Sunteți pe pagina 1din 136

THE CONDUCT OF SCIENCE

INVESTIGATORY PROJECTS

October 17, 2008


Bacoor, Cavite

ENGR. EDENIA OLIVEROS-LIBRANDA


AINHS Science & Technology Department Head

RESOURCE SPEAKER

There was a father who has a 4-year old kid

One day he went home


from his office with a
bundle of paper works
needed to be finished
that night. His wife was
not around so he has to
take care of the kid and
do the paper work at the
same time.

Unfortunately, the kid did not


go to bed early and tried her
best to get his fathers
attention.

Tired of his
girls
naughtiness,
the father
think of the
way to keep
the child
busy.

His attention was caught by a


magazine where the map of the world
was printed.

He cut the pages of the magazine into


pieces making it into a jigsaw puzzle,
thinking that his child, at her age has
never seen the map of the world, will
have a hard time in making the puzzle.
This will provide time, long enough for
him to finish the paper works.

But after 5 minutes the child went back to her


father with the puzzle done, the father was
amazed by his childs ability.

You have not seen a


map of the world,
how did you do it?
How did you made
the puzzle in such a
short time? asked
the father.

Oh, daddy, its very simple,


the child answered, at the
back of the map of the world
is the face of a man. So I
put the pieces together
following the image of the
man.

The future of the world lies on the


hand of mankind.

Let us join hands to make this world a better place to live in.

Together we will make the future of the world


--- the world entrusted to us by our Creator.

One way of giving our share for the future of the world is
through the Conduct of Science Investigatory Projects

But what is Science


Investigatory Project

Science
Investigatory
Project
-an investigation about a

scientific problem (question)

-a problem-solving process
using
the scientific method

Why involve yourself


to SIP?

IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM

RESEARCH PROBLEM
curiosity
necessity

time

theoretical
exploratory

funds

facilities

CHOOSING A RESEARCH TOPIC

Research problem is the focus of your study for


an investigatory project. Identification of a
researchable problem is the first step in
conducting a research. You must not look very far
since most of the problems are within your reach.
Facts within your immediate environment are
possible sources of ideas from which you can
derive a researchable problem. You can identify a
problem by doing the following:

consulting, interviewing
or observing people

visiting facilities
and places

reading materials

observing things

The conduct of a
research involves
actual work and you
must like the task
accompanying the
study.

A science investigatory
project is a study which
you carry out
independently through
your own initiative.
Hence, you must be well
motivated to involve
yourself in this activity.

The choice of topic is a crucial


factor in the success of science
investigatory project. You have
to choose a topic which you are
genuinely interested in. Your
interest will drive you to go on
with your investigation even if
there will be some difficulties
encountered.

Which of those things


caught
your
attention? Simple as
it is, a piece of wood
could be interesting!
Where it came from?
What can you do
about it? Is there any
importance about it?
This could be your
research topic.

That piece of wood


came from a tree. It
could be used as fuel for
cooking.

The following could be


found in the school
ground:
Carabao grass
What possible
research topic can
be derived from a
piece of wood
which is used as
fuel for cooking?

beetle
piece of wood

We could study how to


maximize the energy coming
from wood when cooking,
thereby minimizing cutting of
trees.

CHOOSING A TOPIC
Your interest counts a lot in selecting
what kind of investigation you would like
to carry out.
But its not just your interest that
counts! The topic you will work on must
also be fitted to your abilities, level of
knowledge and experience.
The skills you have play a major role in
determining what kind of study you will
undertake. You cannot perform the
necessary experiments if you do not
know how to handle the required
laboratory materials.

IDENTIFYING THE RESEARCH AREA

The IPSF enjoined you to work


on projects along its Fair
Divisions and Fields of Study.
Look at the example that
follows which was derived from
the selected research topic
presented earlier.

FAIR DIVISION
FAIR 2
APPLIED SCIENCES

FIELD OF STUDY
PHYSICS

TOPIC
COOKING

(Maximizing Energy of wood)

FAIR DIVISIONS AND FIELDS OF STUDY


Fair 1: LIFE SCIENCES
Botany is a study of plant life such as agriculture, forestry, plant
taxonomy, plant pathology, plant genetics, algae, etc.
Zoology is a study of animals like animal genetics, animal ecology,
animal husbandry, cellular physiology, histology, animal
physiology, etc.
Microbiology is the biology of microorganisms such as bacteriology,
virology, protozoology, fungi, bacterial genetics, yeast, etc.
Biochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with of life
processes like molecular biology, molecular genetics, enzymes,
photosynthesis, blood chemistry, protein & food chemistry,
hormones, etc.
Medicine and Health is the study of diseases and health of humans
and animals such as dentistry, pharmacology, pathology,
ophthalmology,
nutrition, sanitation, pediatrics,
dermatology, allergies, speech and
hearing, etc.
Ecology is the branch of biology that studies the relationships
between organisms and their total environment.

