Sunteți pe pagina 1din 139

UNIT 2

READING
INTRODUCTION :-

We read to free ourselves from persons and situations


that tend to diminish our personal worth and growth
Regular reading is very important.

An average reader reading 30 minutes a day would


Read 40 books a year, which is indeed a great
education.
PURPOSE OF READING

1. Reading for growth and enrichment :-

a) Reading as a part of our daily life, the horizons of our


awareness.

b) It makes us see through numerous eyes , hear with


many ears and think through abler minds.
c) Reading is done for various purposes :- achieving

more , organizing better amusement ,enlightenment ,

better living and even sometimes escaping reality .

It is a transmission of ideas , facts ,feelings and

decisions from the mind and soul of an author to the

mind and soul of a person who reads.


2. READING FOR LEARNING

If reading is to be done for learning , it is necessary

that reading be conducted as an inquiry . In

conducting reading as an inquiry a person has

to gather and process information from the text.


3. THE INQUIRY TYPE OF READING

AND THE ROLE OF LIBRARY

For cultivating standard reading abilities . For making

an inquiry type of reading and learning , the library

acts as a motivational force for promoting curiosity

and for building up irresistible learning pressures,

which make students assimilate and accommodate

discrepant events to his or her cognitive needs.


4. READING IS RESPONDING

Reading acts as a stimulus to images, memories and in the

identification of fresh and creative thoughts . Reading

contributes to the development of values in life .It injects curiosity,

zest for living and develops compassion and courage in a

person’s personality.
5. CRITICAL READING

Critical reading involves many elements .The

processes that go with the act of this kind of

reading are :-

-> to grasp the meaning of a statement.

-> to judge the ambiguities, if any, in the

reasoning.

-> to judge the statements, if any ,that contradict

each other
-> to judge if the statement is an actual

application of a principle.

-> to judge the reliability of an observation

-> to judge if a conclusion follows

necessarily

-> to judge if the conclusion required is

inductive.
-> to judge if a problem has been identified

-> to judge if some thing is an assumption

-> to judge the inadequacy of a definition

-> to judge the acceptability of the statement.


6
READING A S AN INQUIRY

To make reading result in learning ,it is necessary that

reading should be done as an inquiry and a person should

gather and process information.He or she should raise

questions and develop hypothesis while reading.

Standard reading abilities must be cultivated in students and

their conceptual growth is to be consolidated.


7. EFFICIENT READING

For an efficient reading the requirement is that of silent

reading at higher educational level. It is done by acquiring

facts and ideas with their relations out of reading material.

We should be able to read rapidly and effectively. To

improve our reading skills we should do the following:-


1. To identify the specific difficulties

2. To adopt appropriate remedial measures and practices.

3. To adopt ways to read faster and to understand faster


to
UNIT 2

READING COMPREHENSION
Comprehension is a two fold process ; it requires

understanding of what is presented and reproducing

it as comprehended.

The comprehension process involves speedy reading;

quick understanding and precise reproduction.

There are three reading speeds:


1. STUDY READING : It is used for reading material

which deals with difficult arguments , ideas, notions

etc. This kind of reading aims at almost total

comprehension and retention of what has been read.

2. AVERAGE READING SPEED: It is the speed used

for everyday reading of the newspapers , magazines,

novels etc.
3. SKIMMING :- It is the fastest reading speed.

WHAT IS REGRESSION?

The wider your eye span the greater will be your speed

. Because of lack of guidance in the early stages some

people develop the habit of regression , that is going

back to words, They have read , moving their heads from

side to side, moving their lips, or pointing at the words

with a pencil , pen or finger.


VOCTAIZATION :- Besides the above ,the other

habits which slow down the reading speed are

vocatization (reading aloud).

SUBVOCATIZATION:- It means , saying the words

to oneself
PRACTICAL HINTS TO TACKLE
PASSAGES

1. Read the passage to get its general meaning and

then pause for a while to recollect and determine

WHAT THE WRITER IS TRYING TO SAY.Go

through the passage once more and note down the

main points.The time you spend in reading will be

time well spent .If you have read the passage

intelligently ,you have won the half the battle.


2. You may come across words whose meaning

you do not know . Try to make a guess ; very

often the context will help you arrive at the

meaning.

3. Then read all questions given at the end of

the passage attentively and look for the

answers one by one answers should be based on

what is stated , implied or merely suggested to

the passage.
4. Be precise in answering the questions . There is no

virtue in giving , more than the required information.

As far as possible your answers should be in your own

words, and unless otherwise directed in full sentences.

5. Check carefully the grammar spelling and

punctuation of what you write . The last three passages

require merely the identification of the best answers

out of the four given below each question.


PASSAGE FOR COMPREHENSION

With the recent growth of mass media technology

advertising has begun to play a significant role in the

national economy . Thousands of people are working to

promote the sale of each new product or boost the sale of

a product already in the market . In fact advertising as an

industry now enjoys a respectable status and is regarded

by many as a service to the society.


The avowed purpose of advertising is to inform the

audience and to influence it to buy a particular product .

The customer is made aware of goods and services available

,their merits uses and value.Advertising thus helps him in

choosing what he actually needs or what he should have to add

to his comfort and improve his standard of living .But the sale

of a product does not depend on advertisement alone .


The quality of a product must be good and its

Price within the reach of those for whom it is

intended . If exaggerated claims are made or the

price is too high , advertising , howsoever

powerful, will not prove effective.

Indians advertising industry is about 75 years

old. The British firms in India were the first to

make use of advertising for marketing purpose in

the beginning of the twentieth century.


