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Topic 6 Outlines of Energetics

PowerPoint Lectures for

Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition


Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey
2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko

Learning outcomes
1. Explain how cellular respiration is necessary to
provide energy that is required to sustain your life
2. Explain why breathing is necessary to support
cellular respiration
3. Describe how cellular respiration produces energy
that can be stored in ATP
4. Explain why ATP is required for human activities
5. List and describe the three main stages of cellular
respiration
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Learning outcomes
6. Describe useful applications of poisons that
interrupt critical steps in cellular respiration
7. Compare respiration and fermentation
8. Describe useful applications of poisons that
interrupt critical steps in cellular respiration

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Cellular Respiration:
Aerobic Harvesting
of Energy

Fermentation: Anaerobic
Harvesting of Energy

Stages of Cellular
Respiration

Connections Between
Metabolic Pathways

Cellular Respiration:
Aerobic Harvesting
of Energy

Cellular respiration &


breathing
Reduction and oxidation
(redox)
NAD+

Stages of Cellular
Respiration

Glycolysis
Citric acid cycle
Oxidative
phosphorylation

Introduction
In eukaryotes, cellular respiration
harvests energy from food,
yields large amounts of ATP, and
uses ATP to drive cellular work.

Breakdown of sugars
and other food
molecules in the
presence of oxygen
to carbon dioxide,
generating ATP

A similar process takes place in many


prokaryotic organisms.

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6.1 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration


provide energy for life
Life requires energy.
In almost all ecosystems, energy ultimately comes
from the sun.
In photosynthesis,
some of the energy in sunlight is captured by
_______________,
atoms of carbon dioxide and water are rearranged, and
glucose and oxygen are produced.

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Inner and
outer
membranes

Granum

Chloroplast

Stroma

Thylakoid

6.1 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration


provide energy for life
In cellular respiration
glucose is broken down to carbon dioxide and water
and
the cell captures some of the released energy to make
ATP.

Cellular respiration takes place in the


____________ of eukaryotic cells.

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Mitochondrion

Outer
membrane
Intermembrane
space

Inner
membrane
Cristae
Matrix

The mitochondrion

Sunlight energy
ECOSYSTEM

Photosynthesis
in chloroplasts
CO2

Glucose

H2O

O2

Cellular respiration
in mitochondria

(for cellular
work)

ATP

Heat energy

6.2 Breathing supplies O2 for use in cellular


respiration and removes CO2
Respiration, as it relates to breathing, and cellular
respiration are not the same.
Respiration, in the breathing sense, refers to an
exchange of gases. Usually an organism brings in
oxygen from the environment and releases waste CO2.
Cellular respiration is the aerobic (oxygen requiring)
harvesting of energy from food molecules by cells.

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O2

Breathing

In breathing, CO2
and O2 are
exchanged between
your lungs and the
air.

CO2

Lungs

CO2

Bloodstream

O2

Muscle cells carrying out


Cellular Respiration
Glucose O2

CO2 H2O ATP

In cellular
respiration, cells
use O2 obtained
through breathing
to break down fuel,
releasing CO2 as
waste product

6.3 Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP


molecules
Cellular respiration is an __________process that
transfers energy from the bonds in glucose to form
ATP.
Cellular respiration
produces up to 32 ATP molecules from each glucose
molecule and
captures only about 34% of the energy originally stored
in glucose.

Other foods (organic molecules) can also be used


as a source of energy.
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Chemical energy of bonds in glucose is


released and stored in chemical bonds of ATP

C6H12O6

Glucose

Oxygen

O2

6 CO2

Carbon
dioxide

Atoms of glucose is rearranged to form


CO2 and H2O.

H2 O

ATP

Water

Heat

6.4 CONNECTION: The human body uses energy


from ATP for all its activities
The average adult human needs about 2,200 kcal
of energy per day.
About 75% of these calories are used to maintain a
healthy body.
The remaining 25% is used to power physical activities.

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6.4 CONNECTION: The human body uses energy


from ATP for all its activities
A kilocalorie (kcal) is
the quantity of heat
required to raise the
temperature of 1 kilogram
(kg) of water by 1oC,
the same as a food
Calorie, and
used to measure the
nutritional values indicated
on food labels.

