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By
Gladson M.
Robin
Final BHMS

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EMOTIONS
Definition:
Emotion is a strong feeling of
the whole organism which
motivates
Human behavior

EMOTION IS CHARACTERIZED BY
External changes & Internal changes
External changes can be easily seen by
others such as-facial expression, changes in
posture, etc.
By reading the facial expression one can easily
find if a person is angry, happy, depressed or
elevated

Internal changes takes place inside


our body and is not visible outside.
Some of which are rapid pulse,
respiration, increased blood pressure,
tension, etc.
These changes are temporary and
subside when the person becomes
normal

Some of the Major


Joy
Emotions:

r
Fea
r
e
g
n
A
e
Lov
e
t
a
H

sy
u
o
l
Jea
s
s
e
n
i
d
o
o
M

Sorr
ow
S ym
pathy
Pity
Lust
Grie
f

SCIENTISTS PROVED THAT EMOTIONS CAN BE A MAJOR BARRIER TO


COMMUNICATION.

A DOCTOR
EMOTIONS

SHOULD BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE


OF THE PATIENTS.

ONCE THE EMOTIONAL BARRIERS ARE BROKEN


THEN THE PATIENT WILL BE FREE TO TALK
EVERYTHING ABOUT HIM.
THE DESIRABLE QUALITIES OF A DOCTOR ARE
CHEERFULNESS AND AN EVEN TEMPERAMENT.
MOODINESS, EMOTIONAL INSTABILITY AND
GETTING EASILY UPSET ARE ALL UNDESIRABLE
QUALITIES.

Some specific emotions:


FEAR: -most common
-produces excitement or depression
-flight or fight
Common fears of man are fear of
-dark
-dogs
-snakes
-ghosts
-sickness
-death

When the fear becomes exaggerated or unnecessary, it is called


phobia. Such fear is common in patients with mental disorders.

ANGER:

-another basic
emotion of man
-offensive type
-destructive force
-if not controlled may
lead to murder

ANXIETY
Symptoms:
rapid pulse & breathing, flushing,
tremors, sweating, dry mouth, nausea,
diarrhea, raised blood pressure, etc.
Patients admitted to hospitals are
anxious. This leads to tension and
subsequently to pain.

A doctor must understand


the patients anxiety and
give him reassurance.
A kind word from a doctor
or a nurse works like a
magic and would give the
patient considerable relief
from mental anxiety.

LOVE
Feeling of strong attachment to
some person
It is a basic emotion of man

ROLE OF EMOTIONS IN HEALTH


& DISEASE
Emotions determine human behaviour. Anger
makes a person rude.
Disorders of emotions interfere with human
efficiencylack of concentration, lack of appetite,
increased risks of accidents, lack of sleep,
palpitation, etc.
In children- temper tantrums, abdominal
pains, spasms, tics and anti social behaviour
such as aggressiveness

Psychosocial illness:
There is a group of disease called
psychosocial diseases
(mind acting on body)
Examples of this are essential
hypertension, peptic ulcer, asthma,
ulcerative colitis, which are attributed
to disturbed emotional states.

Control of Emotions
A well-adjusted and mentally healthy
person is
One who is able to keep his emotions
under control
Should not be carried by ones emotions
Children should be shown love and
appreciation to attain emotional maturity.
Adults: Happy family life is basic for
emotional maturity.

The following tips may be useful to control


ones emotions:
1. Cultivate hobbies, good habits of
reading & recreation.
2. Adopt a philosophy of life to enable you
to avoid mental conflicts.
3. Try to understand your own limitations,
and
4. Develop a sense of humour.

MOTIVATION
Motivation is a key word in psychology. It is an
inner
force which drives an individual to a certain
action.
-determines human behaviour
-may be positive or negative
Without motivation, behavioural changes
cannot be expected. Positive motivation is often
more successful than negative motivation.

A motivated person acts willingly and


knowingly. Motivation is not
manipulation.
KINDS OF NEEDS AND URGES:
(a) Biologic needs:
These are survival needs. A hungry man
needs food, a thirsty man water, a sick
man medicine. There are other needs such
as sleep, rest, recreation and fresh air. The
doctor should be aware of this needs in the
day-to-day care of the patients.

(B) SOCIAL NEEDS:


THE NEED FOR COMPANY, THE NEED FOR
LOVE AND AFFECTION, NEED FOR
RECOGNITION, AND NEED FOR EDUCATION
ARE ALL SOCIAL NEEDS. SOME ARE MET BY
FAMILY AND OTHERS BY THE COMMUNITY.
(C) ECONOMIC NEEDS:
ECONOMIC SECURITY, I.E. SECURITY FROM
WANT, IS ONE WHICH EVERYONE DESIRES.
(D) EGO - INTEGRATIVE NEEDS:
THE DESIRE FOR PRESTIGE, POWER AND
SELF-RESPECT COME IN THIS CATEGORY.