The advertising agencies opened by them gave an

Opportunity to the Indian staff, to get training and

setup their own establishments in due course .The first

Indian advertising agency , B.Dattaram and Co; started

functioning in 1903.

When India became free,Five year plans were launched

economic activities increased at a tremendous pace.Many

New industries were setup and gradually a large

number of products,
which were imported earlier , began to be manufactured

in the country. Under these circumstances,naturally advertising

received a big boost ,Now hordes of specialist agencies have

come into existence to look after particular aspects

of the advertising industry


QUESTIONS :-

1.What is the main purpose of advertising?

2.What factors have contributed to the growth of

advertising as an industry?

3. Why is advertising considered an important


activity

of modern society?

4. Under what conditions can advertising prove

effective?
5. Why did the advertising industry in India get a boost after
Independence?

6. Does advertising sometimes exercise a harmful influence on

our society?Elaborate your answer with examples.

7. Should the government censor advertisements ?Give arguments

in support of your view?


The Use of Pronouns

1. The following important points about the use


of Pronouns:-

Myself ,yourself ,himself ,herself ,itself ,ourselves,


yourselves ,themselves.
Examples:-

Incorrect Pronoun Correct Pronoun


1. Myself went there. 1. I myself went there.

2. Yourself can do it. 2. You can do it yourself.

3. Himself was to blame. 3. He himself was to blame.


2. No, noun is used with the following
pronouns:-

Mine ; our ; yours ; hers ; theirs.


Examples:-

Incorrect Pronoun Correct Pronoun


1. This is mine book. 1. This book is mine
2. That is theirs house. 2. That house is theirs.
3. Those are ours toys. 3. Those toys are ours.
4. That yours horse is tired. 4. That horse of yours is
tired.
5. I shall take yours book ; 5. I shall take your book ;
you can take hers book. you can take hers.
3. The apostrophe (`) is not used with the
following Pronouns:-
Ours ; yours ; hers ; its ; theirs.
Examples:-

Incorrect Pronoun Correct Pronoun


1. Your’s sincerely. 1. Yours sincerely
2. These ideas of our’s . 2. These ideas of ideas.
3. This action of her’s. 3. This action of hers.

4. It’s nature. 4. Its nature.

5. These houses of their’s. 5. These houses of theirs.


4. The complement of the verb ‘ to be’ (is , am ,
are , was , were etc.) is always the Nominative
case (I , we , he , she , they).

Examples:-

1. It was I who did it.


2. It is he who is to blame.
5. If different kinds of Personal Pronouns are to
be used together they are placed in the
following order :-
(i) Second Person
(ii) Third Person
(iii) First Person
The order is reversed if there is a mention of
some fault
Examples :-
1. You ,he and I will accompany him to be to the
station.
2. I , he and you are responsible for this loss.
6. If a Pronoun refers to two or more persons.
(i)The First Person should be used rather than
the Second person.
(ii) The Second Person should be used rather
than the First Person.

Examples:-
1. He and I should do our duty.
2. You and he should do your duty.
3. You , he and I should do our duty.
7. If a Personal Pronoun is used as the Object of
Verb or a Preposition , it must be in the
Objective case ( me, us , him , her , them)

Examples:-

1. It is a secret between him and me.


2. None but me was present there.
3. Let him and me do it.
8. The following Verbs are followed by a Reflexive
Pronoun (myself , ourselves ,yourself, himself,
herself, themselves) : overeat, overwork , enjoy,
avail etc.

Examples:-

1. He overate himself and fell ill.


2. We enjoyed ourselves.
3. You should avail yourself of this opportunity.
9. Who, Whom, and Whose , are used in speaking
of persons.
10. ‘Which’ is used of lower animals and things
without life.
‘that’ can be used of persons, animals as well
as lifeless things.
11. ‘Either’ and ‘Neither’ are used in speaking of
two persons or things. They take with them a
singular verb.
12. ‘Any (of) ’ and ‘None (of)’ are used in speaking
of more than two persons or things or things.
They take with them a Singular verb.
13. ‘Each other’ is used in speaking of two
persons or things.
14. ‘One another’ is used in speaking of more
than two persons or things .
Some Common errors in the use of Pronouns

Incorrect Sentences Correct Sentences


1. Myself can do it . 1. I can do it myself.
2. Those are our toys. 2. Those are our toys.
OR
Those toys are ours.

3. This action of her’s was 3. This action of hers was


not liked by us. not liked by us.

4. It was me who did it. 4. It was I who did it.


5. I and you will be help the 5. You and I will help the
poor. poor.
Incorrect Sentences Correct Sentences
6. I and my friend were invited 6. My friend and I were
to the party. invited to the party.
7. I , you and he should attend 7. You , he and I should attend
the meeting. the meeting.
8. You , he and I broke the rules 8. I , he and you broke the
of the game. rules of this game.
9. It is a secret between he and 9. It is a secret between him
me. and me.
10. Let he and I do it. 10. Let him and me do it.
11. We enjoyed much at the hill 11. We enjoyed ourselves
station. much at the hill station.
12. Each of the guests must 12. Each of the guests must
bring their own cards. bring his own card.
Incorrect Sentences Correct Sentences
13. Everybody were in their best 13. Everybody was in their
clothes. best clothes.
14. Neither of these two boys are 14. Neither of these two boys
going to pass. is going to pass.
15. None of those boys were 15. None of those boys was
allowed to enter their class. allowed to enter his class.