Fair 2: APPLIED SCIENCES


Chemistry is the study of nature & composition of matter and laws governing it such as
physical and organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, materials, plastics, fuels,
pesticides, metallurgy, soil chemistry, environmental and materials chemistry.
Physics is the study of theories, principles and laws governing energy & the effect of
energy on matter namely solid state, optics, acoustics, particles, nuclear, atomic
plasma, magnetism, quantum mechanics, biophysics, etc.
Mathematics is the development of formal logical systems or various numerical
algebraic computations and the application of these principles like in calculus,
geometry, abstract algebra, number theory, statistics, complex analysis,
probability.
Computer Science deals with the study and development of computer hardware,
software engineering, Internet networking and communications, graphics
(including human interface), simulations/virtual reality or computational science
(including data structures, encryption, coding & information theory).
Engineering Technology; deals with projects that directly apply scientific principles to
manufacturing and practical uses such as civil, mechanical, aeronautical, chemical,
electrical, photographic, sound, automotive, marine, heating and refrigerating,
transportation, environmental engineering, etc.
Earth and Space Sciences encompasses geology, mineralogy, physiography,
oceanography, meteorology, climatology, astronomy, speleology, seismology,
geography, etc.
Environmental Science is a study of pollution (air, water and land) sources and their
control.

SELECTING A RESEARCH PROJECT


RESEARCHING ABOUT THE TOPIC

SCIENCE MAGAZINES
SCIENCE LAB MANUALS
SCIENCE FAIR YEARBOOKS
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
SCIENCE ENCYCLOPEDIAS
BOOKS

MUSEUMS
ZOOS
SCIENCE CENTERS
UNIVERSITIES
HOSPITALS
POLICE DEPARTMENTS
LIBRARY
RESEARCH
INSTITUTION
SCHOOL
COMMUNITY
PARKS
HOME
RIVER
INTERNET

LIBRARIANS
TEACHERS
VETERINARIANS
NURSES
DOCTORS
POLICE
FRIENDS
FAMILY
SCIENTISTS/EXPERTS
COMMUNITY/
SCHOOL OFFICIALS
OTHER PROFESSIONALS

SOIL
WATER
AIR
PLANTS
ANIMALS

* Write the topic you wanted


to investigate.

In the given example,


cooking (maximizing energy
of wood) was the selected
topic for investigation.

*From the resource checklist,


what procedure will you
adopt to know more about it?
What resources will you use?
Specify names of persons you
will consult and the place you
will visit.
In this kind of topic the

barangay could be visited


and a survey could be
conducted by interviewing
people and observing them.

SUMMARIZING GATHERED
INFORMATION

An insulator is
a material
that forms a
tough
resistance
barrier to trap
heat and keep
it inside a
container
where it
belongs. Thus
an insulator in
a stove
minimizes
heat loss.

It was observed that most


of the people in the
barangay use wood chips
as fuel. The wood chips
are leftovers that are quite
abundant because of the
many wood factories in the
area.

It is
convincing
that without
insulators,
the stoves in
this barangay
are wasting a
lot of energy
because they
allow the
energy
escape of
heat. But
which
insulator is
best to use to
lessen loss of
heat in stoves
made of tin
cans?

Here
is
where
investigation comes
in. It was thought
that if the used
empty tin can stove
will be equipped with
an insulator, it will be
able to accomplish
cooking in the least
period of time and
with
the
least
expense of firewood.

Thus it was decided to have A


Comparative Study of Stoves that
Use Different Kinds of Insulators.

DECIDING FOR THE RESEARCH PROBLEM BASED


ON THE GUIDELINES
GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A
RESEARCH PROBLEM

Investigators interest in the problem


Abilities and special qualification of the researchers to
attack the problem
Topic is within the level of knowledge and experience of the
researchers
Practical value and socio-economic significance of the
problem
Particular needs of the community
Availability of data about the problem, (what is known about
the problem including historical records)
Questions and clarifications about the data of the problem
Generation of new information
Novelty and avoidance of unnecessary duplication
Time required to investigate the problem
Expenses involved in undertaking the problem
Availability of materials and facilities needed for
investigation
Safety measures to be undertaken during investigation

JUSTIFYING THE CONTENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CONTENT OF


THE INVESTIGATORY PROJECTS
Apply/ demonstrate scientific principles or
attempt to provide new knowledge.
Be a result of continuing or parallel scientific
research and investigation and not a copy of
any previous research.
Have socio-economic significance and
relevance to livelihood development; and
Contribute to the advancement of Science and
Technology and the development of the
community.

