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Basic Knowledge of Engine

based on the textbook


Truck Technology: The Facts You Need ()-Engine-

for Indonesia KTB Area Coordinators


27 February 2006 @ KTB
Jakarta

Self-introduction

TAJIMA TAKASHI
(Family name First name)
MITSUBISHI FUSO TRUCK & BUS CORPORATION
REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE in Singapore

Major in University

Metallurgy

Career in Mitsubishi FUSO

1987 Join Mitsubishi Motors


Chassis design for Special purpose truck
1991 Chassis design for Heavy duty truck
1993 Product development for Domestic market
1996 Product development for Export market
2003 REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE in Singapore

Rep office member

General schedule
No.

Item

Contents
Application & Classification
Dimension
Weight
Basic
Running Performance
Fuel consumption
Exhaust emission
Basic
Engine Structure
Others
Clutch
Transmission
Reduction
Steering
Chassis
Brake
Tire
Suspension
Battery
Weight Calculation
Cargo
Crane
Rear Body
Van
Dump
Others

Textbook
(1) MITSUBISHI
TRUCK MANUAL
(2) Engine
(3) Chassis
(4) Rear Body

Pages
P1 P37

Video
-

P1 P13
P1 P4
P1 P5

0 6min
0 6min

(1) Engine

All

(2) Chassis

Instructor

Duration

Tajima

30 Jan 2005
(Finished)

Tajima

27 Feb 2006

P5 P33

Yamamoto 29 Mar 2006

(3) Rear Body

P6 P65
Yabe

27 Apr 2006

Contents
1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

1-1. Indonesia current engine line-up


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Engine model coding system [Text p10]


Digits

4 D 3 4 Number
of

Meaning

Engine

cylinders

2 A T 8

Sequence in

Sequence

development

in

by series

remodeling

Use

Aspi-

Vari-

ration

ation

D:

A:

T:

Diesel

Auto-

With

engine

mobile

turbocharger

Indonesia current engine line-up [Text p10]


Output
Torque
PS / rpm kgfm/rpm

Engine

bore x
stroke
[mm]

Piston Compdisplace- ression


ment[cc] ratio

Mounted on

4D31- 0A

100/3,500 24/2,200 100x105

3,298

17.5

FE304/304BC
FE334/334HD

4D34- 0A

115/3,200
(Catalogue 28/1,800 104x115
:120PS)

3,907

17.5

FE349/349HD

4D33- 4A

130/3,200
(Catalogue 31/1,800 108x115
:135PS)

4,214

18.0

FE347
FE447/447F

6D16- 1A

190/2,900 53/1,400 118x115

7,545

18.0

FM517H/H2
FN517M/ML

16.0

FM517H3/L2
FN527M2/M2L
FN527M3/M3L

6D16- 1AT 220/2,800 65/1,400 118x115

7,545

1-2. Classification of engine


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Cylinder layout [Text p10]

Colt diesel
Straight
4 cylinder

Straight

(6 cylinder)
Straight

FUSO class

Horizontal (6 cylinder)

V (8 cylinder)

Boxer (4 cylinder)

Combustion chamber [Text p18]

All MFTBC engine


for KTB

Classification of combustion chamber [Text p19]

Classification of Valve mechanism [Text p21]


Rocker arm
Push
rod

Camshaft
Valve

Valve

Tappet

Cylinder
head

Camshaft

Piston

OHV

Camshaft

Rocker arm

Tappet
Valve

Piston

Cylinder
head

Piston

OHC

DOHC

All MFTBC
engine
for KTB
6M60T2 (4valve)

4M50T3 (4valve)

1-3. Performance & Dimension


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

(Review) Drive line components [Text p8~9]

Drive line components specifications


determines the vehicle running performance.
MFTBC R&D division
27 February 2006 @ KTB Jakarta

page 17

(Review) Engine Performance Curves [Text p11]


Output Curve

Torque Curve

Brake Specific Fuel


Consumption Curve
Fuel consumption
of engine unit

Conversion between SI & current units [Text p11]

[PRACTICE] Conversion of output & torque [Text p11]

Convert FE349 engine output &torque to SI.


Refer spec comparison table
Round off the figures after the decimal
fractions.
How about DYNA 125LT?

Compression Ratio [Text p15]

Piston displacement [Text p20]

[PRACTICE] Piston displacement [Text p20]

Calculate 4D34-2AT5 piston displacement.


