Sunteți pe pagina 1din 72

SENIOR DESIGN AND PROFESSIONALISM

P R O C E S S D E S I GN
P R ES E N T A T IO N

P RA IR I E VI E W A & M
U N I VE R S I T Y
D E PA R T M EN T O F
C H E M IC A L EN GI N E E R IN G

DESIGN AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A CUMENE


PRODUCTION PLANT

Group 5
Fadi Musallam
Patrick Monkam
Christoff Lindsey
Wendpanga Zampaligre

AGENDA
Project Introduction

Problem Statement
Project Summary
Background

Cumene Physical Properties


Market Study
Process Selection

Process Design

Process Flow Diagram


Material Balance

Individual Unit Design


Profitability Analysis
Summary
Acknowledgements
Questions

PROBLEM STATEMENT
The purpose of this project is to design a grass-root plant for

the production of Isopropyl benzene (cumene)


Cumene production in a reliable and economical manner with:

Low energy Consumption


Low Initial Capital Investment
Low or Negligible Environmental Impact
High yield
Plant Capacity:

330 days
1.1 x 104 kg/hr
9.8 x 104 Metric ton/year

EVALUATION OF
PROPERTIES
AND USES

INTRODUCTION TO ISOPROPYL BENZENE (CUMENE)

What is Cumene?

Molecular Formula: C9H12

Clear liquid at ambient conditions

Soluble in alcohol, ether and Benzene

Insoluble in water

Flammable Organic Compound

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CUMENE


PROPERTY
Molecular Weight

VALUE
120.2

Boiling Point, C

152.39

Freezing Point, C

-96.03

Density( 0 C), g/cm3

0.8786

Thermal conductivity(25 C), w/m.k

0.124

Viscosity(0 C)

1.076

Flash Point, C

44

Autoignition temperature, C

523

APPLICATION FLOW DIAGRAM

ACETONE
BENZENE

CUMENE

PHENOL

PROPYLENE
Alpha
methyl
styrene

COMMERCIAL USES/ APPLICATIONS OF CUMENE

BLOCK FLOW
P&ID DIAGRAMS

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

METHODS OF PRODUCTION
Types of Processes
A fixed bed, Kieselguhr supported phosphoric acid
catalyst system developed by UOP (Universal Oil
Products)
2. A homogeneous AlCl3 and hydrogen chloride
catalyst system developed by Monsanto
3. Dow-Kellog Technology Using Zeolite Catalysts
1.

METHODS OF PRODUCTION (CONT.)


1. UOP Process
Vapor-phase reaction
Solid Phosphoric Acid(SPA) catalyst
No Transalkylation of the by-product
Low overall yield varies between 75-90%
High Temperature of reactor
Hazardous Environmental Effects

METHODS OF PRODUCTION (CONT.)


2. Monsanto Process
Liquid-Phase Reaction
AlCl3 and HCl catalyst
Short life of the equipment and environmental

hazards
Transalkylation reaction
Overall yield of the process as high as 97 wt%
Corrosion of Pipes and Equipments

METHODS Of Production (Cont.)


3. Dow Kellog
Liquid-Phase Reaction
Zeolite Catalyst
Catalyst regeneration
No Corrosive
High yield
Environmental Friendly

ECONOMIC &
VIABILIITY
EVALUATIONS

GLOBAL DEMAND

GB&I RESEARCH

MARKET ANALYSIS

Cumene consumption is expected to grow at an average annual rate of


grow 4.29% from the period of 2013-2018

The key regions for isopropyl-benzene

Asia-Pacific
European-Middle East,

Asia Pacific region emerging as the largest global consumer.

Growth projected in the region will be sustained and the region is


expected to account for 49.1% of global Cumene demand by 2020

http://www.icis.com/chemicals/cumene/

ESTABLISHED CLIETNS AND CONSUMER BASE


Key Vendors:

Axiall Corp. Ltd.


INEOS Group Holdings SA
Shell Corp. LLC
Sinopec Group Ltd.

Other Prominent Vendors:

Al-Kayan Petrochemical Co.