GOOD PROJECT INGREDIENTS

thoroughness

innovation

creative ability
purpose

clarity

good data

skill

safety

FORMULATING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM


How to state the
problem?
A problem must be
brief and specific.
Usually, a problem is
stated in question
form. But in the case
of Science
Investigatory Projects,
it is stated in
declarative form. In
the case of the
problem above, it is
already brief but it is
not yet specific. It
does not show what
kind of stoves will be
used and what will be
observed in the study.
In the statement of
the problem we should
know what data to
collect and why it is

A Comparative
Study of Stoves that
Use Different Kinds
of Insulators

Improving the
statement of the
problem we could
have:

The Use of Different


Kinds of Insulators in
Stoves Made of Tin Cans
to Lessen Loss of Heat

A research
problem is
composed of a
major problem
and minor
problem. The
major problem
is stated in
declarative
form as shown
earlier.
The minor
problem can
be stated in
question form
or in
declarative
form:

Question Form:
What is the effect of
different insulators
in stoves made of
tin cans in terms of
the amount of saved
time and fuel?
Declarative Form:
Compare the effect
of different
insulators in stoves
made of tin cans in
terms of the amount
of saved time and
fuel.

Stating a
Problem
The statement of
the problem is
characterized by
the following:
clarity
organization
specificity
well-defined
scope
conciseness
measurable

You may ask the


following questions
to evaluate the
statement of the
problem:
Is the question
feasible?
Is the question
clear?
Is the question
significant?
Is the question
ethical?
Does the
question invite
more
complex
design?

CLARIFYING THE PURPOSE OF THE


INVESTIGATION

Use of different kinds of


insulators that lessen loss of
heat in stoves made of tin cans.
Use of a tin can stove without
insulator for comparison
purposes.
Find out how much time, heat
and fuel are wasted by stoves
with no insulators.
Find out the amount of fuel and
time saved by stoves with
insulators.

For the research problem to be


significant one, it must:
a. help answer a problem/
need of the people/
community/ country;
b. contribute to the
generation of new
information;
c. develop or improve an
existing process; and
d. contribute to the
development of the
scientific skills of the
student-researcher.

DETERMINING SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INVESTIGATION

In order to cook, the fast multiplying rural population has


extensively stripped forests, plantation, and farmlands of
trees, leaving a great portion of the landscape bare.
For decades, man has been denuding forests without
bothering to replace them. Perhaps one of the least
expensive and most immediate practicable solutions would
be to have an energy forest in every village. Fast growing
trees that can be used as fuel wood can be planted, for
example, on village commons, the boundaries of fields, the
banks of canals, and along roads.
But that is only one side of the picture. It seems that one of
the most urgent measures that can have a quick positive
impact in lessening the consumption of firewood is the
improvement of the efficiency of wood. This can be done
through development, demonstration and dissemination of a
simple cooker that can burn wood efficiency, and that can be
produced from local materials and with local skills.

DEFINING THE SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS


OF THE INVESTIGATION
The formulated
research
problem
defines the
scope and sets
the limits of
the problem.
Defining the
scope and
setting the
limits of the
problem help
determine the
feasibility of
doing the

The study was limited to


stoves made out of tin cans.
The insulators to be used
are clay, cement, river sand,
and table salt. Acacia wood
chips are to be used as fuel.
An insulator holder will be
produced out of plain G. I.
sheet. Results will be
compared to find out which
of the insulators to be used
can control the loss of heat
best.

IDENTIFYING THE VARIABLES


INVOLVED IN THE STUDY
The Variables
Variables can be classified based on the role they play
in the study. If they are the cause, they are called
independent variables. They are called independent
variables because they can be changed or manipulated
by the investigator depending on the nature of the
study. On the other hand, dependent variables
(responding variables) are the observed effects. They
are so called because the values are dependent on the
independent variables. Changes made in the
independent variable give rise to corresponding
variations in the dependent variables. All other
variables that may influence the results of the study
besides those of the independent variables are termed
extraneous variables. They are controlled or maintained
constant during the investigation.
In the statement of the problem, the variables to be
observed and measured must be identified or specified.
Some of the variables are manipulated by the
investigator, others are maintained constant or
controlled. All other variables that may influence the
result of the study must be recognized.

In the problem presented the


variables involved are: different
kinds of insulators, the independent
variables; and the time of cooking
and the amount of fuel used, the
dependent variables. Extraneous
variables that will be controlled or
maintained constant during the
investigation are: the kind of wood
chips to be used as fuel (Acasia);
and the insulator holder to be
produced out of plain G. I. sheet.

FORMULATING THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The Research Hypothesis

A research hypothesis may be


stated in several ways, namely:
a. null form
b. alternative form
c. cause and effect statement

A hypothesis in null
form states that there
is
no
significant
difference
between
the results of two
conditions
being
stated.

There is no significant
difference between
the effects of the use
of the different kinds
of insulators in stoves
in terms of amount of
time in cooking.

A hypothesis in
alternative form
states that there is
a significant
difference
between the
results of the two
conditions being
tested.
There is a significant
difference between the
effects of the use of
the different kinds of
insulators in stoves in
terms of amount of
time in cooking.

A cause and effect


statement states that if
a certain condition
(cause) is true, then a
supporting observation
(effect) occurs.

If there is a difference
between the effects of the
use of the different kinds of
insulators in stoves, the
cooking will differ
significantly in terms of
amount of time in cooking.