16. I think Ram or Sham have 16. I think Ram or Sham has
lost their books. lost his books.
17. Either Ram or Sham have 17. Either Ram or Sham has
forgotten to pay their fine. forgotten to pay his fine.

18. Neither Mohan nor Sohan 18. Neither Mohan nor Sohan
forgot to do their duty. forgot to do his duty.
Incorrect Sentences Correct Sentences
19. Each of the students have 19. Each of the students has
done their homework. done his homework.
20. She is one of those girls who 20. She is one of those girls
will never waste her time. who will never waste their
time.
21. Whom do you think will be 21. Who do you think will be
appointed? appointed?
22. Who do you want to invite ? 22. Whom do you want to
invite ?
23. The boy who they praised has 23. The boy whom they praised
failed. has failed.
24. One of the boys has lost one’s 24. One of the boys has lost his
books. books.
25. One must keep up his dignity.25. One must keep one’s
dignity.
ANTONYMS
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS
1 ABOVE BELOW
2 ABSENT PRESENT
3 ACCEPT REFUSE
4 ACKNOWLEDGE DENY
5 ACQUIT CONVICT
6 ACTIVE PASSIVE
7 ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE
8 ADVERSITY PROSPERITY
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS
9 AGREE DIFFER
10 AGREEABLE DISAGREEABLE
11 ALLOW DISALLOW
12 ALWAYS NEVER
13 ANALYSIS SYNTHESIS
14 ANGEL DEVIT
15 ANCIENT MODERN
16 APPEAR DISAPPEAR
17 ARRIVAL DEPARTURE
18 ASCEND DESCEND
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

19 ATTACH DETACH
20 ATTACK DEFEND
21 ATTRACT REPEL
22 BACKWARD FORWARD
23 BAD GOOD
24 BASE NOBLE
25 BARBAROUS CIVILIZED
26 BARREN FERTILE
27 BEAUTIFUL UGLY
28 BEGINNING END
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS
29 BELIEF DOUBT
30 BITTER SWEET
31 BLUNT SHARP
32 BOLD TIMID
33 BUY SELL
34 BLESSING CURSE
35 BOTTOM TOP
36 BRAVE COWARD
37 BRIGHT DUIL
38 BROAD NARROW
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS
39 CARE NEGLECT
40 CERTAIN DOUBTFUL
41 CHEAP DEAR
42 CLEAN DIRTY
43 CLEVER STUPID
44 CHEERFUL CHEERLESS
45 CLEAR CLOUDY
46 COARSE FINE
47 COLD WARM
48 COMEDY TRAGEDY
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS
49 COMMON RARE
50 CONCEAL REVEAL
51 CONDEMN APPROVE
52 CONFESS DENY
53 CREDIT CASH
54 CONFIDENT DIFFIDENT
55 CONQUER YIELD
56 CREATE DESTROY
57 CRUDE REFINED
58 CRUEL KIND
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

59 DEATH LIFE
60 DEBTOR CREDITOR
61 DEEP SHALLOW
62 DECENT INDECENT
63 DEFENSIVE OFFENSIVE
64 DEFINITE INDEFINITE
65 DEPARTURE ARRIVAL
66 DEPENDENT INDEPENDENT
67 DEPOSIT WITHDRAW
68 DESTRUCTIVE CONSTRUCTIVE
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS
69 DIFFICULT EASY
70 DILIGENT IDLE
71 DRY WET
72 DIMINISH INCREASE
73 DISEASE HEALTH
74 DIVIDE UNITE
75 DOMESTIC WILD
76 EARLY LATE
77 EMPTY FULL
78 EBB FLOW
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS
79 EFFICIENT INEFFICIENT
80 ENCOURAGE DISCOURAGE
81 ENTRANCE EXIT
82 EQUAL UNEQUAL
83 EVIL GOOD
84 EVEN UNEVEN
85 EXCLUDE INCLUDE
86 EXTERIOR INTERIOR
87 EXTRAORDINARY ORDINARY
88 EXTRAVAGANT FRUGAL
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS
89 FAILURE SUCCESS
90 FAR NEAR
91 FAST SLOW
92 FAT THIN
93 FERTILE BARREN
94 FIRM WEAK
95 FIRST LAST
96 FIT UNFIT
97 FOOLISH WISE
98 FORTUNATE UNFORTUNATE
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

99 FORTUNE MISFORTUNE
100 FOUL FAIR
101 FREEDOM SLAVERY
102 FRESH STALE
103 FRIEND FOE
104 FRIENDLY HOSTILE
105 FRIENDSHIP ENMITY
106 FULL EMPTY
107 GAIN LOSS
108 GATHER SCATTER
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

109 GENERAL PARTICULAR


110 GENUINE ARTIFICIAL
111 GREAT SMALL
112 GIVE TAKE
113 GAY SAD
114 GOOD BAD
115 HAPPINESS MISERY
116 HARD SOFT
117 HASTE DELAY
118 HEAVY LIGHT
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

119 HEAVEN HELL


120 HIGH LOW
121 HONEST DISHONEST
122 HONOUR SHAME
123 HOPE DESPAIR
124 HUMBLE PROUD
125 ILL WELL
126 ILLITERATE LITERATE
127 IMPORT EXPORT
128 IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

129 INCREASE DECREASE


130 INFERIOR SUPERIOR
131 INHALE EXHALE
132 INNOCENT GUILTY
133 INTERESTED UNTERESTED
134 INTERESTING DULL
135 JOY SORROW
136 JUNIOR SENIOR
137 JUST UNJUST
138 JUSTICE INJUSTICE
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

