Sunteți pe pagina 1din 52

Atoms and Nuclear Chemistry

Atoms
Radioactivity
Half-Life

Atoms
An atom is the smallest particle of
an element that has all of the
properties of that element.

Composition of the Atom


Nucleus
Positively charged
Very Dense most of the mass of the atom is
found in the nucleus
Electron Cloud
Area surrounding the nucleus
Negatively charged
Occupies most of the volume of the atom

Subatomic Particles
Subatomic
Particle
Proton

Symbol

p,
+

Electron

e-,

Neutron

n,

Charge

Location
in Atom

Mass

Positive

in the
nucleus

1.67310-24 g

Negative

outside of
the nucleus

9.10910-28 g

Neutral

in the
nucleus

1.67510-24 g

The identity of an element is determined by the number


of protons in the nucleus.
The chemical behavior of an element is determined by
the arrangement of the electrons in the atom.

Atom Mass Units (Amu)


Special unit used for measuring
the mass of an atom.
One amu is equal to 1/12 the
mass of a carbon-12 atom.

Atom Mass Units (Amu)


Masses of Subatomic Particles in Amu

Particle

Mass (amu)

Proton

1.007276 1

Neutron

1.008665 1

Electron

0.0005486

Charge of an Atom
Atoms are electrically neutral.
The number of protons in an atom
equals the number of electrons.

Ions
Ions are formed when an atom gains or
loses electrons.
anion negatively charged ion formed
when an atom gains electrons
cation positively charged ion formed
when an atom loses electrons
We will talk more about ions later this
year.

Atomic Number
determined by the number of

protons in the nucleus


found on the periodic table
Determine the atomic number for
each of the following elements.
3
Li
N
7
12
Mg

Mass Number
equal to the sum of the neutrons

and protons in the nucleus of an


atom
not given on the periodic table
Ways to indicate mass number:
Hyphen notation
Chlorine-35
Nuclear Symbol

Write the hyphen notation and nuclear


symbol for the element containing 4 protons
and 5 neutrons.

Beryllium-9
Determine the number of neutrons in
Argon-40.

The atomic number for argon is 18.


40 - 18 = 22.

Complete the following table.


Element
(hyphen
notation)

Nuclear
Symbol

Atomic
Mass
Number Number

Number Number Number


of
of
of
Protons Neutrons Electrons

Sodium -22

11

22

11

11

11

Fluorine-19

19

10

Bromine-80

35

80

35

45

35

Calcium-40

20

40

20

20

20

Hydrogen-1

Isotopes
All atoms of the same element
have the same number of protons,
but the number of neutrons may
vary.
Isotopes are atoms of the same
element which have different
numbers of neutrons.

the 3 commonly occurring


isotopes of oxygen.
Isotope
Oxygen 16
Oxygen 17
Oxygen - 18

Nuclear
Symbol

Number
of
Protons

Number
of
Electrons

8
8
8

8
8
8

Number
Mass
of
Number
Neutrons

8
9
10

16
17
18

Mass
(amu)
15.99415
16.999131
17.999160

What structural characteristics do all oxygen atoms have in


common? All oxygen atoms have the same number of protons and electrons.
What differences exist between the isotopes of oxygen?
The mass number, number of neutrons and mass of each isotope are different.

The isotopes of an element do not differ significantly in their


chemical behavior. Why do you think this is so?
The chemical behavior is determined by the number of electrons and they all
contain the same number of electrons.

Average Atomic Mass


The average atomic for an
element is given on the periodic
table, but how was it determined?
In order to calculate the average
atomic mass for an element, you
must know the percent abundance
and atomic mass for each of the
isotopes of that element.

Example Problem
Isotope

Atomic Mass

Oxygen 16
Oxygen 17
Oxygen 18

15.99415 amu
16.999131 amu
17.999160 amu

Percent
Abundance
99.762%
0.038%
0.200%

The average atomic mass of oxygen is given as 15.999 amu on the


periodic table. Lets see how that was calculated.
15.99415 amu

= 15.95608 amu

16.999131 amu x

= 0.0064597 amu

17.99160 amu

= 0.03598 amu

15.95608 amu + 0.0064597 amu + 0.03598 amu = 15.999 amu

A certain element exists as three natural


isotopes as shown in the table below.
Isotope

Mass (amu)