Sample of Research Hypotheses


WAYS OF FORMULATING THE HYPOTHESES
STATED
OBJECTIVE
AND/OR
PROBLEM
Compare the
effects of the
use of the
different kinds
of insulators in
stoves in terms
of:
1. amount of
time in cooking
2. amount of
fuel used in
cooking

NULL

ALTERNATIVE

CAUSE AND
EFFECT

There is no
significant
difference
between the
effects of the
use of the
different kinds
of insulators in
stoves in terms
of:
1. amount of
time in cooking
2. amount of fuel
used in cooking

There is a
significant
difference
between the
effects of the
use of the
different kinds
of insulators in
stoves in terms
of:
1. amount of
time in cooking
2. amount of
fuel used in
cooking

If there is a
difference
between the
effects of the
use of the
different kinds
of insulators in
stoves, the
cooking will
differ
significantly in
terms of:
1. amount of
time in cooking
2. amount of
fuel used in
cooking

Basic Concepts on Identification of a


Research Problem
Undertaking a science investigatory
project involves several steps that
start with the identification of a
research problem. The identification
of a research problem is one of the
essential steps in scientific method.
The following should be considered in
choosing a research problem:

CURIOSITY. Your interest and curiosity are


very important in choosing a researchable
problem. You may select a problem involving
materials and experiences that are familiar to
you so that you can build knowledge based on
previous experiences. You may choose a
puzzling phenomenon, wherein the behavior of
the test system appears to contradict your
experience and definitely arouse your interest
since it challenges you to correlate it with
familiar events. You may also employ a new
material, instrument or method in a project.
The updatedness or the novelty of the
materials or methods used in a project can
excite your curiosity and motivate you to work
on a project.

NECESSITY. To heighten your interest in the


topic of the project, you have to be convinced
about the significance of the project. It can be
pointed out in terms of economic consideration.
You can be motivated to work well on the project
by realizing the possibility of the project
generating a method or material that will
introduce savings to an institution or to society in
general. You will also be encouraged to devote
great interest and effort to a project if the
usefulness of the project output is highlighted
and there is a possibility of generating wealth
through it.
EXPLORATORY. You must consider if the problem
is of sufficient magnitude and scope to fulfill the
requirement that has motivated the study. Think if
there are enough variables involved in the problem,
enough potential results and enough information to
write about it.

THEORETICAL VALUE. This is expressed in


terms of its impact on existing knowledge. A
problem that gives the possibility of a novel
finding will greatly motivate you to exert
great efforts on the project. You must
consider if the problem will contribute to
the advancement of a certain field.

Aside from the four considerations listed


above, you must also consider the workability
of a problem. You have to ask yourself if the
contemplated study is within the limits and
range of your resource and time constraints.
Workability depends on the following:

Time. You must be aware that projects


operate on a time scale. An amount of
time is usually allotted for the completion
of a project, and the activities have to be
planned and managed well in order to
meet the deadline of the project. You
must select a topic that could be finished
within reasonable period of time. For a
mini-research project, an extended time
scale is usually involved. Depending on the
complexity of the problems and of the
activities involved, the project could
require a number of weeks, or even some
months, for completion. In this case, the
activities have to be properly mapped out
in order to ensure a timely completion of
the project.

Funds. Aside from time, another


important constraint in science
investigatory projects is the availability
of resources financial, material or
expert services. All projects require a
financial outlay to buy materials and
sometimes to pay for services. The cost
of the project has to be known at the
start of the project. The budgetary
requirements of the project have to be
listed, and a source of fund has to be
identified. It is quite daring to embark
on a project without knowing an estimate
to the total expenses needed and looking
for funds during the course of the
project.

Facilities. In choosing a research


problem, you have to consider the
availability of facilities needed in your
investigation. Usually, the school will
allow the free use of its physical
facilities by students conducting
investigatory projects. Some schools
even plan out their facilities to enable
the students to carry out projects using
some advanced instruments. Other
schools establish a linkage program with
a more endowed institution to ensure
access by their students to some
equipment.

Criteria for Evaluating the Chosen


Problem
There are five CRITERIA to be assessed (I,
II, III, IV, V). Consider the questions
asked under each criterion to help you
assess the problem presented by the other
groups.

I. CURIOSITY
Are the members of the group
interested in the problem area, specific
problems and potential solutions? Does it
relate to their background? Will they learn
useful skills in pursuing it?

II. NECESSITY
Will the solution to the problem improve
the life of human beings? Are scientists likely
to be interested in the results? Will science
practices be changed by the outcome?

III. EXPLORATORY
Is the problem of sufficient magnitude
and scope to fulfill the requirement that has
motivated the study in the first place? Are
there enough variables? Enough potential
results? Enough to write about?

IV. THEORETICAL VALUE


Does the problem fill a gap in science?
Will others recognize its importance? Will it
contribute to advancement in the chosen field in
science? Is it publishable?

V. WORKABILITY
Is the contemplated study within the
limit and range of the groups resource and
time constraints? Will they have access to
the necessary sample and equipment
required? Is there a reason to believe that
the group will come up with an answer to the
problem? Is the required methodology
manageable and understandable?