INCENTIVES
Incentives is a factor that stimulate
motivation and encourage specific
behaviour.
Incentives can be
> intrinsic or extrinsic
> material or psychological
> self determined or selected by
others

An Intrinsic incentive is the benefit that comes


from solving ones own problem.
Extrinsic incentives are rewards that do not
relate
directly to the goal towards which the desired
behavior is aimed, for example, financial
compensation of individuals undergoing
sterilization operation for family planning.
Material incentives are tangible goods or
services;
Psychological incentives include the
satisfaction, self-esteem, or enhanced capabilities
gained through a proposed course of action.

LEGISLATION
Legislation can serve as an important tool to
support, promote and sustain activities at the
community level.
Laws should satisfy requirements & be
compatible with political, cultural, social and
economic situation of a country. This is
essential
because laws may antagonize the population
and
make the community uncooperative

OBSERVATION
Treatment involves lot of correct observation of
the patients condition.
Observation involves two mental activities-

perception and attention.

A doctor should cultivate the habit of correct


observation. Correct observation leads to
correct thinking, reasoning and learning.
Observation promotes attention. To observe
more carefully is called attention.
A moving object attracts more attention than
a static object, an uncommon object than a
common one, a bright color than a dull colour.

In attention, certain adjustments of sense


of
organs are involved such as turning the
head,
converging the eyes, in other words,
attention
means closer observation.

Concentration, i.e..the focusing of


consciousness on a particular object to the
exclusion of all other objects has been
defined as sustained attention.

Errors in perception
Perception observation, recognition and
discrimination.
It takes place with the help of sensory organs.
Thus we have different perceptions like:
visual, auditory, olfactory and muscular.
Some of the disorders of perception are:
(1) Imperceptions : Inability to recognize. May
be due to damage of sense organs.
e.g.anaesthesia

(2) Illusion: An illusion is a false


perception, mistaking a rope for a
snake, a tree for an animal, are
called illusions. It occurs in mental
diseases and may be visual or
auditory.
(3) Hallucination: Hallucination is an
imaginary perception. Seeing objects
that do not exist, hearing sounds that
are false, seeing objects moving in a
room are called hallucinations.

ATTITUDES
Attitudes are acquired characteristics
of an individual. They are more or
less permanent ways of behaving.
An attitude includes three
components:
(a) a cognitive or knowledge
element
(b) an effective or feeling element,
and
(c) a tendency to action

An attitude has been defined as a relatively


enduring organization of beliefs around an
object, subject or concept which pre-disposes
one to respond in some preferential manner.
Attitudes are not learnt from text-books but
acquired by social interaction.

It is said that attitudes are caught and not


taught.
once formed, attitudes are difficult to change.
The responsibility to develop healthy
attitudes is
upon parents, teachers, religious heads and
elders.
Our success or failure in life depends on our
attitudes.

Opinions and beliefs


Opinions:
Views held by people on a point of
dispute based on evidence available at the time.
opinions by def. are temporary, provisional. They
can be looked on as beliefs.
Beliefs:
On the other hand are beliefs are permanent, stable
& almost unchanging. These are usually inherited
from our parents, grand parents and other people
whom we respect.

Learning

Definition
Any relative permanent change in
behavior that occurs as a result of
practice or experience.
Acquiring something new new
knowledge, new techniques, new
skills, new fears and new
experiences.

Necessity Mans survival and


Human progress.
It helps in:

Acquiring knowledge
Acquiring skills
Formation of habits
Development of perception

Conditions affecting
learning
1) Intelligence: low IQ never learn
2) Age:
Series 1
4
3.5
3
2.5
Series 1
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 - 22

22

25

>25

3) Learning situation:
Facilities such as teachers,
text books, AV aids
promote learning

4) Physical health
5) Mental health
6) Motivation:
Adequate motivation leads to effective
learning.
Powerful motives are:
Praise
Reward
Success
Encouragement
These stimulate learning

Types of learning

i. Cognitive learning
( Knowledge)
ii. Affective learning (attitude)
iii.Psychomotor learning
(Skills)

HOW LEARNING TAKES


PLACE?
1. BY CONDITIONED REFLEX
2. TRIAL AND ERROR
3. BY OBSERVATION AND
LIMITATION
4. BY DOING
5. BY REMEMBERING
6. BY INSIGHT
7. DEMONSTRATION
8. FIELD EXPERIENCE
9. PROBLEM SOLVING

Measurement of learning
Measured by students performance.
Some ways of measuring are by:
MCQs
Essay writing
Project works
Practical exams
Oral exams

Ha b i t s
Habit is an accustomed way of doing
things.
Eg. Washing hands before eating.
It is the usual way of action done without
thinking.
Habits accumulated through generation
emerge as customs. Customs in turn
create habits.