139 KIND CRUEL


140 KNOWLEDGE IGNORANCE
141 LEAN FAT
142 LEND BORROW
143 LENIENT STRICT
144 LIVING DEAD
145 LONG SHORT
146 LOVE HATRED
147 LOYAL DISLOYAL
148 MAD SANE
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

149 MAKE MAR


150 MODEST IMMODEST
151 MORTAL IMMORTAL
152 MOVABLE IMMOVABLE
153 NATURAL UNNATURAL
154 NEAT UNTIDY
155 NEGATIVE POSITIVE
156 NEW OLD
157 NOBLE IGNOBLE
158 NOTORIOUS FAMOUS
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

159 OBEDIENT DISOBEDIENT


160 OLD YOUNG
161 OPTIMIST PESSIMIST
162 ORAL WRITTEN
163 ORDER DISORDER
164 PARTIAL IMPARTIAL
165 PEACE WAR
166 PERMANENT TEMPORARY
167 PERSUADE DISSUADE
168 PLEASE DISPLEASE
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

169 PLEASANT UNPLEASANT


170 PLEASURE PAIN
171 PLENTY SCARCITY
172 POLITE IMPOLITE
173 PRAISE BLAME
174 PRESENCE ABSENCE
175 PROFIT LOSS
176 PROPER IMPROPER
177 PUBLIC PRIVATE
178 PUNCTUAL UNPUNCTUAL
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

179 PUNISH REWARD


180 PURE IMPURE
181 QUICK SLOW
182 REAP SOW
183 RECOVER LOSE
184 REGULAR IRREGULAR
185 REJECT ACCEPT
186 REMEMBER FORGET
187 RESPONSIBLE IRRESPONSIBLE
188 RETREAT ADVANCE
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

189 RICH POOR


190 ROUGH SMOOTH
191 SAVAGE CIVILISED
192 SHARP BLUNT
193 SLOW FAST
194 SMILE FROWN
195 SOFT HARD
196 SORROW JOY
197 STRONG WEAK
198 SWEET SOUR
S.NO WORDS ANTONYMS

199 TAME WILD


200 TAKE GIVE
201 THICK THIN
202 TIMID FEARLESS
203 UNITE DISUNITE
204 VAGUE DEFINITE
205 VICTORY DEFEAT
206 VIRTUE VICE
207 WANE WAX
208 WARM COOL
ONE WORD SUBSTITUTION
1. A basket in which a fisherman puts his fish Creel
2. A book containing information on
all branches of knowledge
Encyclopedia

3. A book in which the events of each day are recorded Diary


4. A book of accounts showing debits and credits Ledger
5. A bridge’s outfit
Trousseau
6. A child born after the death of his father
or a book published after the death of its
Posthumous
author
7. A child whose parents are dead Orphan
8. A cure of all diseases
9. A disease affecting many persons at the
Epidemic
same time
10. A great lover or collector of books
Bibliophile
11. A lady’s handbag or workbag
Reticule
12. A language that is no longer spoken
Dead
13. A life history of a person written by another
Biography
14. A life history of a person written himself
Autobiography
15. A medicine for producing sleep
Narcotic/Opiate
16. A medicine used to loosen the stuff
20. A minister repesenting a sovereign or
Ambassador
state in a foreign country
21. A person set out in a mission
Emissary
22. A person who can neither read nor write
Illiterate
23. A person who collects fare on a public vehicle
Conductor
24. A person who easily believes what is told to him
Credulous
25. A person who is hard to please
Fastidious
26. A person who is indifferent to pleasure or pain

Stoic
31. A person who sells flowers

Florist
32. A person who spends his money recklessly
Spendthrift
33. A person who starves the body for the good of the soul
Ascetic
34. A person whose manners are more like that of a woman
Effeminate
than those of a man
35. A physician who assists woman at childbirth
Obstetrician
36. A place for burial of dead bodies
Cemetery
37. A place where people lunch on payment
Restaurant
school for infants and young children Kindergarten
speech made without preparation Extempore
state in which succession is through women alone Matriarchy
state of complete continence Celiba
state of complete continence on part of a woman Virginity
substance that kills germs Germicide
substance that kills insects Insecticide
temporary release allowed on certain conditions Parole
woman whose husband is dead Widow
word having the same meaning as another Synonym
word opposite in meaning Anton
53. All of one mind

Unanimous
54. An assembly of listeners
Audience
55. An instrument for measuring temperature
Thermometer
56. An instrument for seeing distant objects
Telescope
57. Born of unmarried parents
Illegitimate
58. Capable of being easily set on fire
Inflammable
59. Feeding on animal and vegetable food i.e.,
Omnivorous
64. Having no beginning or end to its existence
Eternal
65. Home sickness or sentimental longing for the past
Nostalgia
66. Incapable of being believed
Incredible
67. Incapable of being conquered