Aramco Services
BP Refining & Petrochemicals
Braskem
CEPSA
Chang Chun Plastics Co.
Chevron Corp.
CNPC
Domo Group
Dow Chemical Co.

Identified Clients in the


United States
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

KBR
Shell Global
GFS Chemicals Inc.
DynaChem Inc.
US Chemicals LLC
The Chemical Company
Sunoco Chemicals
Chemstar
Capital Raisin Corporation

CBC (America) Corp


o Alfa Aesar

PLANT LOCATION AND CONSTRAINTS


Location:
Lake Charles, Louisiana, USA

Constraints:
Raw Material Supply
Transport Facilities
Availability of Utilities
Availability of suitable land
Adequate Climate
Location with respect to the

marketing area

Alkylation
Reactor
Flash Drum
Benzene
Distillation
Column
Cumene
Purification
Distillation
Column

DESIGN OF
PROCESS
UNITS

FIXED BED CATALYTIC


REACTOR

EVALUATION OF CATALYST ZEOLITE ZSM-5

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Primarily comprised of Silica and
Alumina Tetrahedral
Cage-like structure with voids in
framework
HIGHER SELECTIVITY
DEACTIVATION STABILITY

Surface area , /g

500-800

Particle porosity

0.5

Catalyst density,
kg/

1000

tortuosity
Void fraction

5
0.4

REACTION KINETICS
REACTIONS

STANDARD
HEAT OF
RXN

RATE
CONSTANT

REACTION
RATES

E= 1.04 x
KJ/kmol

= 2.8 xl/mol sec

E= 1.47 x
KJ/kmol

= 2.32 xl/mol
sec

=,

Weight Hourly Space Velocity


WHSV= 2
Inlet mass flowrate,
=3.13 x kg/h

REACTOR VOLUME CALCULATIONS

Weight of Catalyst,

=1.57 x kg
Bed volume,

=15.7
Reactor volume

=1.1=17.3

CALCULATION OF REACTOR HEIGHT


HEURISTICS
2.5 m 5 m ; 4.11 m ; 7.62m
DESIGN EQUATIONS
h=3.5

A=
=Ah

t= +

= x3.5

CALCULATED VALUES
h=3.5

t= +

SUMMARY OF DESIGN CALCULATIONS

feed condition

specification
temperature

values
156.6 C

pressure

35.3 bar

b/p ratio

catalyst

reactor

material
whsv

propane inert
p conversion
bed voidage

5.08%
99.90%
40

particul diameter

2.4 mm

density

1000kg/m3

weight
bed volume
height

1.57 x 10^4 kg
15.7 m3
6.46 m

Int diameter

1.84 m

volume
thickness
carbon steel
2/h

17.3 m3
75mm

DE-PROPANIZER VESSEL
DESIGN STEPS FOR FLASH DRUM SIZING:
Calculation of maximum allowable vapor velocity
Calculation of the diameter
Calculation of the height

DE-PROPANIZER VESSEL
MASS BALANCE

FEED

OVERHEAD

BOTTOM

32800

2800

30000

Benzene

0.6

0.87

0.56

Cumene

0.37

0.05

0.4

DIPB

0.02

0.04

Propane

0.01

0.08

Mass Flow (Kg/h)

Assumptions:
- 100% evaporation of propane
- 100% DIPB at the bottom

DE-PROPANIZER VESSEL
DESIGN CALCULATIONS

Obtain maximum allowable vapor velocity using


Sounders-Brown Equation:
u = (k) [ (L - V ) / V ]0.5

u: maximum allowable vapor velocity (m/s)


K: vapor-liquid separation factor (m/s)
L : liquid density (kg/m3)
V : vapor density (kg/m3)
u = 1.7 m/s

Operating Conditions
Temperature
Pressure

55 C
0.35 atm

Vapor Density

3.2 kg/m3

Liquid Density

820 kg/m3

Assumptions:
- K= 0.107 m/s

DE-PROPANIZER VESSEL
DESIGN CALCULATIONS
Calculation of the cross-sectional area of the flash drum
AC = QV/u
AC : average cross-sectional area (m 2)
QV : vapor flow rate (m3/s)
u : maximum allowable vapor velocity (m/s)
AC = 1.5 m2