Habit has 3 characteristics:


I.
II.
III.

They are acquired through


repetition
They are automatic
They can be performed only at
similar circumstances.

Good habits promote health.


Bad habits may ruin health.

Principles involved in habit formation

Should begin in early childhood.


Formed by frequent repetition
Takes time to form habits
There should be strong emotional
stimulus.
Good habits kill bad habits

a
r
t
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!
n
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i
t
When people are unable to meet
up their needs and desires, they
feel frustrated.

Sources: Internal lack of intellect, etc.


External failures, defeat, etc.

Sometimes frustration rouses the


person to higher and bigger
efforts to overcome failures.
If it continues, it damages ones
personality.
It my lead to drug addiction,
suicide, etc.

It is like a tug of war between two or


more courses of action or between
opposing ideas.
One has to weigh the pros and cons
and decide as quickly as possible
before emotional disturbances occur.

Defence mechanisms
When a person is faced with
problems, he employs certain ways
to achieve health happiness or
success. These are called DEFENCE
MECHANISMS.

Different defence
mechanisms
1. Rationalization: instead of
correcting himself, justifies his
behavior.
2. Projection: blames others
3. Compensation: compensates to
enhance their self-esteem.
4. Escape mechanism: Pretending
illness and quitting exam.

5. Displacement:
a worker snubbed by his superior after
coming home shows his anger on wife
and children.
6. Regression: resort to childhood
practices (weeping, etc.)
A mentally healthy person will not use
these DMs for achieving success or
happiness.

Personality
It is a key word in psychology.
It implies the physical and
mental trait of the individual.
It is important to bear in mind
that the personality of the
doctor affects very much the
well-being of the patient.

Components of
Personality
I. Physical:
height, weight, color, etc.,

II. Emotional:
fear, anger, jealousy, worry, etc.,

III.Intelligence:
Intelligent person - Forceful personality.
Sub normal intelligence Dull personality.

IV.Behavior:
gentle, kind, affectionate, submissive,
balanced, aggressive

Personality Traits
HUMAN PERSONALITY IS A BUNDLE
OF TRAITS.
SOME WE CULTIVATE, SOME WE
CONCEAL, SOME WE MODIFY
ACCORDING TO THE SOCIETY.
SOME PERSONALITY TRAITS:

CHEERFULNES
GOOD MANNERED
SPORTSMANSHIP
HONESTY
SENSE OF HUMOR

PERSONALITY TRAIT IN A
DOCTOR
Kindliness
Honesty
Patience
Tolerance
Perseverance
Consciousness
Thoroughness
Initiative

Development of Personality
Infancy:
Rapid physical and mental growth.
By end of one year, tries to walk.
He enjoys simple tricks and games.
Pre school child:
Feeds himself, speaks, fears dark,
loves stories.
Mingles with other children.

School age (5-15 yrs):


Active
8 yrs brain = Adult brain
Begins to reason
Gradual detachment from family, attachment to friends
Begins forming groups
Attains puberty

Adolescence (teenage):
Period of rosy dreams, adventure, love and romance.
Strives for independence.
Dislikes parental authority.
Becomes aware of social values and norms.
Rapid physical growth.

Adults:
Mature and more balanced.
Difficult to draw a line when adolescence
ceases and adulthood begins.

Old age:
Difficult to say when old age begins.
Decline in physical powers and acuity in sense
organs.

Thinking
MAN IS CALLED A THINKING ANIMAL.
INCLUDES PERCEPTION, MEMORY,
IMAGINATION AND REASONING.
HIGHEST FORM:
CREATIVE THINKING LEADS TO INVENTIONS,.

EDUCATION MAKES PEOPLE THINK.

Intelligence
It is an important aspect of
personality.
No satisfactory Definition
Widely accepted Definition:
it is the ability to see
meaningful relationship between
things

Mental Age
1st test of Intelligence Binet and
Simon (1896)
It is calculated by the capacity of the
individual in relationship with the
chronological age.

Intelligence Quotient
This is an improvement over the
concept of mental age.
IQ = Mental Age/Chronological age x
100
When the mental age is same as the
chronological age, the IQ is 100
Higher the IQ, More brilliant the child.

Levels of Intelligence
Idiot - 0 24
Imbecile - 25 49
Moron - 50 69
Borderline - 70 79
Low normal - 80 89
Normal - 90 109
Superior - 110 119
Very superior - 120 139
Near Genius - 140<
Imbecile - stupid

Intelligence Tests
TWO KINDS: GROUP TESTS
INDIVIDUAL TESTS
ONES INTELLIGENCE IS
MEASURED IN TERMS OF AMOUNT
OF WORK COMPLETED
SUCCESSFULLY AT A GIVEN TIME.

When a normal child has average


educational opportunities, his IQ is
fairly constant.
When there are changes in
educational opportunities, there is
fluctuation in IQ.

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