Unconquerable
68. Incapable of being destroyed

Indestructible
69. Incapable of being divided
Indivisible
70. Incapable of being heard
Inaudible
71. Incapable of being read
76. One who believes in the existence of God
Theist
77. One who foretells events correctly
Prophet
78. One who has no belief in the existence of God
Atheist
79. One who hates mankind
Misanthrope/Misanthropist
80. One who is a hater of women
Misogynist
81. One who is skilled in the treatment of diseases of
Veterinarian
animals
82. One who journeys to a holy place
Pilgrim
83. One who knows everything
87. One who looks at the bright side of things
Optimist
88. One who makes a display of his learning
Pedant
89. One who makes study of nerves
Neurologist
90. One who performs daring gymnastic feats
Acrobat
91. One who plans and draws the design of buildings
Architect
and superintends their reaction
92. One who plays a game for pleasure and not professionally
Amateur
93. One who prescribes medicines
Physician
99. One who studies rocks and soils
Geologist
100. One who studies science of rocks and minerals
Lithologist
101. One who studies the evolution of mankind
Anthropologist
102. One who studies the past through objects
Archaeologist
left behind
103. One who studies the science and origin of words
Etymologist
104. One who studies the stars
Astronomer
105. One who studies the working of a human mind
Psychologist
106. One who takes care of a building
111. Property inherited from one’s father or ancestor
Patrimony
112. That which allows the passage of rays of light
Transparent
113. That which is a government by priests or ecclesiastics

Hierarchy
114. That which is a government in which no distinction is
Secular
made between persons of different religions
115. That which is an absolute government
Autocracy
116. That which is contrary to law Illegal
117. That which is ever lasting
Perennial
118. That which is no longer in use
SUBJECT AND VERB
SUBJECT AND VERB

 A singular subject takes a singular verb and a plural


subject takes a plural verb.

 The difficulty arises when we fail to identify the true


subject or when we are in doubt whether the subject is
singular or plural.
Following are the sentences:-
1. Here is the file you were looking for.
2. Why have these letters not been posted ?
3. Whom are they talking about?
4. The men who work in our branch office are very efficient.
5. Hari and his father have left for Delhi to attend the meeting.

6. The workers seem to be happy with the arrangement for


music during the lunch break.
7. The ladies of this town have launched a vigorous literacy
drive.
8. The specimen together with the ones given in the Appendix
has proved very helpful.
9. The Managing Director , and not his assisants,was responsible
for this omission.
10. The Chairman , as well as the members of the committee,is of
the view that the plan will work.
11. One of the vice-presidents has resigned.

The phrases beginning with as well as, together with, etc. which
intervene between a subject and its verb, do not change the
number of the verb.

Countable nouns, according to their number, take either singular


or plural verbs whereas , uncountable nouns take only singular
verbs.
Examples are given below:-
1. Advice is more easily given than taken .
2. When it rains, dust turns in to mud.
3. The furniture you wish to buy is very expensive.

Certain words plural in form, usually take plural verbs:-


1. The acoustics of the new auditorium are excellent.
2. The proceeds of this programme go to local charities.
3. Your belongings are in the hotel, aren’t they?
4. His goods were stolen in transit.
Some words are singular in form but they take plural verbs.

1. The cattle were allowed to graze on the village common.


2. The people of India have firm faith in democray.

There are certain other kinds of words which present difficulty.


They are as follows:-
COLLECTIVE NOUNS
A collective noun is a word that refers to a group or collection of
persons or things , e.g. committee, government, jury,faculty.It
takes a plural verb if the persons or things are referred to
individually.
1. The committee were unable to agree on the proposal (members
of the committee)
2. The jury are in complete disagreement on this issue (members
of the jury)
If a group is referred to as a single unit , it takes a singular verb:-

3. The committee has submitted its report.


4. The jury has given its verdict.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Pronouns which do not refer to a particular person or thing, take
singular verbs. Some of the commonly used indefinite
pronouns are given below :-
Anybody Everything
Anything nobody
Either somebody
Everybody someone
Each none
Another No one
everyone neither
anyone
1. Everybody is entitled to one month’s salary as bonus.
2. Nobody knows what the future has in store for him.
3. None wants a change in the working hours.
4. Either of the proposals is acceptable to me.
5. Neither of the resolutions moved by him was passed.
6. Each of the us is required to attend the meeting.
7. One doesn’t like to have his word doubted.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
When a relative pronoun acts as subject , its antecedent
determines the number of the verb.
1. It is Hari who has written this report.
2. Hari is one of those students who think they can obtain good
grades without doing their homework.

COMPOUND SUBJECTS
When a subject consists of more than one word but refers to a
single person, idea or unit or to the same person or thing , it
takes a singular verb.
1. Many a student has joined the Seva Samiti to serve the local
community.
2. Every clerk and assistant is expected to know typing.
3. The progress and prosperity of India is he dearest concern of
the present government.
4. Bread and butter was his sole.
5. The secretary – cum-treasurer of the Association was present
at the meeting.
In compound subjects with neither …. Nor and either …. Or the
subject nearest to the verb determines its number.
1. Neither the chairman nor the members have turned up for the
meeting.
2. Neither the members nor the chairman has turned up for the
meeting .
3. Either ou or he has to finish this work.
4. Either he or you have to finish this work.
Words that Indicate Part or Portion.
Most often such words occur as a part of a phrase which acts as a
subject .The number of the verb in such cases is determined by
the complete subject .
1. Half the job was completed within two days.
2. Half the jobs were completed within two days.
3. Two-thirds of the employees are in favour of the proposal.
4. Two – thirds of this pole is rotten.
5. All the money is spent.
6. All the students have gone.
7. Some of the files are missing.
8. Some of the money is missing.
9. Most of what you say is correct.
Words that Indicate Amount

These words generally take a singular verb.


1. Ten thousand rupees is a lot of money.
2. Three miles a day is a good walk.

But when such a word is used to a general impressions , it


takes a plural verb.

1. Hundreds of people were present at the meeting.


2. Thousands of people have gathered to welcome him home.
The Word ‘Number’
 When number is preceded by the it takes a singular verb and
when by a , plural verb.
 This is so because the number is generally considered to refer
to a unit and a number to individual items of a unit.

