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SOCIALIZATION

MEANING
Transmission of socially appropriate
beliefs and behavior patterns to an
individual and making possible the
development of a self or personality
Process by which an individual
internalize many of socially approved
values, attitudes, beliefs and
behavior patterns of their culture

FUNCTIONS OF SOCIALIZATION
1. Develop the skills and disciplines
which are needed by the individual
2. Instill the aspirations and values
and the design for living which the
particular society processes
3. Teach the social roles which
individuals must enact in society

IMPORTANCE OF SOCIALIZATION

1.Socialization is vital to
culture.
2.Socialization is vital to
personality.
3.Socialization is vital to sexrole differentiation

SOCIAL NATURE OF SELF-IMAGE

Social self awareness of


personal or social identity
Personality organization of
attitudes, beliefs, habits and
behavior

ENVIRONMENTAL DEPRIVATION
SYNDROME

A child who deprived of the


affectionate contact that is
part of socialization can be
physically and emotionally
impaired for life

NATURE AND NURTURE


Genetic makeup is a major factor in shaping
human behavior
Sociobiology, systematic study of how biology
affects social behavior

LOOKING GLASS SELF


Charles Horton Cooley
Major Concept:
Our imagination of how other see us
Our imagination of how other judge our appearance
The feeling of that results from our imagination of the
thoughts others have of us (development of self-concept)
Note: three processes namely presentation,
identification and subjective interpretation

GEORGE HERBERT MEAD


Development of self-awareness back to the
interaction between parent and child

Parts of self
I

- active, spontaneous, idiosyncratic self

- inborn, unsocialized and impulsive self


- accounts for what people want to do
- product of individual distinctiveness
Me - arises from social interaction
- other peoples definition of who one is
- accounts for what people feel they
should do

Stages of Self Development


ACCORDING TO GEORGE HERBERT MEAD

Preparatory Stage
-meaningless
imitation by

imitation
the infant

In the first year of life, the person

engages in meaningless imitation.


There is a lack of symbolic
understanding in a sophisticated way.

Play stage
-"taking the role of the other"
actual playing of roles occurs; but no unified

conception of self develops.


Person plays one role at a time of

a single actor. Significant others


are important models for conduct.

Game Stage
"generalized other
(people who do not have close ties to a child)
this is the completion stage of self-development;
the child finds who he or she is;
the child also must respond to simultaneous roles;
the individual can act with a certain amount of consistency in a variety of

situations because he/she acts in accordance with a generalized set of


expectations and definitions he/she has
internalized.

Significant others persons with whom an


individual has an intimate and long term contact

Dramaturgy Approach
-assume that all the world is a stage
-refers to the way in which in daily activity we
alter ourselves to fir the audience we are
addressing
- pioneered by Goffman

ERIK ERIKSON
Psychological development
Concern with the feelings people develop toward
themselves and the world around them

1. Trust versus mistrust


- Infancy
2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
- early childhood
3. Initiative versus guilt
- the play stage

4. Industry versus inferiority


- school age
5. Identity versus role confusion
- adolescence
6. Intimacy versus isolation
- young adulthood
7. Generativity versus stagnation
- middle adulthood
8. Integrity versus despair
- old age

JEAN PIAGET
Focused on thinking or cognitive development
Through interaction with their environment,
children acquire new ways of thinking and new
schemes
Process of learning to talk, to think, and to reason
covers social as well as psychological
phenomenon

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Sensorimotor
Language acquisition
Concrete operations
Abstract thinking

LAWRENCE KOHLBERG
Moral development
Moral Stages:
1. Moral decision based on fear of punishment
2. The idea of rewards taken into account
3. Immediate punishments and rewards are not
necessary
4. Strict adherence to rule, emphasis on law and order
5. Adheres to social rules; morality is rooted in basic
human rights
6. Internalization of justice, compassion and equality
and human dignity guide decision

AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION
Socialization agents
- the persons or devices that act to carry out the
process of socialization

1.The Family
o
o

The most important agent of socialization


Provides child's reference group, and its attitudes,
norms, values, and practices are the source of the
childs first interpretation of the world

2. Peer Groups
People of approximately the same social position and age
Friendship group of age peers
Affects attitudes towards others
Peer group inclines towards uniformity and similarity of
behavior, values and attitudes
Provides a transition from dependence to independence
or adulthood
Consists of the many groups made up of children
Each peer group has its own system of rules and
regulations and its own language and activities, which
are supported by a child-oriented system of values and
beliefs

3. The School
A. Manifest function
B. Latent functions

Children under the control of teachers


Learn being a part of larger group of similar age
Learn universality
Realization that their behavior is recorded permanently

.Hidden curriculum in schools

4. The Mass Media


Newspaper, radio, movies, television, books are important
in communicating a societys beliefs, values, mores, and
traditions
Children books, comics and magazines main sources of
reading materials used for socialization
Four important sources:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Radio
Movies
Television
Social networking sites (SNS)

5.Workplace
New expectation from co workers and from the
employer
New norms

SOCIALIZATION IN ADULTHOOD
Anticipatory socialization
The process by which people learn to assume a role in the
future

Developmental socialization
The process by which people learn to be more competent
in playing their currently assumed role

Resocialization
Occurs when an individual is socialized to adopt a new
system of beliefs different from those he or she is first
socialized into
total institution (organizations that are relatively closed
off from the outside world and that follow a formalized life
routine under the control of bureaucratic staff)

Desocialization
- the process of stripping away self-images and
perspectives that are the results of previous
socialization

MODES OF SOCIALIZATION
1. Explicit instruction
- the socializer deliberately shows or tell the person
how to behave or what to believe
2. Conditioning and innovation
conditioning is the means of establishing a behavior
pattern by repeatedly associating a reward (positive
reinforcement) or punishment (negative
reinforcement) with the behavior
innovation occurs when a person acquires a
behavior pattern through experimentation