Calculation of the diameter of the flash drum


D=(4AC /)0.5
D=1.4 m
Calculation of the length of the flash drum
HL=VL* (300)=3. 1m
HV=1.5*D + 0.4= 2.5 m
Total Height=HL + HV = 5.6 m

Assumptions:
- 5 minutes hold-up time

DESIGN SUMMARY

Design Parameters

Value

Orientation

Vertical

Diameter(m)

1.4

Total Height(m)

5.6

Material of Construction

Carbon Steel

BENZENE DISTILLATION COLUMN


Design steps for distillation column:
Calculation of minimum number of stages(Nmin)
Calculation of minimum reflex ratio(Rm)
Calculation of theoretical number of stages(Ntheo)
Calculation of actual number of stages(Nact.)
Determination of Feed tray Location
Calculation of column diameter(D)
Calculation of the height of the column(H)
Calculation of the volume of the column

DISTILATION COLUMN ENVIRONMENT


COMPONENT

XiF

XiD

XiB

96oC

Propane

0.0021

0.0031

Benzene

0.6689

0.9869

.01

Cumene

0.3315

0.01

0.9364

DIPB

.01750

0.0536

1.72
atm

178oC

PSAT CALCULATIONS OF COMPONENTS


COMPONENT

Propane

6.80338

804

247.04

Benzene

7.2009

1415.8

248.028

Cumene

6.9366

1460.793

207.777

DIPB

7.57869

2133.558

235.681

ANTOINE
EQUATION

PROPANE

BENZENE

CUMENE

DIPB

T (96oC)

37.9

1.6

.172

.0172

T(178oC)

180.9

9.6

1.77

.3096

CALCULATION OF DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS AND


VOLATILITY (96.5oC)
PROPANE BENZENE
Pi (previous
table)

CUMENE

DIPB

22.04

0.93

0.10

.01

214.68

9.07

1.00

.10

P = 1.72 atm

Ki =
distribution
coefficient
Kc reference

CALCULATION OF DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS AND


VOLATILITY (178oC)
PROPANE BENZENE
Pi (previous
table)

CUMENE

DIPB

105.20

5.57

1.03

0.19

101.89

5.39

1.00

0.18

P = 1.72 atm

Ki =
distribution
coefficient
Kc reference

CALCULATION OF AVERAGE VOLATILITY, MINIMUM


NUMBER OF TRAYS

LD = 9.07

AVERAGE VOLATILITY

Lw = 5.39

FENSKES EQUATION

xLDD composition of
light key in distillate
xHDD composition of
heavy key in distillate
xHWW composition of
heavy key in bottoms
xLWW composition of
light key in bottoms

L,avg = 6.99

Nm = 4.69

USE OF UNDERWOODS SHORCUT METHOD TO


DETERMINE REFLUX
VOLATILITY @ Tavg (136oC)
PROPANE

BENZENE

CUMENE

DIPB

104.0

6.71

0.14

Component Xif

Composition

Xpropane

0.0021

Xbenzene

0.668

Xcumene

0.311

Xdipb

.0175

CALCULATION OF MINIMUM REFLUX RATIO


Component XiD

PROPANE

BENZENE

CUMENE

Xpropane 0.0031
Xbenzene 0.9869
Xcumene0.01
Xdipb 0.0

The calculated theta will be used to calculate the minimum reflux rati0

This is not done through iteration, but rather simple mathematics

=1.216
=1.216

=0.216

DIPB

DETERMINATION OF THEORITCAL TRAYS


R
=1.5Rm

Rm =
0.216

R = 0.324

R = 0.324
R = 0.324

0.245
0.245

R
R=
= 0.216
0.216

0.18
0.18

From the figure the Nm/n value is


determined to be 0.41

11 theoretical stages

Calculation and Location of Feed Tray


XHF

Comp. of heavy key in feed

0.3115

XLF

Comp. of light key in feed

0.6689

Bottoms flowrate (molar)

100.1
kgmole/hr

Distillate flowrate (molar)

207.47
kgmole/hr

XLW

Comp. of light key in


bottoms

.01

XHD

Comp. of heavy key in


distillate

.01

Ns = 6 ; Ne = 5

CALCULATION OF TRAY EFFICIENCY

(cP)