1. The number of people who reported for work this morning is


small.
2. The number of crimes in Delhi is increasing.
3. A number of meeting were held to discuss the issue.
4. A number of books are missing from the library.
Introductory ‘There’
In sentences beginning with there, the number of the verb is
determined by the true subject, which generally follows the
verb.
1. There are various methods of collecting data.
2. There is no need for typing this report.

Introductory ‘It’
It always takes a singular verb, irrespective of whether the
subject, which usually follows the verb, is singular or plural.
1. It is the people who matter in a democracy.
2. It is the same draft which you showed me yesterday ,isn’t it?
3. It is the fundamentals that matter.
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE
1.1 The passive is used when it is not necessary or not
desirable to state the agent (actor , doer), although , the
agent may be mentioned with ‘by’ in the passive voice.

EXAMPLE:-
Active :
1. Someone has stolen my books.
The indefinite subject ‘ some one’ occupies the most prominent
place .
Passive :
My books have been stolen.
It is used to give an important effect: in other words, it is used
to emphasize the facts or ideas.
Hence, it is most frequent in scientific and technical writings
and in objective reporting's.

1.2 The most common passive transformation is:-


N1 VACT N2 N2 VPASS *

Examples:-
Doctors test samples of patient’s blood. (active)
Samples of patients blood are tested. (passive)
NOTE :- * Full forms of the abbreviations are as follows:
N1 : the first (pro) noun i.e. subject.
N2 : the second (pro) noun with active form.
VACT : The verb in the active form .
VPASS : The verb as transformed in the passive form (an
appropriate form of ‘be’ + past participle form of the
verbs).
1.3 The transformations that the verb forms undergo in the
passive should be noted carefully . They are listed below using
the verb ‘test’:

Tests (test) : is (are) tested


Tested : was (were) tested
Is (are) testing : is (are) being tested
Has (have, had) tested : has (have , had) been
tested
Shall (will) test : will be tested
EXERCISE:
Complete the following passive voice sentences in the tense
suggested:-

1. This institution (always admire) good workers. ----present.


2. His arm (fracture) in an accident. ------ past.
3. This exercise (do) very carefully.------ present continuous.
4. The machine (not overhaul) for the last ten years.---present
perfect
5. The Nawab’s palace (formerly use) as a public school.-- past
EXERCISE:
Rewrite the following sentences in the passive . Do not use by +
agent.

1. The Manager can submit the report after he has collected


the relevant data.
2. They invited me to give a talk on ‘ participative
management’.
3. Workmen will build fuel tanks to store the petrol.
4. People are critising the collector for corrupt practices.
5. The enquiry committee held the police responsible for the
stampede.
6. We shall need large numbers of workmen for the
construction work.
7. Bull dozers have knocked down the buildings.
8. The committee has prepared the plan of the project in a
great hurry.
9. They have done a good number of problems from this
exercise.
10. You may find the stop-cock under a small iron lid.
1.4 Prepositions or adverbial particles are combined with
verbs in the active as well as I the passive form. They should
never be left out when the passive is used.

Note the transformation:-


N1 VACT Prep. N2 N2 VPASS Prep.

Examples:-
We shall have to go into the matter .(active)
The matter will have to be gone into. (passive)
EXERCISE:
1. These steps have brought about a great improvement in the
quality of the goods.
2. They will make up for the loss by asking the workers to do
overtime.
3. They caught the thief but let him off.
4. The Government has given up the project to build the oad.
5. The fire brigade put out the fire and saved the factory.
6. You can turn off the power here.
7. You should look up the encyclopedia and egt all the
information.
1.5 When the verb in the active voice takes two objects, there
are two kinds of passive transformation :

N1 VACT N2 N3 N2 VPASS N3
Or
N3 VPASS Prep. N2
Examples:
1. He taught me Phonetics at the University. (active)
2. I was taught Phonetics at the University. ( passive)
3. Phonetics was taught to me at the University. (passive)
The first passive form:-
‘I was taught Phonetics’ is more common, but the second
form, ‘Phonetics was taught to me’ would be used when the
new subject (N3) has to be emphasized.
Exercise:-
Put each of the following sentences into the two passive forms
as illustrated above:-
1. The General manager has promised the employees more
wages.
2. People will show the visitors the new buildings.
3. The Embassy reused Suresh a passport.
4. Someone taught him English and gave him a dictionary.
5. The accurate bowling caused us no end of problems.
1.6 when the object in the active form is an infinitive or a
clause , the sentence in the passive form begins with ‘it’.
Examples:-
1. The artisan decided to report the matter to the supervisor.
(active)
It was decided to report the matter to the supervisor.
(passive)
2. People say that laser light is good for bloodless surgery.
(active)
It is said that laser light is good for bloodless surgery.
(passive)
Exercise:-
• The Government has promised that laboures would get
higher wages.
• The scientists believe that there is no life on Mars.
• We will recommend that the factory should have a
computer.
• Geologists say that core of the earth is cooling down.
• The engineers suggested that the raw materials should be of
a high grade.
• The General Manager has announced that job-efficiency
bonus would be paid.
Exercise:-
Put the following sentences into the passive voice using the
underlined portion as the subject-
1. The police gave me Rs. 500/- reward.
Question Tags
It is a common practice in conversation to make a
statement and ask for confirmation; as,
It’s very hot , isn’t it ?
The later part (isn’t it ?) is a question tag.

