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INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
An instrument transformer is a device used to
reduce the current or voltage values into values
can be handled by other equipments.
Is a device to transform the power system
current and voltage to lower magnitudes, and
provide an isolation between the power network
and the relay and other instruments connected
to the transformer secondary winding

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Instrument Transformers Why


is it Needed?
Reduce the voltage or current into values that.other equipment can handle it
Isolate the equipments from the power network(i.e.we need more insulation)
To provide possibilities of a standardization ofinstruments and relays to a few rated currents and
.voltages
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Classification of Instrument
Transformers
-OIL IMMERSED
-CAST RESIN
-Epoxy

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Types Of Instrument
Transformers
1-Current transformers

2-Voltage transformers

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CURRENT TRANSFORMER

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CURRENT TRANSFORMER
A current transformer is used to transform a

primary current quantity in termsof its


magnitude and phase to a secondary value
such that in normal conditionsthe secondary
value is substantially proportional to the
primary value.
IEC 60044

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Construction of Current
Transformer
A current transformer is a transformer has its primary

primary
winding isconnected in series with the power
circuit withthick windings and few turns , usually one
turn. and the secondary with thin windings with many
.turns
:Equation of current transformer

Ip/Is = Ns/Np

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CT Equivalent
Circuit
Referred to secondary

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Types Of Current
Wound primary
Transformers
type

The wound type has a separate primary


and secondary winding mounted on a
laminated iron core. It is used for auxiliary
current transformers and for many low or
moderate ratio current transformers used
in switchgear of up to 11kV Rating.

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The wound primary is used for the


smaller currents, but it can only be
applied on low fault level installations
due to thermal limitations as well as
structural requirements due to high
magnetic
forces.
This
type of
current transformer is
designed so that the primary winding
consists of one or more turns of heavy wire
connected in series in the circuit
The secondary winding consists of a larger
number of turns of relatively smaller wires.
And is connected to instruments or control
devices
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Bushing type:
would be mounted in a transformer or circuit
breaker
For currents greater than 100 A,
This consists of a cylindrical
ring core built up of thin
iron laminations. Around
the core is wound copper
wire which forms the
secondary winding. The
primary winding is formed
by the bushing conductor
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Window current transformer


If we enclose the current transformer in the bushing type
In a molded case, we obtain another type of current
transformer
called the window type
Through the core and secondary winding, there is an
insulated hole through which the user can place his own
conductor.

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Current Transformer
Rating

The current transformer is designed to


give the secondary a current that is
proportional to the primary current

The rating of aCT has its own standards. the


rating is
A , 2 A and 1 A5
IEC 60044-1
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Examples:
CTR = 200/5 = 40
CTR = 1200/5 = 240
CTR = 400/1 = 400

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CT Characteristics

CT errors results from the excitation current, so in


order to check the ct function its essential to
measure the excitation curve,
The magnetizing current of a CT depends on the
cross section and the length of the magnetic circuit,
the number of turns and the magnetic circuit
material
This curve is the best method of determining a CTs
performance. It is a graph of the amount of
magnetizing current required to generate an opencircuit voltage at the terminals of the unit.
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Current Transformer Kneepoint

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CT response in saturated state


If the load and the magnitude of the primary
current are large enough to saturate the CT, neither
the flux nor the induced voltage are sinusoidal. The
excitation current can take large magnitudes and
the resulting error will be large.
The secondary current is no longer proportional to
the primary current.
The current error which corresponds to the
magnetization current increases significantly

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CT Secondary

Current transformers generally work at a low flux


density. Core is then made of very good metal to
give small magnetizing current
the e.m.f, induced in the secondary winding is
that required to drive the secondary current
through the total impedance of the secondary
circuit,
And that the core flux inducing this e.m.f, on
open-circuit, secondary impedance now becomes
infinite and the core saturates. This induces a very
high voltage in the primary up to approximately
system volts and the corresponding volts in the
secondary will depend on the number of turns,
multiplying up by the ratio (i.e. volts/turn no. of
turns).
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Or we can say.