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

RESEARCH DESIGN

Methodology
Materials and Facilities
Funds
Timetable

DESIGNING YOUR PROJECT


EXPERIMENTAL UNIT
- is the chief material used
in an experiment. It can be
an organism, a device, and a
plot in the garden or
structure.

TREATMENT
Experimental Units may
be subjected to
different treatments
according to objectives.
Any procedure, the
result of which can be
evaluated or measured,
constitute a treatment.

EXPERIMENTAL
UNIT: Stoves
made of tin cans

TREATMENT:
Different kinds of
insulators clay,
cement, river sand,
salt

MATERIALS/
EQUIPMENT:
The exact
technical
specifications,
qualities and
source of method
for all materials
to be used should
be given.
Specifically built
equipment to be
used in the study
must be described
and description
could be
accompanied by a
picture.

MATERIALS
NEEDED:
empty tin cans
plain G. I. sheet or
unfolded tin cans
clay
cement
river sand
salt
acasia wood chips

CONSTRUCTION OF
STOVES:
Draw the pattern of
the stoves and show the
different parts. Cut the
materials according to the
shape of the pattern.
Assemble the inside parts (if
welding is not available,
hammering and soldering will
also do). Construct five
stoves. Fill the sides of the
stoves except stove 1 (with
no insulators).
Stove 1 no insulator
Stove 2 clay insulator
Stove 3 cement
insulator
Stove 4 sand insulator
Stove 5 salt insulator

Empty
opening

tin
can

Plain G. I. sheet or unfolded


tin can

Insulator (Thick
enough to
control the loss
of heat)

Insulator holder
(Plain G. I. sheet
or unfolded tin
can or smaller
can)

Opening (Big
enough to
start burning
of fuel)

SCIENCE RESEARCH
-Basic
-Applied
DESCRIPTIVE
METHOD
It is a careful study,
observation and detailed
description of living and
non-living things and
phenomena
as
they
occur in nature. It may
also include studies that
make comparison and
evaluation of science
concepts, techniques or
procedures.

EXPERIMENTAL
METHOD
The most scientific
and most powerful
since it allows control
over relevant variable.
It has become the
best way to conduct
research in the most
productive manner.

Experimental Method is
usually utilized for
Science Investigatory
Projects.

TREATMENT/ GENERAL
PROCEDURE
The manner and sequence
by which each experiment
or set of observations will
be
done
and
how
measurements
will
be
obtained
should
be
described in detail. Avoid
using the recipe style
when stating step-by-step
procedure.
Use
the
narrative form.

Maria Romina considers


experimental method for
her science investigatory
project.
TESTING THE INSULATORS
Measure equal amounts of wood chips
in kilograms. Fill each stove with equal
amounts of wood chips. Boil water (4
glasses with volume of 200 cc per glass)
in each stove. Weigh the amount of fuel
left after each trial. Repeat the
experiment four times and solve for the
average.
Make a comparison by observing each
stove on the time it took for water to
boil and the amount of wood chips left
after use.
Repeat the same procedure in 1)
cooking rice and 2) steaming fish (60
grams).

ASSUMPTIONS
In most researches there
are always factors that are
beyond the control of the
researcher. To simplify the
experiment and enable
researcher to come up with a
valid generalization, you may
assume certain things to be
only approximately true. Such
things are called assumptions.

In the sample problem


we may assume that
equal amount of wood
chips in kilograms will
give equal amount of
energy.

EXPERIMENTAL
ERRORS
Measurements
obtained
from
experimental vary
and,
even
if
experimental units
are treated alike,
they
may
still
produce different
results. These are
known
as
experimental
errors.

SOURCES OF
ERRORS
The measuring
instrument itself.
-You might use a
weighing scale
that is not
sensitive enough
to detail very
sound changes in
weight.
Very few, or limited
samples or limited
number of trials (or
repetitions)
Wrong research
design.

REPLICATIONS
To reduce if not eliminate
experimental errors replications of
experimental procedures should be
done. Computed averages can be
reduced if not totally avoid such errors
and mean values can further be
subjected to statistical analysis.

FINANCIAL OUTLAY
A large portion of operating expenses would be for the acquisition of the
materials to be used. A good estimate of these expenses can be made if the
methods and procedures to be adopted are known in detail at the start of the
project. A detailed listing of the materials to be purchased can lead to some
savings, both in terms of delivery or shipment costs and in time lag for delivery.
The project cost will be made low if the needed materials and facilities are
available in the school laboratory. However, in order to sustain its budget, the
school usually made policies as to which and how much materials should be made
available at no cost for the student projects. Unless the school has allocated
some amount in its budget for support of student investigatory projects
(especially for science fairs), it cannot be expected to give away materials for
free to the students.
Usually, the school will allow the free use of its physical facilities by students
conducting investigatory projects. Some schools even plan out their facilities to
enable the students to carry our projects using some advanced instruments.
Other schools establish linkage program with a more endowed institution to
ensure more access by their students to some equipment.
If the project involves the use of a facility that is not available in their school,
it is often solved by seeking the help of more-endowed institutions, particularly
university, government or industrials laboratories.