The pattern is:-


(i)Auxiliary + n’t + subject , if the statement is
positive.
(ii) Auxiliary + subject , if the statement is negative.
Examples:-
1. He tells the truth – doesn’t he ?
2. He does not tell the truth – does he ?
3. He told the truth – didn’t he ?
4. He did not tell the truth – did he ?
5. He will tell the truth – won’t he ?
6. He will not tell the truth – will he ?
7. He is telling the truth – isn’t he ?
8. He is not telling the truth – is he ?
9. He was telling the truth – wasn’t he ?
10. He was not telling the truth – was he ?
11. He has told the truth – hasn’t he ?
12. He has not told the truth – has he ?

Do not – don’t was not – wasn’t


Does not – doesn’t were not – weren’t
Did not – didn’t will not – won’t
Is not - isn’t shall not – shan’t
Am not – an’t
Are not – aren’t
PREPOSITIONS
1.1 Prepositions usually precede the words they control or
govern.
Examples :-
1. The boy told us about his new suit.
2. The bus leaves at 2.45 A.M.
Prepositions also come after the words they govern in
questions and in certain clauses.

Examples:-
1. I do not know what he was worried about.
2. Where are you coming from ?
Prepositions indicate different kinds of relations , usually of
time, position, direction etc.
1.2. Prepositions indicating time:-
1.2.1. At , on, in, from, by, for and since are used to indicate
time as well as other meanings. Until (till) , before, after
and during are used to indicate time only.
(a)‘At’ is used for a certain moment or an exact point of time:

Examples:
1. Please come and meet me at a more convenient time.
2. I have to reach my office at 10 o’clock.
(Similarly , at noon ,at sunset, at midnight, at the end of
show, at the beginning of the talk, at the at moment, at the
new year , at the weekend, at lunch time)
‘At’ is used with names of festivals:
Example:
We have a holiday at Diwali.

1.2.2. ‘On’ is used with a day , and date:

Examples:
1. I am reaching on Friday.
2. They sent us present on our marriage anniversary day.
3. I was born on 4th April , 1936.
1.2.3. ‘In’ is used to denote a period of time:
In October , in the year 1936, in the morning, in the day time,
in the Easter holidays.

Examples :
1. Our Polytechnic was started in 1965.
2. Cricket is played in winter.

‘In’ is also used to show the total length of time taken for
some activity :
An express train will reach you Pune from Delhi in fifteen
hours.
1.2.4. ‘During’ is used with known periods of time, such as
Diwali, Dussehra or periods which have been already
defined:

 during the winter


 during 1995
 during his childhood
 during the summer holidays.

The action can either last the whole period or occur at


sometime within the period :
Examples :
1. His mother was out for a week , during that week he ate
almost nothing.
2. It rained all Monday , but stopped during the night.

1.2.5. ‘By’ is used to show the latest point of time at which an


action will be complete :

Examples:
1. You must be in the hostel by 10 P.M.
2. You should submit your assignment by Monday.
3. Applications should be received by the 10th April.
‘By’ is also used before ‘day’ and ‘night’ in the sense of
‘during’ :
He prefers to study by night when there is no disturbance.

1.2.6. ‘For’ is used to indicate the period of time during which


something takes place.
‘Since’ is used to show that an action began at a point of time in
the past and continued until the time of speaking . It is used
with the perfect tenses.
Examples:-
1. He studies continuously for hours together.
2. I have not seen her for ages.
3. We have been waiting for the bus since morning.
4. We have not met since Christmas.

NOTE : - The preposition ‘at’ ‘on’ and ‘in’ are not used if
the noun is preceded by an adjective.

Examples :-
1. I saw her last Saturday.
2. I am going home next weekend.
3. Radha will be twenty next July.
But if the order of adjective and noun is reversed, we say :
Radha will be twenty on July next.
(b) Yesterday , today, and tomorrow, besides being nouns,
are also used as adverbs and therefore do not take a
preposition:

Examples:-
1. I will give you a prize tomorrow.
2. She had a talk with me yesterday.
3. The Director promised higher wages today.
1.2.7. Prepositions indicating position:
Below , Under , above , over – ‘Below’ means ‘lower than’
whereas ‘under’ means ‘straight below’.
‘Above’ and ‘over’ can both mean ‘higher than’, and
sometimes either can be used.

Examples:
1. There were clouds above the building.
2. With clouds above and rain below, the church presented a
lovely spectacle.
3. There is a fan over his head.
‘Over’ has also the meaning of ‘from one side to the other side’.
Examples :-
1. The thief climbed over the wall.
2. Telex means typewriting over wires.

Between and among ‘Between’ is used with two persons or


groups but ‘among’ is used with more than two persons or
things:

Examples :-
1. There was some trouble between the principal and the staff.
2. He fell among a gang of criminals.
‘Under’ ‘beneath’ ‘over’ and ‘before’ can all be used
figuratively:
Examples:-
1. He was above me at school.
2. The officer-in charge of the examinations has a dozen of
persons under him.
3. We had a long chat over a cup of tea.
4. I was under the impression that he had arrived.
5. She married beneath her.
‘At’ is used to indicate an exact point in space , but ‘in’ is used
to indicate the idea of something within a larger area.
Example:
1. He was born at Bombay in Maharashtra.

‘By’ , ‘beside’ , have the meaning of ‘by the side of’ ; but
‘besides’ means ‘ in addition to’:
Examples:-
1. He came and sat beside my father at the dining table.
2. Besides being a brilliant student, he is a very good
sportsman.
Prepositions Indicating Direction
Prepositions used to indicate direction cab be broadly divided
into:
a. The direction towards,
b. The direction from.

