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BRIEF DISCUSSION OF

PHYSICAL
REQUIREMENT OF
AGGREGATE, SOIL,
BITUMEN, EMULSION,
CEMENT ETC.

Minimum weight of sample for sieve analysis

Maximum size present in


substantial
aproportion
mm
63
50
40 or 31.5
25
20-16
12.5
10
6.3
4.75
2.36

Minimum weight of
sample to be taken
for
Kg
50
35
15
5
2
1
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.1
BUILDING MATERIAL

Material:- Soil, Sand Gravel, aggregates for granular construction as well as Bituminous construction
Sand, aggregate for cement work, Cement, Bitumen.
1:- Soil:- Classification and identification:- Clay, Silt & Sand.
-- Coarse grained soil- more than 50 P.C. is retained on 75 micron I.S. Sieve.
-- Fine Grained Soil- more than 50 P.C. of material is smaller than 75 micron sieve.

Coarse grained Soil


Gravel
Sand
Gravel is + 4.75 mm size sands (-) 4.75 & + (.075 m)
FINE Grained Soil:i) Silt & Clay of low compressibility having L.L. < 35 (L)
ii) Silt & Clay of medium compressibility:LL.
35 - 50 - Symbol (I)
iii) Silt & Clay of High Compressibility:LL > 50 - (4)
Coarse grain can be further subdivided into 8 category, GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM & S.C.

Fine Grain can be subdivided into 9 category, ML, CL, OL, (L), M1, CI, OI, (I)
MH, CH, OH - (H)
Uniformity coefficient.
When Cu is <5, soil is very uniform when Cu is more
D60
Cu =
than 15, non uniform soil, on average for sand Cu 10D10
20, clays 10 to 100 silts 2 to 4
Coefficient of curvature
Cc

(D30)2

D10 X D60
D 60 = 60 P.C. finer than size So D30 & D10
GW - Cu > 4
CU, 1 - 3,
Ip = .73 X (WL 20)
= .73 X (35 -20) = 10.95
Boulder -> 300 MM
Colable - 75-300 mm
Gravel - 20-75 Coarse
4.75 - 20 - FINE
Sand Coarse - 2- 4.75
Medium 2 0.425
Fine 0.425 - .075
Silt - .075 - .002
Coarse .075 - .02
Medium .02 - .006
Fine
.006 - .002
Clay - < .002

I.S. 1498-1970

Determination of moisture content in soil:There are various methods are available for determination of moisture content in Soil.
Determination of field moisture Equivalent:- F.M.E. minimum water content expressed as A.P.C. of weight of oven dried soil,
at which a drop of water placed on a smooth surface of the soil will not immediately be absorbed by the soil but will spread out
over the surface and give it shiny appearance
W2 W3
Field moisture Equivalent:-FME =

X 100,
W3 W1
Where W 2 = container with wet soil, W 3 = container with dry soil, W 1 = weight of container.
Determination of specific gravity of Soil Fine grain in bottle 50 mm.
G1 (m2 m1)

(m4 m1) - (m3 m2)


Fine, medium & coarse grain soil in Jar one lilve capacity.
1) Grain Size Analysis:Atterberg Limits:Liquid limits Determination by one Pentrometer -2) Mechanical Liquid limit Device
Flow index---------Extend the graph at either end to intersect the ordinate corresponding to 10 and 100
drop. The slope of this line expressed in water content at 10 Drops and 100 Drops shall be reported as flow index- It may be calculated
from following equation
WI W2

If =

N2
Los 10 N
1
W 1 moisture content in P.C. to N1 drop,
W 2 moisture content in P.C. corresponding to N2 drop.
IP
Toughness Index :It =

If
IP = Plasticity index
If = flow index

Liquidity index
Wo Wp
I2 =
IP

Free swell index of soil:Per meability of soil:Soil compaction:Type of compaction mould


TypeDIA
100 G4
150 0.4
Water content dry density
IS2720 Part- 7, using light hammer
2.6 kg rammer falling 310 mm material upto 19 mm
Compaction :- Increase in dry density of soil by dynamic load where as consolidation is gradual
decrease in volume of voids, thaws increase in density by cohesive soil brought about under action
continuous acting static load over the period of time.
C.B.R.
Penetration Depth
Unit standard Load
Total
standard Load
Kg/cm2
Kgf
mm
2.5
70
1370
5.00
105
2055
7.50
134
2630
10.00
162
3180
12.50
183
3600

Compaction in large size mould


Material upto 37.5 mm, volume of mould 2250 cc, compacted in three layers, each given 55 blows.
Heavy Compaction IS 2720 Part 8
Mould 1000 c - material < 19 mm size in five layer each layer being given 25 blows from 4.9 kg rammer
dropped from height of 450 mm
In large mould volume 2250 cc material 37.5 mm size
Compacted in five layer given 55 blows of 4.9 kg rammer dry density-

Yd

100 ym
100+W

Ym
W
1+
100

Determination of shear
Strength parameter
i) Direct shear test
Triaxil vane shear test
Determination of CBR