Bore x Stroke : 104mm x 115mm
1st digit of MFTBC engine model name shows
number of cylinder.
How about 6D16-3AT2 (118mm x 115mm)?

1-4. Stroke cycle


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Intake

Compression

Combustion

Volume

Exhaust

BDC

TDC

Pressure
Volume

BDC

Ignition

TDC

Pressure
Volume

BDC

TDC

Volume

BDC

TDC

Pressure

Pressure

Theoretical 4 Stroke cycle (Savathe cycle) [Text p14~15]

Actual & theoretical 4 Stroke cycle [Text p14~15]


Theoretical cycle

Volume

BDC

Ignition

TDC

Volume

BDC

TDC

Pressure

Pressure

Actual cycle

1-5. Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

[PRACTICE] Whats the difference? [Text p14~15]

Whats the difference between diesel & gasoline


engine?

Comparison between Gasoline & Diesel [Text p14~15]

Merits & demerits of Diesel engine [Text p14~15]

Structure of Diesel & Gasoline [Text p14~15]


Diesel engine

Gasoline engine

4 Stroke cycle of Diesel & Gasoline [Text p14~15]

Diesel
engine

Gasoline
engine

Intake

Compression

Combustion

Exhaust

Theoretical cycle of Diesel & Gasoline [Text p12]

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

: Ignition

Volume

Otto cycle
Gasoline engine

Volume

Diesel cycle

Volume

Savathe cycle
Current Diesel engine

Combustion condition of diesel engine [Text p18]


Immediate
combustion

Rapid
combustion

End of
injection

Pressure

Start of
injection

ion
ns
pa
Ex

Ignition
delay

Ignition

C
om
pr
es
si
on

(kg/cm2)

Combustion

Injection
In case of
no ignition

Top dead center


Crank rotation angle

Diesel knock [Text p18]


When combustion pressure in a cylinder rises abnormally, it creates a
shockwave that severely vibrates engine, resulting in a knocking noise.
Measures to prevent diesel knock include improvements in fuel ignitability,
shapes of combustion chambers, and injection systems.
Possible causes
1. Intake air
temperature too low
2. Injection timing too
early
3. Compression
pressure too low
4. Fuel ignitability low
(Use fuel with
Cetane number of
50 or more.)

Gasoline knock [Text p18]

Coffee break
Diesel & Gasoline engine inventors [Text p15]
Diesel engine
invented in 1897

Gasoline engine
invented in 1885

Rudolf Diesel
1858 - 1913

Gottlieb Daimler
1834 - 1900

2-1. General system of engine


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Intake & exhaust system [Text p22]


Exhaust system

Exhaust
pipe
Exhaust
manifold

Muffler
Air cleaner
Intake system
Inlet manifold

Fuel, cooling, & electrical system [Text p22]

2-2. Main body


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Main body structure [Text p20]

Cylinder head

Cylinder liner
Cylinder

Crankcase
(cylinder
block)
Flywheel
Oil pan

Crankshaft

Piston

Piston
rings
Connecting
rod

2-3. Lubrication
1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Engine oil flow in lubrication system [Text p32]


Engine oil is necessary for lubricating moving parts
& prevents wear or seizing.

Lubrication of piston & cylinder wall [Text p32]


Engine oil has lubricating, cooling & cleansing function.

Oil cooler [Text p35]


Engine oil must be cooled to keep its lubricating performance.
(Engine oil deteriorates by being heated.)

Oil filter [Text p32]


Replacement interval

4D3 series 6D1 series


1st
replacement

5,000km

4,000km

2nd & after

every
10,000km

every
16,000km

2-4. Cooling system


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Cooling system [Text p34]


Hot coolant is cooled by radiator before further recirculation

Cooling device [Text p34~35]

Thermostat

Radiator

Cooling fan

Water pump

4D3 series
6D1 series
Auto
4D33
6D16T
cool 4D34T(EURO2) 6D16T(EURO2)
4D31
Rigid
6D16
4D34

Replacing coolant [Text p34~35]


4D3 series
every 50,000km
or 2 years

6D1 series
every 2 years

To prevent freezing and corrosion in


the cooling system, be sure to add
FUSO DIESEL LONG LIFE COOLANT
(Ethylene glycol base antifreeze SAE
J814-C) mixed with water
Water to use
Use soft water having the properties listed
below. Do not use hard water taken from a
well or river as it causes scale and rust.