With CTs the increase of CT secondary


burden will also increase the secondary
voltage. This is maintain the correct
magnitude of secondary current.
As the burden decreased will result in
decreasing the secondary voltage as well.
This voltage increase will increase the
secondary burden, supposing that we have
infinite secondary burden, theoretically the
secondary voltage is infinite, but for practical
reasons, the voltage will be very high. In
terms of hundreds of kilovolts. This voltage
will cause to break down the insulation
between secondary and primary voltage, or
between the secondary coils, so the
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secondary of CT should never be opened.

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Since CT normally has much more turns in
secondary compared to the primary, the
voltage generated on the open-circuited CT
will be much more than the system volts,
leading to flashovers.
this peak value may be as low as a few
hundred volts in a small measuring c.t. with a
5A secondary winding, but it might reach
many kilovolts in the case of, say a 2000/1A

protective
c.t. with
a large
core section.
open
circuit voltage
at CT
is
:almost
V=(3.5*Zb*Ip/Ns)^.5

!THEY CAN KILL YOU


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Current Transformer
Connection

WYE
CONNECTION:

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DELTA CONNECTION:

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Current Transformer Grounding


The

grounding of CTs is important to both


safety and the correct operation of protective
relays.
To assure safe and reliable operation, the
neutral of the CT secondary should have a
single ground location for each circuit.

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The grounding of CTs is important to both safety and the


correct operation of protective relays.
To assure safe and reliable operation, the neutral of the
CT secondary should have a single ground location for
each circuit.
The recommended method of grounding is to install a
single ground point at the first point of application
(switchboard or relay panel) of the CT secondary circuit.
The grounding is done only at one point. Multi point may
introduce some problems.?
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thegroundingisdoneattheinstrumenttransformerlocationat
thesiteoratthefirstpanelapplication.Groundingthectsatthe
sitelocationmaycauseaproblems:
Another grounding may be done at the panel without knowing that there
is a grounding at the location

Thegroundingisdonemainlyatthecommonpoint,
*NEPCOgroundingstandard:
TheCTsaregroundedattheplacewherethemeteringorrelaying
*otherstandard.GE,ABB..ETC

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The unused CT secondaries:

The unused secondary of the current


transformers as there may be multi
secondaries , and no all the secondaries are
used, these un used secondaries must be
grounding. The grounding practice as we
mentioned later at the instrument
transformers location or at the first point of
application.

In case of multi ratio secondaries:


One of these connection are applicable

Sometimes shorting terminals are


available at the transformer
secondaies.

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CT Standards
There are primarily two standards that are
used to specify the performance of CTs for
protection applications.
ANSI and the IEC

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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
THE ANSI & THE IEC

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A Ct can be separated
into 2
distinct groups
1-Metering Type
2-Protection Type

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Current Transformers Specifications:
Rated primary currents:
10 - 12.5 - 15 - 20 - 25 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 75 and their multiple
factors
Accuracy power: this also called the BURDEN and its the
maximum load can be connected to the CT secondary for the rated
secondary current.
Standard values: (1 - 2.5 - 5 - 10 - 15 -30) VA.
Accuracy class: this defines the guaranteed transformation
ratio and phase displacement error limits under specific
power and current conditions.
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Metering current transformers
according to the IEC -60044-1 the metering Ct must have the accuracy
for the rated current.
The standardized IEC accuracy classes are: 0.1 - 0.2 - 0.5 - 1 - 3 - 5.
Classes 0.5 and 1 are used in the majority of cases.
Class 0.2 is only used for precision metering.
Classes 0.1 - 3 - 5 are never used in medium voltage.