CBR

PT
= PS X 100

PT = corrected unit test load corresponding to the chosen penetration from load penetration curve.
Consistency :- The consistency is that property of material which is manifested by it resistance to flow refer
to resistance of soil offered against forces that tend to deform or rupture the soil.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
1)Aggregate crushing value.
2)10 percent fine value
3)Impact value
4)Abrasion value
5)Polished stone value
6)Crushing strength
i) Crushing Value:- Crushing value gives relative measure of resistance of an aggregate to crushing under
gradually applied compressive load size 12.5 10 mm load applied 40 T in ten minutes.
Crushing value

X 100

A
A.wt of material taken for test.
B.Passing appropriate sieve.
ii) Ten percent fine values:Ten percent fine value gives the measure of resistance of an aggregate to crushingLoad should be applied in such a manner so that it causes the total penetration of plunger in ten
minutes15 mm for rounded aggregates.
20 mm crushed aggregate
24 mm for shale & slag
After sieve out in 2.36 mm sieve & fine passing the sieve sale be weighed & expressed as % of
total sample wt. This should be 7.2 to 12.5.
(-) 2.36
Wt of sample
If not a repeat test is to be done to obtain the value within 7.5 to 12.5
Load required for 10 PC fine.

X = load in tons

14 + X
Y + 4
Y = mean P.C. of fine from test of.
iii) Aggregate impact values:The aggregate impact value, gives a relative measure of the resistance of aggregate to sudden shock or
impact, which is some aggregate differs from its resistance to slow compressive load fall 380 5.00 mm
Wt of hammer 13.5 to 14 kg given - 15 blows, fall 380 5 mm
iv) Determination of aggregate Abrasion value.
1)By use DEVAL MACHINE
2)Los Angeles Machine
Sieve 1.70 mm I.S. Sieve
abrasive charge 48 mm dia and each weighing 390-445 g

Grading

Number of sphere

Wt of charge g

12

5000 25

11

4584 25

3330 20

2500 15

12

5000 25

12

5000 25

12

5000 25

Grading of test samples


Sieve sizes square hole
Passing in mm
A

Retained mm
B

80-63

E
2500

63-50

2500

50-40

5000

40-25

1250

25-20

1250

20-12.5

1250

2500

12.5-10

1250

2500

wt in g for test sample


F

5000

5000

5000

5000

10-6.3

2500

6.3-4.75

2500

4.75-2.36

5000

Machine is to be roted at the speed of 20-33 revaluation/ minutes for grading A,B,C,D & it shall be roted for 500
revaluation For EFG grading shall be roted for 1000 revaluation. After test material is sieve first on 4.75 mm then (-) 4.75
mm in 1.70 mm I.S. sieve.
(-) 1.70 m
Total Sample
reported as P.C. of wear

Soundness test:Na2 So4, Mg So4


350 gm - 400 g
sp G.1.151 1.174
Fine aggregate sample for such a size that it will yield not less the 100 gm of each of the following sizesPassing
Retarget
I.S. Sieve
I.S. Sieve
10
4.75
4.75
2.36
2.36
1.18
1.18
600
600
300
In case of coarse aggregate
74.75 mm
yield
Size
10-4.75
300 gm
20-10
1000 gm
Consisting of 12.5 - 10 - 33 P.C.
20 - 12.50 - 67 P.C.
40 20 - 1500 gm
Consisting of 25 - 20 - 33 P.C.
40 - 25 - 67 P.C.
63 - 40 - 3000 gm
Consisting of 50 - 40 - 50 P.C.
63 50 - 50 P.C.
all in aggregate shall be separated in two major fraction + 4.75 & 4.75
After completion, sample to be sieved
Fine aggregate on same sieve on which if is retained
Coarse aggregate as below.
Sieve of aggregate
63-40 mm
40-20
20-10
10-4.75

Sieve used to determine


Cm
31.5 mm
16 mm
8.00 mm
4.00 mm

Passing

Retained

63

40

40

Sample
P.C.

Wt of
sam
ple
befo
re
km

P.C.
pas
sing
fine
actu
al
P.C.
Los

20

3000

4.8

.98

20

45

1500

8.0

3.60

20

10

23

1000

9.6

2.20

10

4.75

12

300

11.2

1.34
8.10

v) Determination of stripping value of road aggregate.


20-12.5 m - 200 g aggregate mix with 5 P.C. by of aggregate Bitumen heated to 160 0 C l aggregate 1500
after mixing place in 500 ml beaker and allow to coat about two house, Distilled water in then added to
immerse the mix Beaker is covered and kept in water bath, water level is to be at half the ht of beaker
after expiry of 24 hrs beaker is taken out and coat at room temperature and extent of stripping is
observed.
vi) Paving Bitumen
The material shall be homogenous and shall not foam when heated to 175 0 C.
A 25, means, from Assam Petroleum and has approx, penetration 25, where S- 35 means a having
bitumen from other source.