Total hardness
Sulfate SO4
Chloride Cl
Total dissolved solids
PH

300ppm or below
100ppm or below
100ppm or below
500ppm or below
6 to 8

2-5. Fuel system


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Basic fuel supply path [Text p25]

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Water separator

Injection pump [Text p25]


Governor
Pump main
body

Fuel feed pump

Timer

for 6 cylinder engine

Structure of fuel injection pump [Text p25]

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Pump element [Text p26]

(In-out port)

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

To pressurize fuel
before delivery to
injection nozzles

Plunger operation [Text p26]

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Control of fuel delivery quantity [Text p26]

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Effective stroke [Text p26]

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Partial load

Governor [Text p28]


A device that automatically controls the fuel injection amount to
stabilize the engine speed
Operating principle
Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Revolution

Centrifugal
force

Basic structure of governor [Text p28]


Injection
decrease

Floating
lever

Control
rack

Control
lever
Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Camshaft

Accelerator
pedal

Flyweight
Sliding
bolt

Flyweight working mechanism [Text p28]

Increase

Control
rack

Decrease

Floating
lever

Spring
expansion

Decrease Increase

Camshaft

Governor spring
Flyweight
Flyweight lift

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Classification of governor [Text p28]


Low idle
control
Increase

Controlled
by accelerator

High idle
control

Minimummaximum
speed governor
(2-speed governor)
Mechanical
governor

Control rack position


(injection amount)

Full accelerator

Starting

Increase

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & High
CO2
Pump rotation speed
Idling

Full load control

All speed governor


All MFTBC
engine
for KTB

Control rack position


(injection amount)

High idle control

Partial load control

Low idle control Pump rotation speed

High

Structure of all speed governor [Text p28]


Adaptor screw
Control rack

Stop lever

Full load stopper


Stop cam
Floating arm
Control lever
Damper
spring
Return spring
Cam plate

Start spring

Floating lever

Flyweight holder
Adjusting lever shaft
Flyweight

Supporting lever

(Automatic) Timer [Text p28]


A device that automatically controls the fuel injection timing
Drives camshaft
of injection pump

Driven by engine

Operation of Automatic timer [Text p28]


Timer advances injection timing as the engine speed increases.

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Fuel feed pump [Text p25]

Priming pump

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Outlet
Gauze filter
Outlet

Inlet

Inlet

Operation of Fuel feed pump [Text p25]


Preparation

Suction / ejection

Pausing

Cam
Pressure chamber
Piston
Spring

Inlet valve
Outlet valve
Suction chamber

Reduction of PM
High fuel pressure
by converting to
water & CO2

Cleaning feed pump gauze filter [Text p25]

Remove the eyebolt 1 from the suction port side of the fuel feed pump.
Remove the gauze filter 2 from the eyebolt 1.
Clean the gauze filter 2.
Refit the gauze filter 2 and eyebolt 1 in the opposite order to their removal.
Bleed all air out of the fuel system.
Start the engine and check for fuel leaks.

Construction of nozzle & nozzle holder [Text p25~26]

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Construction & operation of nozzle [Text p25~26]


for
Swirl chamber
engine

for Direct injection engine

Variation of Hole type nozzle [Text p25~26]

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

All MFTBC
engine
for KTB

Water separator [Text p25]


Inspection interval : every week
Check the condensate level in
the water separator by
examining the level of the
float . If it has risen to the
red line , drain the
Reduction of PM
condensate. by converting to
To remove, proceed
as follows.
water
& CO2
1) Loosen the plug to
discharge the condensate.
2) After the float has come
down, tighten the plug.
3) Wipe & clean the water
separator and surrounding
parts.
4) Check for fuel leaks.

Structure of fuel filter [Text p25]


for 4D33
Fuel filter head

eed
f
m
Fro ump
p

Fuel filter element

To

io
t
c
inje

um
p
n

Replacing fuel filter element [Text p25]


Replacement interval
4D3 series 6D1 series
every
every
25,000km 48,000km

1) Remove the element assembly by turning it


counterclockwise.
lf the assembly is hard to turn, use filter wrench.
2) To install a new element, apply a light coat of engine
oil to the gasket of the element assembly and
screw the assembly into the filter head . After the
gasket has come into contact with the filter head,
screw in the assembly three quarters to one turn
more for a tight fit.
3) After opening the air plug , operate the fuel feed
pump to feed fuel. Bleed air from the fuel system.
4) Wipe clean any fuel spilt on engine parts.
5) Start the engine and check for fuel leaks.
CAUTION
Wipe clean spilt diesel fuel, as it could start a fire.