Feed

Bottoms

Distillate

0.4692

0.262

0.1759

The average viscosity was


determined to be .30 cP

From the figure the column


efficiency was determined to be
0.60

CALCULTION OF FLOWRATES
SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS
D = 16271 kg/hr
R = 0.324
L1 = 5271.8503 kg/br

L = 5271.8503 kg/br

V1 = 21543 kg/hr

D = 16271 kg/hr
L1 = 5271.8503 kg/hr

L2 = 33762.385

F = 28491 kg/hr
B = 12219 kg/hr
L2 = 33762.385 kg/hr

The larger flowrates were


calculated for V2 and L2

V2 = 21543 kg/hr

L2 = 33762.4 kg/hr
V2 = 21543.0 kg/hr

ESTIMATION OF KVALUE BASED ON VAPOR VELOCITY


F

AVG

0.9752

6.662

4.485

3.91

845.4

717.7

791.1

784.7

24.1

13.01

18.72

55.83

V, L have units of kg/m3


has units of dyne/cm

Assuming 24 inches
The K value was determined to be 0.34ft/s

DESIGN EQUATIONS
EQUATION

H = 2.3 Nactual

VARIABLES

VALUES

L= 784.73
V= 3.91
= 55.83
Kv= 0.34

Vmax = 5.9 ft/s

Vmax = 5.90 ft/s

Vdesign 4.72 ft/s = 1.43 m/s

V = 21543.o
V= 3.91
vdesign = 1.43 m/s

1.07 m2

Towercross= 1.07m2

1.16 m = 3.8 ft

Nactual= 18
D = 1.16 meters
L = 12.9 meters

41. 4 feet , 12.9 meters


14 m3

DISTILLATION COLUMN DESIGN PARAMTERS


DESIGN PARAMETERS

VALUE

Minimum Reflex Ratio


Reflex Ratio
Efficiency
Minimum Number of Trays
Actual Number of Trays
Diameter(m)
Tray Spacing(m)
Total Column Height(m)
Plate Material
Feed Location

0.216
0.
60%
5
18
1.16 m
0.6
13 m
Carbon Steel
Tray 6

CUMENE PURIFICATION DISTILLATION COLUMN

Design steps for distillation column:


Calculation of minimum number of stages(Nmin)
Calculation of minimum reflex ratio(Rm)
Calculation of theoretical number of stages(Ntheo)
Calculation of actual number of stages(Nact.)
Determination of Feed tray Location
Calculation of column diameter(D)
Calculation of the height of the column(Ht)

CUMENE PURIFICATION DISTILLATION


COLUMN(CONT.)

Components

Cumene,
Diipropylbenzene(DIPB),
and Benzene

Operating conditions 1 atm


Light Key

Cumene

Heavy Key

DIPB

Assumptions:
pseudo-binary separation between
the key components.
Benzene considered as dead-weight

CUMENE PURIFICATION DISTILLATION


COLUMN(CONT.)
Calculation of Nm using Fenske

Equation
where LDrelative volatility of the light
key at the top,
LW - relative volatility of the light key at
the bottom
where xLD composition of light key in
distillate,

XLD

0.9884

xHW -composition of heavy key in bottom,

XLW

0.004

xLW -composition of light key in bottom,


xHD - composition of heavy key in distillate,
D molar flow in distillate,
B molar flow in bottom,
L,av-average of relative volatility of light
key

XHD

0.001

XHW

0.996

L,av

6.6568

Nm

CUMENE PURIFICATION DISTILLATION


COLUMN(CONT.)
The reflux ratio was obtained using the

Underwood method:

where q condition of the feed, q= 1


XiF composition of component i in feed,
XiD - composition of component i in distillate,
Rm the minimum reflux ratio,
the Underwood constant (by trial = 1.12)
i average relative volatility = 6.66
Rm = 0.1772
R = 0.2126

Tray Efficiency using OConnells

Correlation (E0)

is the tray efficiency


is the average relative volatility
is the average liquid viscosity
= 42%
Actual Number of Trays