Metering symbols :
B, Fs or sometimes there is no symbol

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Metering CTs In general, the following
applies
CLASS:
0.1 or 0.2 for precision measurements
0.5 for high grade kilowatt hour meters for
commercial grade kilowatt hour meters
3 for general industrial measurements
3 or 5 for approximate measurements

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Accuracy limit factor:
ALF represents the value of the primary current at which the
accuracy class still presents.

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EXAMPLE:
500/1 A 15 VA cl 0.5

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Burden

Is the amount of the impedance connected to the ct


secondary and rated in ohms or VA.

The burden can be expressed in two ways. The


burden can be expressed as the total impedance in
ohms of the circuit or the total volt-amperes and
power factor at a specified value of current or
voltage and frequency.
Ex: the burden of a CT is 25 VA, with 5A secondary.
So the burden in ohms :
25= VI = I*R *I = IR
25=5*5*R
R= burden in ohms = 1 Ohm
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BURDEN (depending on pilot lead length)
Moving iron ammeter 1-2VA
Moving coil rectifier ammeter 1-2.5VA
Electrodynamics instrument 2.5-5VA
Maximum demand ammeter 3-6VA
Recording ammeter or transducer 1-2.5VA

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CTs for Protection:
Protection symbols V,H,L T and P
1.IEC 60044-1
Accuracy is defined by the accuracy class.
The IEC accuracy classes are 5P and 10P
The IEC ALF values are: 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 30.

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Example:
100/1 A 15 VA 5P10

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Protection CTs In general the following


applies:
Instantaneous over current relays & trip coils 2.5VA Class 10P5
Thermal inverse time relays - 7.5VA Class 10P10
Low consumption Relay - 2.5VA Class 10P10
Inverse definite min. time relays (IDMT) over current
- 15VA Class
10P10/15
IDMT Earth fault relays with approximate time
grading - 15VA Class
10P10
IDMT Earth fault relays with phase fault stability or
accurate time
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grading required - 15VA Class 5P10

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BS 3938 (class X)
BS 3938 specifically defines current transformers designed for
protection under the heading class X.
This defines the rated knee-point voltage VK . . This voltage,
when applied to the terminals of the secondary increased by
10%, causes a maximum increase in magnetizing current of
50%.

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Class PX:

Class X CTs are special CTs used mainly in


balanced protection systems (including
restricted earth fault) where the system is
sensitively dependent
on CT accuracy. Further to the general CT
specifications, the manufacturer needs to know:
Vkp - Voltage knee point
Io - Maximum magnetizing current at Vkp
Rs - Maximum resistance of the secondary
winding

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The "X" indicates that they do not belong to any
standardized class. They are customized transformers
therefore it is necessary to specify the individual
characteristics of the current transformers such as
the turns ratio, rated primary and secondary current,
Voltage knee point, the maximum magnetizing
current at the knee point and the Maximum
resistance of the secondary winding.
Class X CTs are generally used where high knee points
are require to prevent operation at higher currents
without saturation.
Class X CTs are further divided into Class A and Class
B CTs.
Class A CTs are more expensive and are designed to
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operate even at maximum fault current without

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ERRORS IN CT

Ratio error-1
represent the difference between the rated ratio and
the measured ratio
E=(actual turns ratio-rated turns ratio)/rated turns %
ratio *100%

:Phase error-2
represents the phase difference between the primary
and the secondary
currents
delta= (Ip)- (Is)
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CT Terminal Marking

Primary
P2

:Secondary
single core secondary

single core multi ratio secondary

multi core secondary


......2S2,2S2

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P1

S1 S2 *
S1-S2,S3 *
1S1, 1S1- *

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According to IEC
60044-1

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CT Symbols

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CT'S USED IN NEPCO

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For 132 KV Line Circuit

A for distance protection and fault800/400/1-


location equipments
A for directional overcurrent, earth800/400/1-
fault, sensitive earth fault protection and
fault recorder
800/400/1A for Busbar zone protection-

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For 132 KV Transformer Circuit


HV Side
100/1A for restricted earth fault protection-
100/1A overcurrrent protection-
1200/600/1A for busbar zone protection-
100/1A transformer differential protection-