Air bleeding (running out of gas) [Text p25]

Priming
pump

When the vehicle runs out of fuel,


air becomes trapped in the fuel
system and the engine cannot
be started only by refueling.
Perform the following
procedures to bleed air from the
system.
Reduction of PM
1. Loosen the priming
to
bypump
converting
water
& COby
of the fuel injection
pump
2
turning it counterclockwise.
2. Loosen air plug of the fuel
filter .
3. Move the priming pump up
and down by hand to feed fuel
until no air bubbles come out
from the air plug . During the
procedure, keep the air plug
covered with cloth.

Air bleeding (running out of gas) [Text p25]

4D31 / 4D34 engine

When the vehicle runs out of fuel,


air becomes trapped in the fuel
system and the engine cannot
be started only by refueling.
Perform the following
procedures to bleed air from the
system.
Reduction of PM
1. Loosen the priming
to
bypump
converting
water
& COby
of the fuel injection
pump
2
turning it counterclockwise.
2. Loosen air plug of the fuel
filter .
3. Move the priming pump up
and down by hand to feed fuel
until no air bubbles come out
from the air plug . During the
procedure, keep the air plug
covered with cloth.

2-6. Intake & exhaust


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Intake air & exhaust gas flow [Text p23 & 30]

Forced
induction

Air cleaner element (Colt Diesel) [Text p23]


Cleaning intervals
Replacement intervals

Every 5,000km
Every 40,000km

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2
1 ) Loosen the three hook bolt wing nuts and remove the dust pan .
2 ) Remove the wing bolt tightening the element and withdraw the element .
3 ) Clean the element by blowing air from the inside or by tapping it to loosen dust.
Avoid applying excessive air pressure. Do not strike the element hard or hit it badly against
other object.
4 ) Remove the cover from the dust pan and clean dust collected in the dust pan. Clean the
inside of air cleaner case, too
5 ) Install by reversing order of the steps used for removal, making sure that arrow marks on the
case and dust pan are aligned.

Air cleaner element (FUSO class) [Text p23]


Check the dust indicator once a week.
When the red mark appears at the window ,
the air cleaner element is clogged. Clean the element
regardless of the distance driven.
After cleaning, press the reset button to reset the red mark.

Dry paper
single element

Cleaning intervals
(for outer element only)
Replacement intervals

1st 4,000km
Every 12,000km
Every 48,000km

Remove wing nut and draw the element straight out.


Clean the element.
Reinstall the element by reversing the above procedure.

Dry paper dual element

Do not remove the inner element unless it is to be replaced.


It must be replaced simultaneously with the outer element.
CAUTION!
The element will not function properly if not installed
securely, causing dust, etc. to be drawn into the engine .

Air cleaner element (FUSO class) [Text p23]


Cleaning a paper element
1 . Blow clean compressed air evenly up and down
from inside the element to remove the dust.
Do not strike the element or hit it against another
object. Make sure that the pressure of the
compressed air used for cleaning does not exceed
7 kgf/cm2 ( 685 kPa )
2 If the element is contaminated with oil smoke , soot
or oil dust, replace the element regardless of the
distance driven.
Checks to make after cleaning
Check the filter paper for damage, pinholes and thin
portions. If a defective portion or broken packing is
evident, replace the element with a new one.

Turbocharger [Text p23]

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Intercooler [Text p24]


led
o
Co

Intercooler increases
the airs density for
effective forced
induction.

air

Ho

ir
a
t
Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Used together

Exhaust brake [Text p31]


A device that uses exhaust gases to boost the engine brake effect
All MFTBC engine
for KTB

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Service brake ineffectiveness [Text p31]


On long downhill roads, use both the engine braking &
exhaust brake to prevent service brake ineffectiveness
such as,
Brake fade : Decrease of brake lining friction by overheating
Vapor locking : Boiling of the brake fluid in the brake
fluid of PM
Reduction
hydraulic circuit.

by converting to
water & CO2

2-7. Electrical system


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Electricity supply & starting system [Text p36]


Alternator charges batteries & generates electricity as engine runs.