Percent
Abundance

Mass Number

19.99244

90.51

20

20.99395

0.27

21

21.99138

9.22

22

Calculate the average atomic mass of this element to the nearest


thousandth.
19.99244 amu

= 18.09515744 amu

20.99395 amu

= 0.056683665 amu

21.99138 amu

= 2.027605236 amu

18.09515744 amu + 0.056683665 amu + 2.027605236 amu = 20.179 amu

Identify the element. Neon

Carbon has three naturally occurring


isotopes: Carbon-12 (12.000 amu), Carbon13 (13.003 amu), and Carbon-14 (14.003
amu). Based upon the average atomic mass
of carbon (12.011 amu), which isotope of
carbon do you think is the most abundant in
nature? Explain your answer.
Carbon-12 is the most abundant in nature.
This answer is based on the fact that the
average atomic mass of carbon is 12.011
amu which is closest to the mass of carbon12.

isotopes. The mass of the first isotope


is 64.9278 amu and the mass of the
second isotope is 62.9296 amu. The
average atomic mass of the element is
63.546 amu. Calculate the percent
abundance of each isotope to two
decimal places.
Let x = the percent as a decimal of the first isotope.
1-x = the percent as a decimal of the second isotope.
(64.9278)x + (1-x)(62.9296) = 63.546
64.9278x + 62.9296 62.9296x = 63.546
1.9982x = 0.6164
x = 0.3085; 1-x = 0.6915
The percent abundances are 30.85% and 69.15%.

Discovery of
Radioactivity
Radioactivity was accidently discovered in
1896 by the French chemist Henri Becquerel.
Becquerel was studying the properties of
fluorescent materials, substances that glow in
the dark having been exposed to light. On one
occasion, Becquerel placed the minerals he
was studying along with some unexposed
photographic film in a laboratory drawer.
When he retrieved the film on a later date, he
found that it was foggy.

Discovery of
Radioactivity
Upon further investigation, Marie Curie
and her husband Pierre, were able to
determine that the fogginess was caused
by rays emitted by the uranium in the
mineral samples. Marie Curie named the
process by which materials give off such
rays radioactivity; the rays and particles
emitted by a radioactive source are called
radiation.

Ionizing vs. Nonionizing Radiation


Ionizing radiation radiation with enough energy to
produce ions by knocking electrons off some atoms of
a bombarded substance.
Alpha, beta, gamma, and X-rays are examples of
ionizing radiation.
Ionizing radiation can cause changes to living cells.
Nonionizing radiation not capable of ionizing matter.
Radio waves and visible light are forms of

nonionizing radiation.

Radioisotopes
Radioisotopes are isotopes that are
radioactive because they have unstable
nuclei.

Nuclear Stability
The stability of the nucleus depends upon its ratio of
neutrons to protons. Too many or too few neutrons lead
to an unstable nucleus.
When the number of protons in stable nuclei is plotted
against the number of neutrons, a beltlike graph is
obtained. This stable nuclei cluster over a range of
neutron-proton ratios is referred to as the band of stability.
Stable isotopes fall within the band of stability and have
neutron to proton ratios of nearly 1:1 at the lower range
and nearly 1.5:1 at the upper range. Such isotopes
tend to be stable. Radioactive isotopes fall outside of the
band of stability.

Band of Stability
Would you expect Helium-4
to be a stable isotope? Why
or why not?
Yes, the neutron to proton
ratio is 1:1. (falls within the
band of stability)
Would you expect Carbon14 to be a stable isotope?
Why or why not?
No, the neutron to proton
ratio is 1.3:1 (falls above the
band of stability)

What happens if a nucleus is unstable?


Unstable nuclei undergo spontaneous changes that
change their number of protons and neutrons.
In this process, they give off large amounts of
energy and increase their stability.
Reminder: The identity of an element changes
when the number of protons changes.

Types of Radioactive Decay


During radioactive decay, unstable
atoms lose energy by emitting one
of several types of radiation.
The three main types of radiation
are alpha, beta, and gamma.

Properties of the Three Most Common Types of Radiation


Radiation

Alpha

Beta

beta particles
alpha particles
Composition
(electron)
(helium nucleus)

4
He
2
Symbol

Mass
Electric
Charge

0
e
-1

-1

Gamma
form of
electromagnetic
radiation
0

or
4 amu

nearly 0 amu
(0.0055 amu)

0 amu

2+

1-

stopped by

stopped by

Alpha Emission (Decay)


An alpha particle ( ) is composed of two protons
and two neutrons bound together.
Alpha emission is restricted almost entirely to very
heavy nuclei. In these nuclei, both the number of
neutrons and the number of protons need to be
reduced in order to increase the stability of the
nucleus.
All nuclei with atomic numbers greater than 83 are
radioactive. A majority of these undergo alpha
emission.

Alpha Emission (Decay)


In a balanced nuclear equation, the total of
the mass numbers and atomic numbers on
each side of the equation must be equal.
Describe the change in the mass number.
The mass number decreases by 4.
Describe the change in atomic number.
The atomic number decreases by 2.