Requirement of other bitumen


Tests

S 35

S 45

S 65

S 90

S 200

i) Specific gravity
at 270C

0.99

0.99

0.99

0.98

0.97

ii) Water PC by
wt

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.20

iii) Fash Point


Pensky
Mortens
closed
type 0c m

175

175

175

175

175

iv) Softening
Point0c m

50-65

45-60

40-55

35-50

30-45

v) Penetration at
250c 100g,
5sec in
1/100 cm

30-40

40-50

60-70

80-100

125-225

vi) Ductility at
270c in cm
min

50
1

75
1

75
1

75
1

v) Loss on
healing
penetratio
n of
residue

60

60

60

60

60

vi) Soluble in
carbondioxide.

99

99

99

99

99

I.S. 217 - 1961 - cut back bitumen


454 - 1961 - DIGBOI Type cut back
702 - 1961 - Industrial Bitumen
TEST RESULTS OF PAVING BITUMEN VIS.A.VIS I.S. 73
80/100
Test

GR

1) SpG at 270c

MR

HR

MRL

1.03, 1.025, 1.020, 1.028

2) Water
content.

3) Flash point.

260

260

258

4) Softening
point.

46

45

5) Penetration

85

89

6) Ductility at
270c

100+ 100+ 100+ 100+

7) Loss on
heating

.01

0.1

0.2

8) Penetration
of
residue
expresse
d as % of
iten 5,
matter

92,

95,

91,

Solution

99.9,

99.9, 99.9, 99.9,

60/70

S-

S-

HR BAPOCO

90

65

.98 (min)

.98 (min)

1.024 1.030
-

0.2 (max)

0.2 (max)

256

270

272

175 (min)

175 (min)

44.9

47

48

50.4

35-50

40-55

91

83

69

60

80-100

60-70

100+

100+

0.2

0.1

0.1

1 (max)

1 (max)

95

95

90

60 pc(min)

60 pc(min)

99 (min)

99 (min)

99.9, 99.9,

Bahrain petroleum oil company.


This values are taken from different sources.

75 (min)

75 (min)

PI of fraction passing 425 micron not executing 5


Grading requirement of B.M., S.D.B.C., D.B.M. & B.C.
I.S. Sieve

P.C. by wt passing the I.S. Sieve


B.M.

S.D.B.C.

D.B.M.

B.C.

II

II

II

II

80-100

50-75

35-46

25-30

80-100

50-75

50-65

30-45

45 mm

100

100

37.5 mm

90-100

95-100

100

26.5 mm

75-100

100

63-93

90-100

100

19 mm

90-100

100

71-95

79-100

100

13.2 mm

35-61

56-88

90-100

100

55-75

56-80

59-79

79-100

9.5 mm

70-90

90-100

52-72

70-88

4.75 mm

13-22

16-36

35-51

35-51

38-54

38-54

35-55

53-71

2.36 mm

4-19

4-19

24-39

24-39

28-42

28-42

28-44

42-58

1.18 mm

15-30

15-30

20-34

34-48

.600 mm

15-27

26-38

.150 mm

5-13

12-20

.075 mm

0-8

0-8

3-8

3-8

2-8

2-8

2-8

4-10

Nominal Size of
Aggre
gate

40 mm

19 mm

13 mm

10 mm

40 mm

25 mm

19 mm

13 mm

Binder mm

3.1-3.4
S-35, 90

3.3-3.5
S-35,90

Min 4.5
S-65

Min 5
S-65

Min 4
S-85

Min 4.5
S-65

5-6
S-65

5-7
S-65

Test
GR
1)Sp Grat 270c
1.03,
2) Water
Content %
3) Flash Point in 0C 260,
4) Softening point 46,
5) Penetration at 250C
100g, 5 second 85,
6) Ductility at 270 C 100,
7) Loss on heating 0.1,
8) Matter soluble

MR

Result Bitumen
80/100
HR
MRL

1.025,

1.020,

1.028,

60/70
H.R.BAPOCO
IS -73
S-90
S-65
1.024,1.030,0.98, min 0.98, min

260,
45,

258,
44.9,

256,
47,

-270, 272,
48.0, 50.4

0.2 pc, max 0.2 pc, max


175, min
175, min
35-50,
40-55

89,
100,
0.1,

91,
100,
0.2,

83,
100,
0.2,

65, 60,
100, 100,
0.3, 0.1

80-100,
100,

in trichloroethylene

99.9,

99.9,

99.9,

99.9,

99.9,

99.9,

9) Viscosity
at 600C, Poise

1150,

1011,

1282,

1170,

1714,

2421

60-70
100
1 max

at 1350C, Poise
286,
291,
319,
325,
372,
453,
10) Test on residue
From R.T. F.O.
11) Viscosity
at 600C, Poise
1498,
1247,
1596,
1518,
2134,
2851
Ductility, in cm
100
Ageing indices
12)Viscosity ratio
at 600
2.1,
2.3,
1.8,
2.1,
2.0,
2.0
at 1350
1.6,
1.3,
1.3,
1.2,
1.3,
1.3
0
13)Softening point, c
1.1,
1.1,
1.1,
1.1,
1.1,
1.1
14)Penetration%
63.5,
60.1,
63,
65,
72.5,
70.0
NB:- G.R.- Gujrat, M.R.- MATHURA, H.R.- HALDIA, MRD- MADRAS, BAPOCO Bahrain Petrolium Oil

250