= 37 Units
is the theoretical number of trays
is the actual number of trays

CUMENE PURIFICATION DISTILLATION


COLUMN(CONT.)
Feed Tray Location

Calculation of the Net Column Area (An)

Kirkbride method was used to determine


feed plate location

was found to be 6, so the feed tray


location is 6 trays from the top.
Maximum vapor velocity

is the surface tension= 14.85 dyne/cm


is liquid density= 755.70 kg/m^3
is the vapor density= 1.83 kg/m^3
is the entrainment factor= 0.85 ft/s
Vmax= 16.25ft/s

= 6.86 m^3

Vdesign= 2.905 m/s


Calculating the Column Diameter

D= 2.86m
Calculating the Column Height

Htower= 25.84m

DESIGN SUMMARY

Design Parameters

Value

Minimum Reflex Ratio


Reflex Ratio
Efficiency
Minimum Number of Trays
Actual Number of Trays
Diameter(m)
Tray Spacing(m)
Total Column Height(m)
Plate Material

0.18
0.22
42%
7
36
2.86
0.61
25.84
Carbon Steel

PROFITABILITY
ANALYSIS

TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT


Project Identifier: Illustration 101

Fraction of
delivered
equipment
Solid- processing Solid-fluid
plant
processing plant

User: copy from Calculated values,


values at left or million $
insert
Fluid processing
plant

Direct Costs

Purchased equipment, E'


Delivery, fraction of E'
Subtotal: delivered equipment
Purchased equipment installation
Instrumentation&Controls(installed)
Piping (installed)
Electrical systems (installed)
Buildings (including services)
Yard improvements
Service facilities (installed)
Total direct costs
Engineering and supervision
Construction expenses
Legal expenses
Contractor's fee
Contingency
Total indirect costs
Working
capital (WC)

0.10

0.45

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.39

0.47

0.47

0.18
0.26
0.16
0.31
0.10
0.10
0.25
0.29
0.15
0.12
0.40
0.55
1.69
2.02
Indirect Costs
0.33
0.32
0.39
0.34
0.04
0.04
0.17
0.19
0.35
0.37
1.28
1.26
Fixed capital investment (FCI)

0.36
0.68
0.11
0.18
0.10
0.70
2.60

0.36
0.68
0.11
0.18
0.10
0.70
2.60

0.33
0.41
0.04
0.22
0.44
1.44

0.33
0.41
0.04
0.22
0.44
1.44

0.89

0.89

0.70
0.75
Total capital investment (TCI)

Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, 5th edition, by Peters, Timmerhaus and West.

3.200
0.320
3.520
1.654
1.267
2.394
0.387
0.634
0.352
2.464
12.672
1.162
1.443
0.141
0.774
1.549
5.069
17.741
3.133
20.874

TOTAL PRODUCTION COST

Item
Raw materials
Operating labor
Operating supervision
Utilities
Maintenance and repairs
Operating supplies
Laboratory charges
Royalties (if not on lump-sum basis)
Catalysts and solvents
Taxes (property)
Financing (interest)
Insurance
Rent
Depreciation
Plant
overhead,
general

Administration
Distribution & selling
Research & Development

Default factor,
user may change

0.15

Basis

Basis cost, million $/y

of operating labor

0.06
of FCI
of maintenance & repair
0.15
0.15
of operating labor
of co
0.01
0
-Variable cost =
0.02
of FCI
0
of FCI
0.01
of FCI
0
of FCI

1.380
0.000
0.000
1.380
76.264
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

Calculated
separately
Fixed Charges =
0.6
Plant Overhead =
Manufacturing cost =

0.2
0.05
0.04
General Expense =
TOTAL PRODUCT COST WITHOUT DEPRECIATION = co =

Cost, million $/y

63.010
1.380
0.207
2.563
0.000
0.000
0.207
0.763
0.000
68.130
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
of labor, supervision and maintenance

1.587

0.952
0.952
69.083

of labor, supervision and maintenance


of co
of co

1.587
76.264
76.264

0.317
3.813
3.051
7.181
76.264

Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, 5th edition, by Peters, Timmerhaus and West.