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For 33KV Feeder Circuit

400/200/1A for over current , earth fault and-


sensitive earth fault protection
for metering400/200/1-

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For 132KV Transformer Circuit


MV Side
800/400/1A for directional overcurrent and-
earth fault protection
800/400/1A for transformer differential-
protection and restricted earth fault
protection
400/200/1A for metering-

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CTs Used In EDCO

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Current Transformer
Nameplate

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Current Transformer Tests


:polarity test-1
Each transformer should be tested in order to
verify the polarity of the current transformer, we
.perform this test to check the polarity of a CT
such that we connect a dc battery to the primary
"almost 12 Vdc". and we connect an ammeter to
.the secondary winding
a low voltage battery is used to energize the
primary winding, on closing the push button the
dc ammeter should give a positive flick, and at
,open a negative flick
.

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According toBS 3938 states that atthe


instant when current is flowing from P1 to P2
in primary, then current, in secondary must
flow from S1 to S2 through the external
circuit
Connect battery ve terminal to the current
transformer P2 primary terminal.
Thisarrangement will cause current to flow
from P1 to P2 when +ve terminal is connected
toP1 until the primary is saturated. If the
polarities are correct, a momentary current
willflow from S1 to S2.
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Connection Diagram Of
Polarity Test

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2-magnetizing current curve.


Several points should be tested on each current
transformer magnetization curve. this can be done
energizing the secondary winding from local main
supply through a variable autotransformer, while the
primary circuit remains open.
The magnetizing current is measured on the ammeter,
an the secondary voltage on the voltmeter. the applied
voltage should be raised slowly till the magnetizing
current is seen to rise very rapidly for a small increase
of voltage. this indicates the approximate knee-point
or saturation flux level of the current transformer .
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Connection Diagram
Of Magnetizing
Curve Test

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3-Insulation Test

In this test we will measure the insulation resistance between


the primary winding and ground And between secondary
winding and ground Between secondary and primary
P1 with E
P1 and S1
S2

P2 with E
P2 and S1

S1 and E
P2 and S1

S2 and E
P2 and

4-Secondary resistance test


5-continuity Test:

Determine if there is no broken conductor within the


transformer winding, we will use an ohm meter and
connection cord, test resistance between primary windings
terminals,
test resistance between secondary winding terminals.

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6-Ratio Test:
Determine

the transformation ratio, we will


use a primary injection set, amps meters,
connection cords.

we inject a current into the primary then we


record the secondary and find the ratio.

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7-dc Winding resistance Test:
The CT resistance must be checked during the routine maintenance.
A dc voltage is applied then a voltmeter measure the voltage , then the
current is measured .
The resistance is then
R= V/I
But this resistance must be compared with the manufacturer data
The temperature conversion must be done to the 75 degrees.. ?

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:The following factors affect CT prices


Specifying a higher VA or CLASS than necessary .1
usually results in a higher cost

The cost generally increases as the CT's internal .2


diameter increases

A CTs are usually more expensive than 5A.13

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VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

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VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
I s a device used to decrease the network
voltage into values can be handled by other
equipments.
Equation of VT:

Vp/Vs=Np/Ns

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Secondary Of Voltage Transformer


Rated secondary voltage 100, 100/sqrt3,
110110/sqrt3 volts depending on the
type of connection

IEC 60044-2
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Voltage Transformer Errors

Primary source of errors is overloading


the transformer.

Ratio error:
Represents the difference between the primary
voltage multiplied by the transformation ratio
and the secondary voltage.
E%=(actual ratio-rated ratio)/rated ratio *100%
Phase Error:
Represents the phase difference between the
primary side and the secondary side.
Delta= (Vp)-(Vs)
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VTConnection

Voltage transformers are commonly used in three-phase


groups, generally in starstar configuration

WYE
connection

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OPEN DELTA Connection

It is common to detect earth faults in a three-phase system


using the displacement that occurs in the neutral voltage
windings connected in a broken delta.

