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MEMS Actuators

Design Trend and Terminology


Microelectromechanical systems
(MEMS) miniature systems consisting of
both electronic and mechanical components

Miniaturization of products and parts, with


features sizes measured in microns (10-6 m)
or smaller

Advantages of Microsystem
Products
Less material usage
Lower power requirements
Greater functionality per unit space
Accessibility to regions that are forbidden
to larger products
In most cases, smaller products should
mean lower prices because less material
is used

Outline

Introduction of microactuators

Piezoelectric microactuators

Magnetic microactuators

Electrostatic microactuator

Thermal microactuators

others
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Introduction
Core components in MEMS:
Sensors, actuators, transduction unit /control logic

Sensor: convert one physical quantity /energy to another


Actuator: convert electric energy into mechanical energy
Input
signal

Power
supply

Power
supply
supply

Microsensing
element

Transduction
unit

Transduction
unit

Output
signal

MEMS as microsensor

Microactuation
element

Output
Output
signal
signal

MEMS as microactuator

Microactuators
Categorized by principle
Thermal forces;
Piezoelectric forces;
Electromagnetic forces;
Electrostatic forces;
Other forces, such as shape
memory alloy, magnetrostrictive
force, ultrasonic force;

Applications
Micropump, micromirror,
micromotor, microvalve,
microrelay, microgripper,
optical switch, etc.

Piezoelectric effect
Principle: piezoelectric crystals produce electrical charge
with applied mechanical stress; the converse applies too:
an applied voltage generates deformation of crystals.
Polarization:

Induced mechanical
deformation

Mechanical forces

Mechanical-force-induced
electric voltage

Applied
voltage V

Electric-voltage-induced
mechanical deformation

Piezoelectric actuators
Piezoelectric effect with E-field and stress is
D d
d E
i

D and E is the electric displacement and field, and is


mechanical stress and strain, d is piezoelectric constant

Piezoelectric crystals: Quartz (crystal SiO2), Barium titanate ceramics


(BaTiO3), Lead zirconate titanate, PZT(PbTi1-xZrxO3), PbZrTiO6, PbNb2O6,
PZT-polymer composite, PZT-metal composite, etc.

Applications: ultrasonic emitter, buzzer, resonator/ actuators

Electromagnetic microactuators
The electromagnetic force can be generated with one or two
magnets or coils.
High power consumption and heat dissipation, not suitable
for miniaturization.
Widely used in focusing system of optical storage disk and
magnetic head positioner of hard disk.

Electromagnetic mobile microactuator

Electromagnetic microactuator for hard disk


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Thermal microactuators
Thermal actuation is widely used for actuation cantilever or
membrane structures.
The thermal deformation is generated by the distinct thermal
expansion coefficient in different materials.
The strain caused by the temperature change is

dT T
Th
Tl

The actuation speed is slow, which is related to the heating


speed and reversion speed of the materials.
Applications: inkjet head, microvalve, microgripper, etc.

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Electrostatic microactuators
Principle: electrostatic force (attraction) generated between
moving and fixed plate as voltage applied.
Two major configurations: (a). parallel-plate capacitors (outof-plane), (b) interdigitated fingers /comb drive (in-plane)
Pros: simplicity, low power, fast response, low cost
Cons: non-linear dependence of force on gap, contamination,
sticking instability
Applications: micromotors, accelerometers, optical switches,
micromirrors, comb-drive microactuators
Parallel-plate
capacitor
Comb drive
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Electrostatic microactuators

Texas Instruments, optical switch

Sandia lab, linear comb drive actuator

Mehregany, MIT, electrostatic motor

Sandia lab, rotary actuation

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A new design of microactuator


Principle: laterally driven comb drive microactuator
Characteristics:
Bulk 3D silicon-on-glass device
high-aspect-ratio microstructure
high electrostatic driving force
Low driving voltage
Good toughness and reliability

Fabrication method:
Bulk-micromachining
e.g.., deep reactive ion etching and wafer bonding
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Thank You !
PRESENTED BYZAINAB
HASEEB
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