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# Inflow Performance

Instructional Objectives
Calculate the IPR for oil wells
Calculate the IPR for gas wells

Reservoir Capabilities
Darcys Law
Liquid flow in Laminar Flow through
a permeable medium is described by
Darcys Law

7.08 X 10 k h p p wf
q

re
0.75 s
o Bo ln

r
w

Reservoir Capabilities
s = Skin Factor (dimensionless)

ra

s
1 ln
rw
ka

Productivity Index
A common indicator of liquid reservoir
behavior is PI or productivity index
Referred to as J in SPE
nomenclature

q
STB / D / psi
J
p p wf

## Productivity Index in Terms

of Darcys Law
3

7.08 X 10 k h
J

re
0.75
o Bo ln
rw

Calculating Flowrate
Using PI, we can calculate flowrate, q,
quickly and easily from

q J (p p wf )

Exercise 1
Given reservoir parameters:
k
= 30 md
h
= 40 ft
o
= 0.5 cp
Bo

= 1.2 RB/STB

## hole size = 8 inches

s
=0

Exercise 1
Calculate:
J for re = 1,000 ft
q for a drawdown (p p wf) of 750 psi
q for a drawdown of 1,000 psi
With p = 3,000 psia, calculate q for a
complete drawdown (absolute open
flow potential).

Multiphase Flow
Bubblepoint pressure (pb)
Pressure at which first bubble of gas
is released from reservoir oils

Multiphase Flow
Vogels Behavior
IPR Curve - Vogel plotted the data
using the following dimensionless
variables

p wf
p

and

q
qmax

Vogel Curve
1

0.8

pwf/pr

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

q/qmax

0.8

Multiphase Flow
Mathematical model for Vogels curve

pwf

1 0.2
qmax
p

pwf
0.8

Multiphase Flow
Mathematical relationship between
Vogel (qmax) and Darcy (AOF)

AOF J p
qmax

1 .8
1 .8

## Finding Vogel qmax

1

0.8

pwf/pr

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

q/qmax

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Exercise 2
Reservoir parameters:

p = 2,350 psia

= 140 md

= 35 ft

o = 0.8 cp
Bo = 1.25 rbbl/STB
re

= 2,000 ft

rw

= 0.411 ft

pb = 3,000 psia
s

= 2

Exercise 2
Calculate J
Calculate qmax
Construct IPR curve

Multiphase Flow
Combination Darcy/Vogel
p

Co
ns
ta
nt
J

Pressure

pb
Vo
ge
l

pwf

Be
ha
vi
or

J pb
qb

qmax

1.8

O
O

Rate

Multiphase Flow
How to find qmax:
for q qb , Darcy' s law applies : q J p p wf

for q qb then :

p wf
p
wf

q qb qmax qb 1 0.2
0.8
pb

pb

J pb
qmax qb
1.8

Gas Reservoirs
The behavior of gas flowing in
laminar flow through a porous
medium (Darcys Law)

7.03X10 4 k h p 2 p2wf
q

re
0.75 s
g T z ln
rw

4000

pwfs, psia

3000

2000

1000

0
0

2000

4000

6000

q, Mscf/day

8000

10000

12000

## Using the Real Gas

Pseudopressure (pp (p))

7.03 x 10 4 kh pp p pp p wf
q

re
0.75 s
T ln
rw

and
p

p
pp p 2
dp
p z
o

Exercise 3
Plot the IPR Curve
Given the following data and using the
pressure squared relationship:
k = 100 md
h = 20 ft
re = 1,500 ft
rw = 0.33 ft
s

= 0

= g0.02 cp

T
=z
=p
g

= 610R
0.9
4,000 psig
= 0.65

## IPR in Gas Reservoirs

Jones Gas IPR
Problem Darcys law valid for laminar flow
only
High permeability gas wells
produce in turbulent flow near the
wellbore
2
2
2
p p wf aq bq

Definitions

re
0.75
1.424 x10 g z T ln

rw

kh
3

3.16 x10 12 g T z

hp2 rw

Determination of h

hp
h
hp

## Solving Jones Equation

The flow rate is:

a a 4b p
2b

2
p wf

## Solving Jones Equation

The value of the AOF is then given by:

a a 4bp
AOF
2b

## Solving Jones Equation

Solve for the well flowing pressure:

p wf p b q a q

Exercise 4
Calculate the IPR curve for
hp = 20 ft and
hp = 10 ft with the data in notes
Calculate the IPR using Darcys law
only
Compare the three IPR curves

## Transient IPR Curves

Assumptions
Darcys and Jones laws assume that the
average pressure
is constant
p
Drainage radius, re, is constant and that
These assumptions are true in pseudosteady state only, i.e. when all of the outer
boundaries of the reservoir are reached.

## Transient IPR Curves

The time to reach pseudo-steady state
(pss), tstab, can be calculated with the
following equation

948 c t re
t stab
k

Exercise 5
Oil Well Stabilization Time
Find tstab with the following data
= 0.1
o = 0.5 cp
ct
re

= 2 X 10-5 psi-1
= 1,500 ft

## For the following values of k:

0.1 md, 1.0 md, 10 md, and 100 md

Exercise 6
Gas Well Stabilization Time
Find tstab with the following data
= 0.1
g = 0.02 cp
ct
re

= 2 X 10-4 psi-1
= 1,500 ft

## For the following values of k:

0.1 md, 1.0 md, 10 md, and 100 md

Transient Flow
pwf
p

t1
t2
tstab

t3

## Transient IPR Curves

Transient Flow Equation
for oil wells
k h p p wf
q
o

kt

3.23 0.87 s
162.6o Bo log
c r2

o t w

qg

1638g T z

k h p 2 p2wf

k
t
3.23 0.87 s
log

c r2
g t w

References