PLANNING OUT THE


WORK SCHEDULE
SCHEDULING FOR YOUR
RESEARCH PROJECT

PERSONAL SCHEDULE FOR YOUR RESEARCH


PROJECT

STEPS

WHAT YOU SHOULD BE WORKING ON

Make sure you understand what you need to do for the science investigatory project. Ask your teacher if
you are not certain about any aspect.
Use books, encyclopedias, scientific journals and magazines at the library. You can also do a search on
the internet on your topic of interest. Keep bibliographic notes on the books and articles where you get
your ideas.
Visit university departments, science centers, hospitals, museums, zoos, etc., to get ideas. You may also
conduct interviews and surveys.

With your project idea firmly in mind, write the purpose, question, hypothesis, materials needed, and
procedures.
Show your written materials to your science teacher and discuss your project for approval.

Get your science teachers approval for your project. Then gather necessary equipment and start your
project.

Find a mentor, or seek advice and help from professionals to refine your project: doctors, nurses,
researchers, librarians, veterinarians, etc.

Conduct experiment and collect data.


Keep careful, written records of your results in a data book. Record the day and time you make
observations. Be as specific as you can about the amount, size, and type of materials, plants or animals
you use.

Analyze your data by drawing conclusion based on the data. Organize the results of your experiments in
chart or graph form.

Write your research paper. Include a title page, table of contents, abstract, purpose of your experiment,
results, discussion, conclusion and bibliography.

Design a mock-up of your display board. Ask a few friends and family members to critique your display
and adjust accordingly.
Construct your exhibit. Build a backdrop to mount graphs, charts, illustrations, photographs, signs and
summary charts.

Prepare for judges interview by asking your teacher or mentor to ask you questions about your research.

10

Add finishing touches to your project.


Come to the science fair and present your research.

TARGET
DATE

DONE
(/)

MAKING A TIMETABLE
A TYPICAL GANNT CHART FOR A PROJECT
WEEK

Identification of Topic/
problem

Literature Search

Experiment Design

Purchase of Materials

Preparation of Set-up

Pilot (first) run of


experiments
Second run of
experiments
Analysis of data

First draft of write-up

Final draft of write-up

10

11

12

Project: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF


STOVES THAT USED
DIFFERENT KINDS OF
INSULATORS
TIMETABLE

ACTIVITIES

DURATION (in weeks)


1

1.Identification of
the problem
1.Literature Search

1.Planning the
experiment
4. Setting of
experimental design

10. Writing the


results
a.First draft
b.Second draft

10

11

12

6. Construction of
stoves

9. Analysis of results

8. Data gathering
and recording

5. Procurement of
supplies and
materials

7. Testing the stoves


with different
insulators
a.Pilot testing
b.Second run of
experiment

WRITING THE RESEARCH PLAN


RULES TO FOLLOW IN WRITING

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
(Before you do your investigation)

TECHNICAL REPORT
(After you have done your
investigation)

Tense, voice

Future tense, passive voice

Sample: Equal amount of wood chips


will be measured in kilograms.

Past tense, passive voice

Sample: Equal amount of wood chips


was measured in kilograms.

Relating the
proce
dure

The procedure should NOT be written as though it were directions or steps to be


followed as in a recipe. It should be in narrative form as above.

Materials

Materials should be mentioned as the researcher relates what he did with them.
Materials should not be enumerated in a list.
Sample: The insulators used for the stoves were clay, cement, river sand and salt.

Researcher
Referred
third person

Do not use any personal pronoun as I or We.

Numbers

If the sentence starts with a number, the number is spelled out.


Sample: Four glasses of water (with volume of 200 cc per glass) was boiled in
each stove.

ORGANIZING RESEARCH PLAN


I.Introductioninformsthereaderabouttheproblemtobestudied.Itstatesthe

rationaleofthestudyandexplainsbrieflywhytheinvestigatorchosethis
studytoworkon.

II. Statement of the Problem/ Objectivesthenatureandscopeoftheproblem


shouldbepresentedwithclarity.Twotypesofobjectivesmaybestated:
.GeneralObjectivethisisthemainproblemasgiveninthetitleofthestudy.
.Specific Objective this states the purpose of each experiment to be
conducted.
III. Significance of the Studytheimportanceofthestudyisexplainedinthis
part.
IV. Scope and Limitationsstatesthecoverageandextentofthestudy.
V. Review of Related Literaturesufficientbackgroundinformationshouldbe

presentedforreaders.Onlythemostimportantstudiesandtheories
writtenonthetopicshouldbeincluded.
VI. Methodologyprovidesenoughdetailssothatitcouldbefollowedduringthe
experiment.Carefulwritingiscriticallyimportantbecausetheprocedures
mustbe ofscientificmeritandmustbeproductive.

What is Research?