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Activity

kcal consumed per hour


by a 67.5-kg (150-lb) person*

Running (89 mph)

979

Dancing (fast)

510

Bicycling (10 mph)

490

Swimming (2 mph)

408

Walking (4 mph)

341

Walking (3 mph)

245

Dancing (slow)
Driving a car
Sitting (writing)

204
61
28

*Not including kcal needed for


body maintenance

6.5 Cells tap energy from electrons falling


from organic fuels to oxygen
The energy necessary for life is contained in the
arrangement of electrons in chemical bonds in
organic molecules.
An important question is how do cells extract this
energy?
Transfer of electrons during chemical reactions

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6.5 Cells tap energy from electrons falling


from organic fuels to oxygen
When the carbon-hydrogen bonds of glucose are
broken, electrons are transferred to oxygen.
Oxygen has a strong tendency to attract electrons.
An electron loses potential energy when it falls to
oxygen.

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6.5 Cells tap energy from electrons falling


from organic fuels to oxygen
Energy can be released from glucose by simply
burning it.
The energy is dissipated as heat and light and is
not available to living organisms.

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6.5 Cells tap energy from electrons falling


from organic fuels to oxygen
On the other hand, cellular respiration is the
controlled breakdown of organic molecules.
Energy is
gradually released in small amounts,
captured by a biological system, and
stored in ATP.

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6.5 Cells tap energy from electrons falling


from organic fuels to oxygen
The movement of electrons from one molecule to
another is an oxidation-reduction reaction, or
_____________.
the loss of electrons/ H atom from one substance is
called ____________,
the addition of electrons/ H atom to another substance
is called _____________,
a molecule is oxidized when it loses one or more
electrons, and
reduced when it gains one or more electrons.
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Redox
Reduction
Addition of e- / H atoms

Oxidation
Loss of e- / H atoms

Loss of hydrogen atoms


(becomes oxidized)
C6H12O6
Glucose

6 O2

6 CO2

6 H2O

Gain of hydrogen atoms


(becomes reduced)

ATP
Heat

of hydrogen atoms
6.5 CellsLoss
tap
energy from electrons falling
(becomes oxidized)
from organic fuels to oxygen
C6H12O6

6 O2

CO2

H2O

ATP

Heat
Glucose
A cellular respiration
equation
is
helpful
to
show
the
Gain of hydrogen atoms
(becomes
changes in hydrogen
atom reduced)
distribution.

Glucose
loses its hydrogen atoms and
becomes oxidized to CO2.

Oxygen
gains hydrogen atoms and
becomes reduced to H2O.
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6.5 Cells tap energy from electrons falling


from organic fuels to oxygen
Enzymes are necessary to oxidize glucose and
other foods.
The enzyme that removes hydrogen from an
organic molecule is called dehydrogenase
Dehydrogenase requires a coenzyme called
___________(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
to shuttle electrons
NAD+ accepts electrons and becomes _________
to NADH.
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Becomes oxidized

NAD

2H
2 H

Becomes reduced
2

2H

NADH

(carries
2 electrons)

The transfer of electrons to NAD+ results in the


formation of NADH
In this situation, NAD+ is called an electron acceptor
When it becomes oxidized (loses an electron) its
then called an electron donor

6.5 Cells tap energy from electrons falling


from organic fuels to oxygen
There are other electron carrier molecules that
function like NAD+.
They form a staircase where the electrons pass from
one to the next down the staircase.
These electron carriers collectively are called the
_____________________________.
As electrons are transported down the chain, ATP is
generated.

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NADH transfers e
to ETC

NADH

NAD

ATP
2

Controlled
release of
energy for
synthesis
of ATP

H
El
ec
t

ro
n

tr
an
sp
or
tc

e carrier
molecules

ha

in

Final e
acceptor

2
1 O
2 2

2 H

H2O

STAGES OF CELLULAR
RESPIRATION

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6.6 Overview: Cellular respiration occurs in


three main stages
Cellular respiration consists of a sequence of steps
that can be divided into three stages.
Stage 1 Glycolysis
Stage 2 Pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle
Stage 3 Oxidative phosphorylation

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CYTOPLASM
NADH
Electrons
carried by NADH
Glycolysis
Pyruvate

Glucose

Pyruvate
Oxidation

NADH

Citric Acid
Cycle

FADH2

Oxidative
Phosphorylation
(electron transport
and chemiosmosis)

Mitochondrion
ATP
ATP

ATP

Substrate-level
phosphorylation

Substrate-level
phosphorylation

Oxidative
phosphorylation

6.6 Overview: Cellular respiration occurs in


three main stages
Stage 1: Glycolysis
occurs in the cytoplasm,
begins cellular respiration, and
breaks down glucose into two molecules of a threecarbon compound called ____________.