Beta Emission (Decay)


Beta emission ( ) is the emission of
electrons from the nucleus when a
neutron is converted to a proton and an
electron.
Beta emission occurs when the nucleus
of an element has too many neutrons.
This is true of elements that fall above
the band of stability.

Beta Emission (Decay)


Describe the change in the mass number.
The mass number stays the same.
Describe the change in atomic number.
The atomic number increases by 1.
What happens to the neutron to proton ratio?
The neutron to proton ratio decreases.

Gamma Emission (Decay)


Gamma rays ( ) are high-energy
electromagnetic waves emitted from a
nucleus as it changes from an excited
state to a ground state.
Gamma rays are produced when nuclear
particles undergo transitions in energy
levels.
Gamma emission usually follows other
types of decay that leave the nucleus in
an excited state.

Gamma Emission (Decay)

Positron Emission (Decay)


Positron emission ( ) occurs when a
proton is converted into a neutron.
A positron is a particle that has the same
mass as an electron, but has a positive
charge and is emitted from the nucleus
during some kinds of radioactive decay.
Positron emission occurs when elements
have too many protons to be stable.
This is true of elements that fall below the
band of stability.

Positron Emission (Decay)


Describe the change in the mass number.
The mass number stays the same.
Describe the change in atomic number.
The atomic number decreases by 1.
What happens to the neutron to proton ratio?
The neutron to proton ratio increases.

Electron Capture
Electron capture ( ) occurs when
an inner orbital electron is captured
by the nucleus of its own atom.
The inner orbital electron combines
with a proton and a neutron is
formed.
Electron capture also occurs in
atoms with too many protons.

Electron Capture
Describe the change in the mass number.
The mass number stays the same.
Describe the change in atomic number.
The atomic number decreases by 1.
What happens to the neutron to proton ratio?
The neutron to proton ratio increases.

equations and identify the type of


radioactive decay.

1.
2.
3.
4.

+
+

beta decay
electron capture

alpha decay
positron emission

Write nuclear Decay equations for each


of the following.
1.

alpha decay of polonium-210

2.

beta decay of copper-66

3.

oxygen-15 undergoes positron emission

4.

argon-37 undergoes electron capture

Write nuclear Decay equations for each


of the following.
5. potassium-38 undergoes positron emission
6. silver-106 undergoes electron capture
7. beta decay of zirconium-191
8. alpha decay of thorium-230

Radioactive Decay Series


A radioactive decay series is a
series of nuclear reactions that
begins with an unstable nucleus and
results in the formation of a stable
nucleus.

Radioactive Decay Series

Decay Series
Write the series of reactions that
represent the decay series for
uranium-238.

Transmutation
Transmutation conversion of an atom of one element
to an atom of another element.
Transmutation may occur through radioactive decay.
Induced Transmutation may also occur when high
energy particles (protons, neutrons, or alpha
particles) bombard the nucleus.
Transuranium elements elements in the periodic table
with atomic numbers above 92. These elements have
been synthesized in nuclear reactors and nuclear
accelerators; which accelerate the bombarding particles
to very high speeds.

Transmutation
The nuclear equation for the induced
transmutation of aluminum-27 into
phosphorus-30 by alpha particle
bombardment is written below.

Which particle is emitted from the aluminum


atom? neutron

Write the balanced nuclear equation for the induced transmutation of aluminum-27
into sodium-24 by neutron bombardment. An alpha particle is released in the
reaction.

Write the balanced nuclear equation for the alpha


bombardment of plutonium-239. One of the
reaction products is a neutron.

Nuclear Fusion
In nuclear fusion, light nuclei combine to form
a heavier, more stable nucleus.
Nuclear fusion occurs in the sun where
hydrogen nuclei fuse to make helium nuclei.

Nuclear Fusion as a Power Source


Nuclear fusion produces more energy per

gram of fuel than nuclear fission.


Potential fuels (hydrogen-2, hydrogen-3) are
inexpensive and readily available.
Fusion products are usually not radioactive.
Unfortunately fusion requires high
temperatures to initiate the reaction and once
started no known structural materials can
contain the reaction.

Nuclear Fission
In nuclear fission, fissionable isotopes split
when bombarded with neutrons.
The isotopes release
neutrons that cause a
chain reaction.

Nuclear Fission as a Power Source


Uranium-235 is typically used as the

source of fuel in controlled fission reactions


that produce large amounts of energy.
A major problem associated with nuclear
fission is the issue of how to contain, store
and dispose of the nuclear waste produced.

Half-Life
Todays Objectives
1.Define half-life and calculate
the half-life of certain isotopes.
2.Use half-life information to
determine the amount of a
radioisotope remaining at a
given time.