Scientific Method
Language & Style
Phases of Conducting an Investigatory
Project
Time table
Ethics Statement

Research is
-searching for theory,
testing a theory or
solving a problem
-systematic because it
follows certain steps or
stages

79

Scientific Method
identification of the problem
relating this problem with
theories
collection of data
analysis and interpretation
drawing conclusions
integration of conclusions into
the stream of knowledge

Language and Style


1. The language expression of a research
report is distinctly scientific.
2. Simplicity, conciseness and
straightforwardness are main
characteristics of scientific writing.
3. There is also a need for consistency in
the terms used and in the form of
expression.
4. There must be continuity from chapter to
chapter & from section to section.

5. The language and style should


reflect the accurate
rules in grammar, correct
spelling & correct
punctuation. Passive voice of
the verb should be used.
6. The first person is not used in
order that the style does not
become personal. The words, I
MY, ME & MINE should be
avoided.

7.Descriptionofmethodologyshould
beinthePAST(except in the
proposal).Regardingnumbers
thatbeginasentence,these
numbersshouldalwaysbe
writtenaswords.Inthemiddle
ofsentencesnumbersunder10
shouldbespelledoutas

wordsbut10aboveshouldbe
writtenasnumber.

Phases of Conducting
an
Investigatory
Project
PHASE I : THE
PROPOSAL (20
points)

The proposal is a detailed


written plan of how the project will
be done. It is like designing an
experiment. Since it is yet to be
done, the future tense of the verb is
used.

PHASE II: THE INVESTIGATION


(20 points)
As soon as your proposal is
approved you can now start
investigating. Your procedure will
be your guide. Keep track of all
your observations and data by
placing them on a table.
Document also your works by
photographs, videos, etc.

PHASE III. THE OUTPUT (60


points)
After conducting the
investigation you are now ready to
organize your gathered data and
present your findings. The output
has three levels:

07/17/15

86

1. THE WRITTEN REPORT (20


points)
A recall of all the things you
did to solve your problem. The
mode of the verb is in the past
tense.
2. THE EXHIBIT (20 points)
It is a showcase of your IP
mounted on a board. It must
attract viewers so that they may
get interested to your IP.
3.

THE ORAL DEFENSE (20


points)
You will present your work to a
panel of judges and they will ask
you questions about your project.

Example of the Time Table:


TASKS

TARGE
T DATE

1. Submission of Problem and


Title

TEACHE
RS
DEADLIN
E
June 20

2. Submission of Chapter 1

July 3

3. Submission of Chapter 2

July 17

4. Submission of Chapter 3

July 27

5. Investigation Period
6. Submission of Chapter 4

ASAP
August
11

7. Submission of Chapters 5&6


August 25
8. Abstract, Table of Contents,
Acknowledgement,
Bibliography

August 29

Ethics Statement
Scientific fraud and
misconduct are not condoned at
any level of research or
competition. Plagiarism, use or
presentation of other
researcher's work as one's own
forgery of approval signature
and fabrication or falsification of
data will not be tolerated.
Fraudulent projects will fail to
qualify for the competition.

Parts of a Scientific Research


Paper
Title Page
Abstract
Acknowledgment
Table of Contents
CHAPTER I-INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
B. Statement of the Problem
C. Hypothesis
D. Significance of the Study
E. Scope and Limitation
F. Definition of Terms

CHAPTER II- REVIEW AND RELATED LITERATURE


CHAPTER III-METHODOLOGY
A. Materials
B. Procedures

CHAPTER IV-RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


A. Findings
B. Analysis of Data

CHAPTER V- CONCLUSION
CHAPTER VI-RECOMMENDATION
Bibliography

Title
-it is patterned from the question,
however it must
contain only the essential words
-title of the project must be brief,
simple and catchy.
It must contain the following information:
Name of the school (including address)
Title of the Investigatory Project
(UPPER CASE, bold, centered)
Names of the researcher
(alphabetically arranged, last
name, first name, middle initial)
Grade and Section
Date of Submission
Name of the teacher

Abstract

-should consist of short, concise


descriptions of
the problem & its solution. It must be
one page
only, single-spaced (with a maximum of
250
words), typewritten in Times Roman
style; font size 11.

Sometimes judges do not have time to study


all the details of your work, they only read
the abstract, thus its called the SHOW
WINDOW of your project.
It must also state the following:
Purpose, Procedure used,
Results,
Conclusion

Acknowledgement
-contains the names of
people & agencies that
helped in the conduct of
the work described.

Table of Contents
-lists the different parts of the
whole report with the
corresponding page number
of each part. The
wording & grammar of the
chapter titles, heading
& title of tables & figures
should be consistent.

Introduction
-informs the reader of the
problem under study. It
shows the nature of scope
and the problem, its
historical & theoretical
background & a review of
literature relevant to the
problem.

Writing the Introduction


Stateclearlyandconciselyaspossible
theobjectivesoftheresearch
paper.Theseobjectivesmaybe
precededbyfewstatements
introducingthesubjects.
Keeptheintroductionbrief,
proportionaltothelengthofthe
body.Forexample,the
Introductionofaten-pagepaper
shouldbenolongerthana
page.