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Glucose
2 ADP

Substrate level phosphorylation


- Enzyme transfers a phosphate
group from a substrate molecule
directly to ADP, forming ATP

2 NAD

2 P

2 NADH
2

ATP

2 Pyruvate

2 H

For each glucose molecule processed, what are


the net molecular product of glycolysis?

In glycolysis, which molecule is oxidized? Reduced?

6.6 Overview: Cellular respiration occurs in


three main stages
Stage 2: Pyruvate oxidation & citric acid cycle
takes place in mitochondrial matrix,
oxidizes pyruvate to a two-carbon compound, and
supplies the third stage with electrons.
NAD

NADH

CoA
Pyruvate

Acetyl coenzyme A

CO2
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Coenzyme A

What are the products


for each pyruvate?

Acetyl CoA
CoA
CoA

CITRIC ACID CYCLE

2 CO2

3 NAD+

FADH2

3 NADH

FAD

3 H+
ATP

ADP + P

What are the products for one glucose molecule from


this cycle?

What is the total number of NADH molecules


generated during complete breakdown of 1 glucose
molecule to 6 molecules of CO2?

6.6 Overview: Cellular respiration occurs in


three main stages
Stage 3: Oxidative phosphorylation
involves electrons carried by NADH and FADH2,
shuttles these electrons to the electron transport chain
embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane,
involves ________________, and
generates ATP through oxidative phosphorylation
associated with chemiosmosis.

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H
H

H Mobile
electron
carriers

Protein
complex
of electron
carriers

H
H

H
III

H ATP
synthase

IV

I
II
FADH2

Electron
flow
NADH

NAD

FAD
2 H

1
O
2 2

H2O

H
ADP

ATP
H

Electron Transport Chain


Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chemiosmosis

6.6 Overview: Cellular respiration occurs in


three main stages
Oxidative phosphorylation
involves electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
requires an adequate supply of oxygen.

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6.6 Overview: Cellular respiration occurs in


three main stages
Electrons from NADH and FADH2 travel down the
electron transport chain to O2.
Oxygen picks up H+ to form water.
Energy released by these redox reactions is used
to pump H+ from the mitochondrial matrix into the
intermembrane space.
In chemiosmosis, the H+ diffuses back across the
inner membrane through ATP synthase
complexes, driving the synthesis of ATP.
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H
Intermembrane
space

H
H

Protein
complex
of electron
carriers

H
H

Mobile
electron
carriers

H ATP
synthase

IV

I
II
FADH2

Electron
flow
NADH
Mitochondrial
matrix

H
III

Inner mitochondrial
membrane

NAD

FAD
2 H

1
2 O2

H2O

H
ADP

ATP
H

Electron Transport Chain


Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chemiosmosis

Summary

CYTOPLASM
NADH
Electrons
carried by NADH
Glycolysis
Glucose

Pyruvate

Pyruvate
Oxidation

NADH

Citric Acid
Cycle

FADH2

Oxidative
Phosphorylation
(electron transport
and chemiosmosis)

Mitochondrion

ATP

Substrate-level
phosphorylation

ATP

Substrate-level
phosphorylation

ATP

Oxidative
phosphorylation

6.11 CONNECTION: Interrupting cellular respiration


can have both harmful and beneficial effects

Three categories of cellular poisons obstruct the


process of oxidative phosphorylation. These poisons
1. block the electron transport chain (for example,
rotenone, cyanide, and carbon monoxide),
2. inhibit ATP synthase (for example, the antibiotic
oligomycin), or
3. make the membrane leaky to hydrogen ions (called
uncouplers, examples include dinitrophenol).

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Rotenone

preventing electrons from


passing to next electron
carrier
Used to kill pest insects &
fish
FADH2
NAD

NADH
H

ATP
synthase

H H H

FAD
1
O
2 2

H2O

2 H

ADP

ATP

Cyanide,
carbon monoxide

H
H

ATP
synthase

Block passage of electrons


H H H
to oxygen

DNP

FADH2
NAD

NADH
H

FAD
1
O
2 2

H2O

2 H

ADP

ATP

H
H

Blocks passage
Cyanide,
of H+
carbon monoxide
though channel in ATP
H
synthase
H H H
Used on skin to fight
fungal infections

NAD

NADH
H

ATP
synthase

FADH2

Oligomycin

FAD
1
O
2 2

H2O

2 H

ADP

ATP

H
H H H

ATP
synthase

DNP

FADH2
NAD

NADH
H

FAD

Make membrane of mitochondrion


leaky to hydrogen ions
ATP cannot be1 made
O
2 Hbecause
2
leakage of H+ through membrane
destroys the H+ gradient
ADP P
2

H2O

ATP

FERMENTATION:
ANAEROBIC HARVESTING
OF ENERGY

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6.13 Fermentation enables cells to produce ATP


without oxygen
_______________is a way of harvesting chemical
energy that does not require oxygen.
takes advantage of glycolysis,
produces two ATP molecules per glucose, and
reduces NAD+ to NADH.

