algorithms

K

27

based neural Dr.Gere

networks

for process data analysis.

Dr.Gere K

28

PAT 1: One point plots beyond zone A on either side of the mean.

PAT 2: Nine points in a row plot on the same side of the mean.

PAT 3: Six consecutive points are strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.

PAT 4: Fourteen consecutive points which alternate up and down.

PAT 5: Two out of three consecutive points plot in zone A or beyond, and all three

points plot on the same side of the mean.

PAT 6: Four out of five consecutive points plot in zone B or beyond, and all five

points plot on the same side of the mean.

PAT 7: Fifteen consecutive points plot in zones C, spanning both sides of the

mean.

PAT 8: Eight consecutive points plot at more than one standard deviation away

from the mean with some smaller than the mean and

Dr.Gere K

29

Dr.Gere K

30

Process capability

Process capability compares the output of an in-control process to the specification

limits by using capability indices. The comparison is made by forming the ratio of

the spread between the process specifications (the specification "width") to the

spread of the process values, as measured by 6 process standard deviation units (the

process "width").

Process Capability Indices

We are often required to compare the output of a stable process with the process

specifications and make a statement about how well the process meets

specification. To do this we compare the natural variability of a stable process with

the process specification limits.

A capable process is one where almost all the measurements fall inside the

specification limits. This can be represented pictorially by the plot below:

Dr.Gere K

31

There are several statistics that can be used to measure the capability of a process:

Cp, Cpk, Cpm. Most capability indices estimates are valid only if the sample size used

is 'large enough'. Large enough is generally thought to be about 50 independent data

values.

The Cp, Cpk, and Cpm statistics assume that the population of data values is normally

distributed. Assuming a two-sided specification, if and are the mean and standard

deviation, respectively, of the normal data and USL, LSL, and T are the upper and

lower specification limits and the target value, respectively, then the population

capability indices are defined as follows:

Dr.Gere K

32

capability indices:

process widths, consider the following plot

Dr.Gere K

33

Example

The design specifications for component are 100

0.5.

Whereas the process report shows that process average is

99.9mm and standard deviation is 0.18. Do these figures

call for any action by any one?

Solution

USL = 100.5 mm

LSL = 99.5mm

X-bar = 99.9mm

= 0.18

Cp = 1/6

= 0.925

Defective products will always be there. It is

therefore necessary to take action to

reduce the number of defectives produced.

Dr.Gere K

34

Ranges

Many organizations are involved in continuous processes, such as manufacturing

steel, aluminum, paint, oil or chemicals. In such cases it is recognized that the ( , R)

charts is inappropriate. So, in continuous processes extensive use is made of moving

average charts.

UCL X 3

LCL X 3

UCL D4 MR

MR

MR

d

U=34.8

CL=33.52

L=32.24

2

LCL D3 MR

UCL = 1.57

CL= 0.48

LCL = 0

Example

The viscosity of an aircraft primer paint is an important quality characteristic. The product is

produced in batches and as each batch takes several hours to produce, the production rate is too

slow to allow sample sizes greater than one. The viscosity of the previous 15 batches is given

below

Dr.Gere K

35

Paint

Moving Range

Batch # Viscosity (x) (MR)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

33.75

33.05

34.00

33.81

33.46

33.02

33.68

33.27

33.49

33.20

33.62

33.00

33.54

33.12

33.84

0.70

0.95

0.19

0.35

0.56

0.34

0.41

0.22

0.29

0.42

0.62

0.54

0.42

0.72

33.46

0.48

Dr.Gere K

36

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