Cumene Plant Cash Flow Diagram


Cumene Plant Cash Flow Diagram
80
Cumulative Cash Flow

60
40
20

-4

-2

0
0

-20
Time/Years
-40

10

12

14

SUMMARY OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS


Total Capital Investment

$ 20,874,000

Total Annual Sales Revenue $ 107,980,000


Total Annual Production
Cost

$ 79,241,000

Gross Profit (pre-tax)

$1,310,000

Return on Investment
(ROI)

21%

Payback Period (PBP)

3 Years and 6 Months

SAFETY AND

ENVIRONMETAL
CONSIDERATIONS

HAZOP ANALYSIS of Cumene Distillation Column


EQUIPMENT: CUMENE PURIFICIATION COLUMN
INTENTION: Separation of Cumene from DIPB
Feed Stream
INTENTION: To transfer mixture of cumene and DIPB to tower
Guide Word

Deviation

Possible Cause

Less of

flow

Partially failure of
pump
Control valves fails
to respond

Possible Consequences

Insufficient feed to
tower
Incomplete
separation

Action Required

Check
maintenance
Install alarm
system

More of

flow

Overflow
Control valves fail to
respond

Overfeed to
distillation
Pressure increases in
the distillation

Install flow alarm


Automatic pump
shutoff

Reverse

flow

Failure of pump

Backflow of mixture

Non-return valve

TOXICOLOGY AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


Benzene

Very flammable
Headache, dizziness, unconsciousness
Leukemia
Damage to bone marrow
Flash Point -11.63 C ; Auto Ignition ignite at 498 C

Propylene

Flammable
High concentration inhalation can cause unconsciousness
Flash Point -108 C; Auto Ignite at 480 C

http://www.epa.gov/iris/toxreviews/0306tr.pdf

TOXICOLOGY AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS(CONT.)

Cumene
Flammable
May

cause cancer
Slight skin irritation
Flash Point 44 C ; Auto Ignite at 523 C

TOXICOLOGY AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS(CONT.)

Handling and Storage


Benzene and Propylene

Benzene and Propylene must be kept away from any heat source, spark
or flames.
Benzene and Propylene will be transported through pipe lines to the
plant

Cumene
Cumene should be stored away from sources of ignition and in a wellventilated area
Cumene can be stored in carbon steel or other metal including cooper
and iron.
Cumene is shipped in Ocean going vessels, barges, truck and mostly
pipe lines.
http://www.axiall.com/pdf/cumene_info.pdf

SAFETY EVALUATION OF PLANT

Any organization has legal and ethical


obligation to ensure the safety of all
employees
This safety can be obtained and
maintained by:
Identification of hazards
Control of hazards
Control of processes
Regulation of process variables
Limitation of loss

MATERIAL HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

CUMENE
DIPB

Health Effects

First Aid
Measures

Engineering
Controls

Very hazardous
Toxic to lungs
and nervous
system

In case of
contact, flush
eyes
Wash skin
immediately

Provide
Ventilation
Adhere to vapor
concentration
threshold

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Dr. Osborne-Lee
Dr. Michael Gyamerah
Dr. Emmanuel Dada
Dr. Audie Thompson
Dr. Sheena Reeves
Dr. Jorge Gabitto
Industrial Advisory Council Members
The Chemical Engineering Department PVAMU

QUESTIONS?

REFERENCES
Eagleson, Mary (1993). H. In Concise Encyclopedia Chemistry.

(pp.496-497). Berlin: New York : Concise Encyclopedia Chemistry


Zakoshansky, V. (2007). The Cumene Process For Phenol-acetone
Production. Petroleum Chemistry, 47(4), 273-284.
Mike. "Global Cumene Market Expected to Hit 18 Million Tons by
2020." Global Cumene Market Expected to Hit 18 Million Tons by
2020. Companies And Markets, 13 Jan. 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
http://www.axiall.com/pdf/cumene_info.pdf
http://www.epa.gov/iris/toxreviews/0306tr.pdf
http://www.icis.com/chemicals/cumene/

PLANT MATERIAL BALANCES (hand calculated)

PLANT MATERIAL BALANCES (hand calculated)

Benzene Tower (HYSYS)

Cumene Tower (HYSYS)