3-1. Fuel & Engine oil


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Comparison of fuel [Text p16]


Flash point
Ignition point

Gasoline
40 to 20
Approx. 300

Color

Orange~Pink

Specific weight
0.75
Calorific value
10,30011,000
[kCal/kg]

Kerosene
40 over
Approx. 250
Colorless
Transparent
0.8

Diesel fuel
50 to 70
Approx. 250

10,000

10,000

Pale yellow
0.85

Flash point:
the lowest temperature at which fuel catches fire
when brought near source (fire, static electricity, and so on)
Ignition point:
the lowest temperature at which fuel spontaneously ignites
as a result of its own heat

Classification of fuel [Text p16]

Distillation temperature ()

Cooling tower
LPG
Refinery gas
Gasoline
Naphtha

Aviation
turbine
fuel
Diesel fuel

Heavy oil

Diesel fuel

Kerosene

Tray
LP gas

Gasoline

Kerosene

(Liquefied petroleum gas)

Pressurized
petroleum

Liquefie
d
Liquid
surface
Oil vapor

Distilled volume (%)

Petroleum distillation curve

Vapor
Heavy oil

Indonesian diesel fuel [Text p16]


Density at 15 g/cm3
Cetane Index
Cetane Number
Viscosity 40 mm2/s
Flash Point
Lubricity HFRR m
Sulfur ppm
10%Carbon Residue wt%
Appearance
Water mg/kg
Oxidation Stability g/m3
Copper Corrosion
Particulates mg/L
TANTotal Acid Number mg KOH/gr
Ash content wt%

Pertamina DEX
(EURO2)
0.820- 0.850
50 min.
53 min.
2.0 4.0
55 min
400 max
300 max
0.30 max
Clear Bright
200 max
25 max
Class 1
10 max
0.08 max
0.01 max.

Specification based on :
(Ministry Decree or Pertamina Letter)

Pertamina Presentation
11Aug 2005

itemsunit

Released to the market (the latest spec)

Aug 2005

Solar
(Non- EURO)
0.815 0.870
45 min
48 min
1.6 5.8(at 100oF)
65.5 min
5,000 max
0.10 max
500 max
Class 1
0.6max
0.01 max
Vice Ministry Oil & Natural Gas
No.113.K/72/DDJ M/1999
27 October 1999
Oct 1999

Cetane number (Diesel fuel) [Text p16]


The higher the cetane number, the less likely the diesel fuel is to knock. The
ignition quality (ignition lag) is expressed by the cetane number. The normal
cetane (C6H34) which has the shortest ignition lag is assigned a cetane number
of 100, whereas the alpha-methylnapthalene (C 11H10) with the longest ignition
lag, is assigened a cetane number of 0.
The cetane number is defined as the percentage by volume of the normal cetane
in a blend with alpha-methylnapthalene. The cetane number of a diesel fuel is
determined by comparing its ignition quality, as measured by using a CFR
(variable compression ratio) test engine, to the normal cetane and alphamethylnapthalene blend with the same ignition quality as the test fuel; that is,
the percentage of the normal cetane contained in the blend becomes the
cetane number of the test fuel. The cetane numbers of diesel fuels currently
available on the market range from 45 to 50.

Octane number (Gasoline) [Text p16]


A number that indicates the antiknock quality of a gasoline.
To determine the octane number of a gasoline the test results of that gasoline are
compared with the quality of a standard fuel which is a blend of isooctane
(assigned an octane number of 100) and normal heptane (assigned an octane
number of 0).

Engine oil (Viscosity categories) [Text p33]

stronger

Oil film

weaker

Engine oil (Performance classifications) [Text p33]

for Turbo
engine

for all MFTBC engine

4D3 series 6D1 series


Inspection &
Pre-operational
replenishment
check
every
every
replacement
5,000km
8,000km

3-2. Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up [tentative]


Engine

EURO2
Output
PS

rpm

Torque

Engine

kgfm

rpm

1 4D34- 2AT5 110 2,900

28

1,600

4D31- 0A

2 4D34- 2AT8 125 2,900

33

1,600

3 4D34- 2AT7 136 2,900

38

1,600

6D16- 3AT2 220 2,800


5

65

Current model (Non- EURO)