The trick of fermentation is to provide an anaerobic


path for recycling NADH back to NAD+.
It oxidizes the NADH without passing its electrons
through the electron transport chain to oxygen
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2 ATP

Glucose

2 NAD

2 NADH

2 ADP
2 P
2 ATP

2 Pyruvate

Glycolysis

2 ADP
2 P

Glycolysis

Glucose

2 NAD

2 NADH

2 Pyruvate

2 NADH

2 NADH
2 CO2

2 NAD

2 Lactate

Lactic acid fermentation

2 NAD
2 Ethanol

Alcohol fermentation

Glucose

Your muscle cells and certain


bacteria can oxidize NADH
through
_________________
fermentation, in which
NADH is oxidized to NAD+ and

2 P

2 ATP

Glycolysis

6.13 Fermentation enables cells to produce ATP


without oxygen
2 ADP
2 NAD

2 NADH

2 Pyruvate
2 NADH

pyruvate is reduced to lactate.


2 NAD

2 Lactate
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6.13 Fermentation enables cells to produce ATP


without oxygen
Lactate is carried by the blood to the __________,
where it is converted back to pyruvate and oxidized
in the mitochondria of liver cells.
The dairy industry uses lactic acid fermentation by
bacteria to make cheese and yogurt.
Other types of microbial fermentation turn
soybeans into soy sauce and
cabbage into sauerkraut.

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The baking and winemaking


industries have used _________
fermentation for thousands of
years.

2 ADP
2 P
2 ATP

In this process yeasts (single-celled


fungi)

Yeasts not only can use aerobic


respiration for energy but can
ferment under anaerobic conditions
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2 NAD

2 NADH

2 Pyruvate

oxidize NADH back to NAD+ and


convert pyruvate to CO2 and ethanol.

Glycolysis

Glucose
6.13 Fermentation enables cells to produce
ATP
without oxygen

2 NADH
2 CO2

2 NAD
2 Ethanol

Animation: Fermentation Overview


Right click on animation / Click play
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CONNECTIONS BETWEEN
METABOLIC PATHWAYS

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6.15 Cells use many kinds of organic molecules


as fuel for cellular respiration
Although glucose is considered to be the primary
source of sugar for respiration and fermentation,
ATP is generated using
carbohydrates,
fats, and
proteins.

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polysaccharides & sugars can be funneled


into glycolysis
amino acids are converted to intermediates
of glycolysis or citric acid cycle
fats are first hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty
acids

Food, such as
peanuts

Carbohydrates

Sugars

Fats

Proteins

Glycerol Fatty acids

Amino acids
Amino
groups

Glucose

G3P
Pyruvate
Glycolysis

Pyruvate
Oxidation
Acetyl CoA

ATP

Citric
Acid
Cycle

Oxidative
Phosphorylation

Disposed
of in urine

6.16 Food molecules provide raw materials for


biosynthesis
Many metabolic pathways are involved in
biosynthesis of biological molecules
Cells use intermediates from cellular respiration for
the biosynthesis of other organic molecules.

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ATP needed
to drive
biosynthesis

Citric
Acid
Cycle

ATP

Pyruvate
Oxidation
Acetyl CoA

Glucose Synthesis
Pyruvate
Glucose
G3P

Amino
groups
Amino acids

Proteins

Fatty acids Glycerol

Fats

Cells, tissues, organisms

Sugars

Carbohydrates

STAGES OF CELLULAR
RESPIRATION
AND FERMENTATION

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Mitochondria

Fuel
(glucose)
Oxygen
(O2)
Blood vessel

Muscle cell

Here, the blood vessel on the left delivers fuel and oxygen to a single
muscle cell.

Mitochondrion

Oxygen

Water
Carbon
dioxide

ATP

Fuel (glucose)

In cellular respiration, energy in fuel is converted to ATP, shown here


as starbursts. Most ATP is made in the cells mitochondria. ATP
powers the work of the cell, such as contraction.