The residual voltage (neutral


displacement voltage, polarizing
voltage) for earth fault relays
can be obtained from a threephase set of VTs, which have
their primary winding connected
phase to earth and one of the
secondary

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Secondary earthing of voltage


To prevent secondary
circuits from reaching
transformers
dangerous potential, the circuits should be earthed.
Earthing should be made at only one point of a VT
secondary circuit

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VT Accuracy Class
Voltage Transformer Accuracy:
Accuracy Grade : represents the ratio and phase error
in the transformer.
Voltage Factor: represents the transformer withstand
voltage for 30 sec or for some VT'scontinuous.
maximum primary voltage can the VT withstand
depends on earthling system and VT primary
connection.
IEC specifies
the voltage factors:
1.9 for systems not being solidly earthed.
1.5 for solidly earthed systems.
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Accuracy power: or the burden is the rated load that the
VT can supply at the rated voltage
The standardized values are:
10 - 15 - 25 - 30 - 50 - 75 - 100 - 150 - 200 - 300 - 400 - 500 - VA.

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Voltage transformers used for measuring

The standardized IEC accuracy classes are: 0.1 - 0.2 - 0.5


- 1 - 3.
Classes 0.1 and 0.2 are only used for laboratory
devices.
Classes 0.5 and 1 are used in the majority of cases.
Class 3 is used very little.

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Example:

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Voltage transformer for protection:
The IEC accuracy classes are 3P and 6P. In practice, only class 3P is used

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Types Of Voltage Transformers


shell type
dry type

oil type

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Note:
VT must never be short-circuited on the secondary,
because the power supplied increases and the
transformer
can be damaged by the resulting heat rise

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Voltage drop in voltage transformers


The voltage drop in the secondary
circuit is of importance. The voltage
drop in the
secondary fuses and long connection
wires can change the accuracy of the
measurement.
The voltage drop in the leads from the VT
to the associated equipment must be
considered as this, in practice, can be
alarming mainly in case of measuring
circuits. This is the one that separates the
metering circuits (with low burden) from
protective circuits (with higher burdens)
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Voltage TransformerNameplate

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Voltage Transformer
Testing
Polarity Test
Insulation Resistance Test
Ratio Test
continuity Test
High voltage test

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CapacitorVoltageTransfor
In general,
mer the size of an inductiveVTis

proportional to its nominal voltage and, for


this reason, the cost increases in a similar
manner tothat of a high voltage transformer.
One alternative, and a more economic solution,
is to use a capacitor voltage transformer .
Acapacitor voltage transformer(CVT) is a
transformer used in power systems to stepdownextra- high voltagesignals and
providelow voltagesignals either for
measurement or to operate a protective relay.
In its most basic form the device consists of
three parts: twocapacitorsacross which the
voltage signal is split, an inductive
elementused to tune the device to the supply
frequency and a transformer used to isolate
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and
further step-down the voltage for the

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CVT Equivalent
Circuit

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This device is effectively a capacitance


voltage divider, and is similar to aresistive
dividerin that the output voltage at the point
of connection isaffected by the load
in fact the two parts of the divider taken
together can be considered as the source
impedance which produces a drop in voltage
when the load is connected

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CVT Nameplate

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VTS Used In NEPCO


VTS Used In EDCO

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THE
END

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Appendix

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:References supporting these papers


SEL protection Instrument Transformers part 7.1
ETC Instrument transformers.2
IEC 60044-1, 60044-2.3
Current Transformer Grounding, netaworld.org by Jim. 4
wen
Powell Electrical ,Manufacturing Co
C&C Ltd Catalogue & Price List May 2006NOTES ON. 5
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
6. Current transformers for HV protection by Michel
Orlhac
7.Shnider protection guide
Current transformer the basics, NK Technologies. 8
9. Protection of Electrical Networks, Christophe Prv
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