(a)‘For’ indicates the direction towards:


He is leaving for Bombay this evening.
To, toward (s): ‘To’ is used to indicate destination but toward
(s) shows direction.

Examples:
1. He walked to the place of working.
2. He walked towards the hostel; but I do not know if he
actually went to it.

‘Into’ indicates the direction ‘from the outside to the inside’.


Example:-
1. The miners walked into the tunnel.
‘Into’ can also be used figuratively.
Example:-
1. We ran into trouble.

‘Against’ has the sense of ‘coming into’ touch with :


Example:-
1. The boy was leaning against the wall.

(b) ‘From’ shows the point of starting. It is usually followed by


‘until’ , ‘till’ , and ‘to’:
Example:-
1. The road runs from Agra to Bombay.
 ‘Off’ has the meaning of ‘away from’ or ‘down from’:
Examples:-
1. He fell off the truck.
2. The student took his elbows off the chair and sat up.
 ‘Of’ is used in the sense of ‘from’:
Examples:-
Die of , made of ,ask of ,expect of.
 ‘Out of’ is used to indicate the direction to the outside .It is
opposite of ‘into’:
Example:-
The engine driver in the winding room lowers and raises every
thing and everybody that goes into and out of the mine.
Prepositions indicating Direction
 ‘Across’ has the meaning of ‘from one side to the other side
of’.
Examples:-
1. The road runs across the desert.
2. When the wind blows across the reservoir it ripples the top of
the water.

 ‘Through’ has the meaning of ‘from one end to the other end
of’ a space or period.
Examples:-
1. The water is made to pass through a filter house.
2. They studied through the night.
 ‘Along’ is used to show ‘the movement following a path,
road or line’.
Examples:-
1. The army marched along the road.
2. Oh! Flows along the pipe lines.
Some More Prepositions
 ‘About’ is used in the sense of ‘of’:
Examples:-
 He spoke about him for an hour.
 It is also used in the sense of ‘near’ and ‘on all sides’.
2. My uncle lives some where about this place.
3. There is a lot of building material lying about the place.
 ‘With’ is used in the sense of anything that is carried:
Examples:-
A miner with a shovel; a teacher with teaching aids; a woman
with a parasol.
It’s also use to show the means or instrument/features and
characteristics / the idea of company / contents:
Examples:-
To cut with a knife ; a house with glass window ; a girl with a
cheery smile; a man with gray hair; a building with four
storey's.
 ‘Of’ is used to indicate ‘something belonging to or forming
part of’.

Examples:-
a friend of mine , the tower of Pisa.
It has also the sense of made from/about/measure/permanent
qualities of character :
Examples :-
A road of cement; a house of stone ; a story of bravery ; a
report of the event ; a meter of cloth ; a hectare of land ;
three litres of milk ; a man of common sense ; a boy of ten.
 ‘By’ is used to mean ‘through the means of’.

Examples :-

1. Machines are driven by power.


2. Modern homes are air – conditioned by electricity.

Prepositions Used with Adjectives and Participles

Usually particular adjectives and participles require particular


prepositions. Some of these are given below :-
Absorbed in capable of
Afraid of Confident of
Due to / for
Successful in Fit for
Suspicious of Fond of
Good at
Terrified of Interested in
Cured of Keen on
Nervous of
Used to Owing to
Anxious for/about Proud of , ready for
Ashamed of Responsible for/to
Aware of Scared of ; sorry for
Examples :-

1. He was absorbed in deep thoughts.


2. She is afraid of going into dark.
3. Now days , I am not keen on doing anything seriously.
4. You are responsible to the Principal fully.
5. You should not be anxious about life after superannuation.
6. I’m sorry for your husband.

Verbs and Prepositions


A large number of verbs + preposition combinations are
commonly used in English. Some of these are given below :-

Accuse (sb) of charge sb with (an offence)


Due to Deficient in
Wait for Deprive of fall back on(use in
emergency)
Derive from Fall in with (agree)
Devoid from Frightened by
Doze off Inflict on or upon/with
Envious of Intrude on/upon
Evident from/in Lean on/against
Get along / along with Suspect sb of
Haggle with sb. Think about / of
over/about sth.
Homesick for Warn sb. Of / about

Grateful to Succeed in
Apologize ( to sb)/for sth. Comply with
Ask for / about Conform to
Attend to Angry at a thing / with a
person
Beg for Allergic to
Believe in Argue with/over/against/for
Beware of Bargain with for sth.
Hope for Call at a place
Persist in Coincide with
Live on Cling to
Prepare for Cope with
Prefer to Consent to
Insist on Call on a place
EXERCISE
1. The Managing Director was absorbed ______ planning.
2. My wife is afraid ________ going out all alone.
3. The Johns are proud _______ their children.
4. They are suspicious ______ of their elder son’s involvement
in he bomb blast.
5. I always prefer tea _______ coffee or cocoa.
6. I am very much fond ________ classical music.
7. I can agree ________ your proposal, but I do not agree
_____ you ______ this point.
8. Let us be thankful to God ______ all small mercies.
9. Are you familiar ________ the works of Shaw?
10. We intend to go to the theatre _______ this evening.
11. Wipe the dust _________ the table.
12. The buffet should be over _______ 10.30 P.M.
13. The Principal is blind ______ her faults.
14. A news bulletin is broadcast __ 6 o’clock ___ each evening.