Glycolysis

Mitochondrion

ATP

Glucose

GLYCOLYSIS
Lets take a closer look at how ATP is produced from a molecule of
glucoseour fuel. Only the carbon skeleton is shown to keep things
simple. The first step is called glycolysis, and it takes place outside the
mitochondria. To begin the process, some energy has to be invested.

Next, the molecule is split in half.

Electron carrier (NADH)


Now, the molecule NAD+, an electron carrier, picks up electrons and
hydrogen atoms from the carbon molecule, becoming NADH. Keep track
of the electron carriersthey play an important role by transporting
electrons to reactions in the mitochondria.

ATP

Pyruvic acid

In the final steps of glycolysis, some ATP is produced, but not much
for every glucose molecule, only two net ATPs are produced outside the
mitochondrion. However, glycolysis has produced pyruvic acid, which
still has a lot of energy available.

Acetyl CoA Formation

Outer mitochondrial
membrane

Pyruvic acid

Inner mitochondrial
membrane
Lets follow this pyruvic acid molecule into a mitochondrion to see
where most of the energy is extracted.

Carbon dioxide

As the molecule enters the mitochondrion, one carbon is removed,


forming carbon dioxide as a by-product.

Electron carrier (NADH)

Electrons are stripped, forming NADH.

Acetyl CoA
Coenzyme A attaches to the 2-carbon fragment, forming acetyl CoA.

Coenzyme A
CITRIC ACID CYCLE
Coenzyme A is removed and the remaining 2-carbon skeleton is attached
to an existing 4-carbon molecule that serves as the starting point for the
citric acid cycle.

Carbon dioxide

The new 6-carbon chain is partially broken down, releasing carbon


dioxide.

Electron carrier (NADH)

Several electrons are captured by electron carriers

Carbon dioxide

and more carbon dioxide is released. The carbon dioxide that you
exhale comes from the reactions of cellular respiration.

ATP

Two ATPs are produced by the citric acid cycle for each molecule of
glucose. At this point, only a small number of ATPs have been produced.

Electron carrier (FADH2)

However, more energy is available in the electrons that are being


transported by electron carriers.

Coenzyme A

Electron carrier (NADH)


While the citric acid cycle starts another round, lets follow an electron
carrier to the next step in the process.

Oxidative Phosphorylation:
Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis

Electron transport chain


Outer
mitochondrial
membrane

Inner
mitochondrial
membrane

Electron carrier (NADH)

Electrons

Electron carriers such as NADH deliver their electrons to an electron


transport chain embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
The chain consists of a series of electron carriers, most of which are
proteins that exist in large complexes. Electrons are transferred from one
electron carrier to the next in the electron transport chain.

Oxygen

Electrons

Hydrogen ions
Lets take a closer look at the path electrons take through the chain. As
electrons move along each step of the chain, they give up a bit of energy.
The oxygen you breathe pulls electrons from the transport chain

Water
and water is formed as a by-product.

Hydrogen ions
Area of high
hydrogen ion
concentration
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane

ATP

ATP synthase

The energy released by electrons is used to pump hydrogen ions (the


blue balls) across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, creating an
area of high hydrogen ion concentration. Hydrogen ions flow back
across the membrane through a turbine. Much like water through a dam,
the flow of hydrogen ions spins the turbine, which activates the
production of ATP.

Outer
mitochondrial
membrane
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane

The process youve just observed, cellular respiration, generates 10


million ATPs per second in just one cell.

Cellular
respiration
has three stages

generates

oxidizes
uses

produce
some

energy for

glucose and
organic fuels

(a)

produces
many

(b)

(d)
to pull
electrons down

(c)
cellular work

(f)

by a process called

uses

H diffuse
through
ATP synthase

chemiosmosis
uses

(e)

pumps H to create

H gradient

(g)

to

You should now be able to


1. Explain how cellular respiration is necessary to
provide energy that is required to sustain your life
2. Explain why breathing is necessary to support
cellular respiration
3. Describe how cellular respiration produces
energy that can be stored in ATP
4. Explain why ATP is required for human activities

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You should now be able to


5. List and describe the three main stages of
cellular respiration
6. Describe useful applications of poisons that
interrupt critical steps in cellular respiration
7. Compare respiration and fermentation
8. Describe useful applications of poisons that
interrupt critical steps in cellular respiration

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.