Output
Torque
PS

rpm

kgfm

rpm

100 3,500

24

2,200

4D34- 0A

115 3,200

28

1,800

4D33- 4A

130 3,200

31

1,800

6D16- 1A

190 2,900

53

1,400

6D16- 1AT 220 2,800

65

1,400

1,400

KTB
Pet Name
FE304
FE304BC
FE334
FE334HD
FE349
FE349HD
FE347
FE447
FE447F
FM517H
FM517H2
FN517M
FN517ML
FM517H3
FM517L2
FN527M2
FN527M3
FN527M3L
FN527M2L

3-3. Exhaust emission reduction


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

Exhaust gas generation mechanism [Text p17]


Blow-by gas
The compressed
air-fuel mixture
or the burned
gases leaking
from the
combustion
chamber past
the piston rings
and into the
crankcase. Most
of it is the
unburned fuel
(HC) with the
remainder
burned gases.

Blow-by gas
HC

Exhaust gas
CO HC
NOx PM
Black

CO: C+022CO (imperfect combustion)


smoke
Diesel engine exhausts few CO.
HC: unburned fuel
NOx: N2+O2 2NO 2NO+O2 2NO2
(generated @ high temperature)
PM: Particulate matter (unburned fuel & oil + soot mixture)
Black smoke: Separated soot (originally carbon in fuel)

Toxic substances in exhaust gas [Text p17]


CO (carbon monoxide) : Toxicity for the human body is extremely high.
HC (hydrocarbon) :
* Ultraviolet rays in sunlight changes HC to photochemical oxidant
which causes photochemical smog.
* Stimulation to mucous membranes such as respiratory organs
* Bad influence to farm products.
NOx (nitrogen oxides) :
*A small amount of nitrogen oxides helps growth of a plant.
*If its density is high, it causes air pollution, photochemical smog, acid rain.
SPM (suspended particulate matter) :
*Particulate matters (PM) equal to or less than a diameter of 10m
that are harmful to the human body.
*SPM which reached an alveolus cannot drained outside the body.
*It is thought to be a cause of lung cancer.
CO2 (Carbon dioxide) :
*Carbon dioxide of the low density is essential to breathing and is not harmful.
*It is thought to be a cause of global warming.
SOx (Sulfur oxides, mainly sulfur dioxide SO2 and sulfur trioxide SO3) :
*Generated by the combustion of insufficiently refined fuel includes sulfur.
*One of the causes of air pollution and acid rain

(Review) Reduction of toxic substance [Text p17]

Combustion temperature excessively high

Combustion temperature excessively low

(Review) Exhaust Emission Regulations [Text p17]


Indonesia EURO2 : Jan 2007 ~

EURO2

(particulate
matter)

0.15

(nitrogen oxides)

EURO2 testing method (GVW over 3.5ton) [Text p17]


Test cycle : Steady 13 mode

Revolution

Load

Hot start
Time [min]

Testing time : 78min

Overview of Full Dilution Tunnel System [Text p17]

(Review) Improvement of fuel injection pump [Text p17]

(Review) Turbocharger [Text p17]

(Review) Intercooler [Text p17]

Coffee break
High pressure injection cuts PM generation [Text p29]

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Coffee break
Environmental measures in future (Image) [Text p29]

Importance

Atmosphere environment
measures

Anti-global warming
measures

Petroleum independence
measures

Reduction of PM
by converting to
water & CO2

Year

3-4. Introduction of low emission vehicle


1
2
1
Basic
3
4
5
1
2
3
2 Structure 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 Others
3
4

Indonesia current engine line-up


Classification of engine
Performance & dimension
Stroke cycle
Comparison between Diesel & Gasoline
General system of engine
Main body
Lubrication
Cooling system
Fuel system
Intake & exhaust
Electrical system
Fuel & engine oil
Indonesia EURO2 engine line-up
Exhaust emission reduction
Introduction of low emission vehicle

CANTER & GUTS CNG [Text p37]


CNG : Compressed Natural Gas
Three way catalyst
combined muffler
Fuel filler

CNG tank
After muffler

CANTER & GUTS LPG [Text p37]


LPG : Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LPG tank
Fuel filler

Three way catalyst


combined muffler
After muffler (only for long body)

AERO NONSTEP HEV [Text p37]


Starting & low speed driving

Battery

Inverter

Motor

Engine

Acceleration & hill-climbing

Electronic controller
Inverter
Diesel engine
Generator
Propulsion motor
Accessory drive motor
Lithium-Ion battery
Fuel tank

Braking

Terima Kasih!