Background of the
Study
-states the rationale of the study.
It
explains briefly why the
investigator chose this
study
to work on.

Rationale or the underlying


principle should answer the
following questions:
Howdidyouarriveatthatkindof
problem?
Whydoyouliketoinvestigatethat
kindofproblemwhereinfact
therearehundredsof
problemsoutthere?

Statement of the
Problem
-it is stated as a question/scientific
inquiry
-the nature & scope of the problem
should be presented
with clarity

101

What are the characteristics of a


good problem?
Itshouldbeofgreatinterestto
you.
Itshouldhavepracticalvalueto
you.
Itshouldnotbeoverresearched.
Itshouldbewithinyour
experience.
Itcanbefinishedwithinanallotted
time.
Itshouldnotcarrylegalormoral
impediments.

Hypothesis-tentative
explanation
3 Types

Null

Alternative
If and Then (to be used in our
IP)

Significance of the
Study
-the importance of the study is
explained in this part

Scope and
Limitation
-states the coverage & extent
of the study.

Definition of Terms
2 Types
Conceptual-definitions
which are indicated in
dictionaries
Operational-definitions
based on how the words
were used in the study (to
be used in our IP)

CHAPTER II-Review
of Related Literature
-sufficient background
information should be
presented for readers to
understand & evaluate the
results of the present study.
Only the most important
studies and theories written on
the topic should be included.
This contains findings of
other studies or
investigations similar as
yours.

CHAPTER IIIMethodology
-provides enough details so
that a competent worker can
repeat the experiments.

07/17/15

108

Materials/Equipment
-theexacttechnicalspecifications,
quantitiesandsourceof
methodofpreparationforall
materialsusedshouldbe
given.Specificallybuilt
equipmentusedinthestudymust
bedescribedandthedescription
accompaniedbya
picture.
What are the things you need in
solving your problem?

Procedures
-explainindetailsthethingsyoudidto
solvethe
problem.Theproposalprocedureis
yourguidein
makingthisportion.
What are the orderly steps you are
going to do to
solve your problem?
How are you going to present the
data that you will
gather? Will it be through graphs or
tables?

CHAPTER IV-Results
and Discussion
-this maybe divided into subsections describing each
set of experiment or
observations.

Findings-thedatamaybe
presentedinfull&discussed
descriptivelyinthetextor
thesemaybesummarized
intables,pictures&graphs.
Tables,pictures&graphs
shouldmakethepresentation
ofthedatamore
meaningful.

Analysis of Data-theinterpretation
ofthefindingsare
discussed&thesignificantfeatures
showninthetable
figuresorgraphsarepointedout.
This shows the data you have
gathered arranged or presented in
tables or graphs. The data must
already speak of the whole thing
(general). You must discuss
too the results. What do those data
mean?

CHAPTER VConclusions
-the general truth implied or
illustrated by the results
should be clearly stated. The
evidence based on the
results should be summarized for
each statement
-this briefly states the immediate
answer/findings about
the problem
This briefly states the immediate
answer/findings
about the problem.

CHAPTER VIRecommendations
-consists of suggestions on future
actions such as a
new direction of research or
further experiments to be
performed, practices that might
be adapted or discarded in order
to attain certain goals or
objectives
If others would be doing your
project, what would you
advise them?

Bibliography-a list of the


references used in guiding the
research work and writing and
paper.

Guidelines in Preparing
Bibliographies
1.Separate these 3 parts (and any
additional items of information)
with periods followed by two
spaces.
2.Give the authors last name first.
A
second or third author or the
name of an
editor
3.After the author is listed in normal
order. For more than 3
authors,
list only the
first,
followed by
et al.
4.Always include the authors
name,
complete title of the
book and the complete
publication
information.

5. Indicate an editor or compiler


by the abbreviation ed. or
comp. or eds. / comps. If there
is more than one.
6. In the publication information
for books, you may use the
shortened form of publishers
names. give the name of the
city. Add the state or country
only if the city alone would not
be familiar to the readers.

7. In publication dates, for


periodicals, abbreviate the
names of all months except
May, June and July. Put the dates
in parentheses for
periodicals
with continuous
pagination.
8. Include page numbers for a
periodical article. A work that
is part of an anthology or
collection, or an introduction,
preface, foreword or after word
do not use p or pp.

References
:
http://www.geocities.com/egf94/2ndlongtest/ip.html
http://www.freesciencefairproject.com/requirements.htm

http://www.dost.gov.ph
Research Methods (Revised Edition)by Consuelo Sevilla et.
al.
Rex Publishing House

LIFE HAS JUST


BEGUN

Let us look
into details

EXCELLENCE can be attained if you:

Care more than others think is

wise;
Risk
safe;
Dream
practical; and
Expect

more than others think is

more than others think is

more than others think is

God does not


want us to do
extraordinary
things; He wants
us to do ordinary
things Charles Gore
extraordinarily