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Quality INSPECTION (Sampling Plan)

Problem 3 : (Multiple Sampling Plan)


State the steps and also the cases of acceptance of the Lot , in case you are adopting Multiple Stage
Sampling Plan (with 3 stages) for inspecting a lot of 20,000 items, if for 1 st , 2nd and 3rd stage sample
sizes are 25, 30 & 35, the Acceptance No.s are 1, 4 & 7 and the Rejection No.s are 4, 6 & 8,
respectively.
Solution 3 :

Given,

N=20,000,
C1= 1,
1 R1= 4

n1= 25,
n2= 30,
C2= 4,
4 R2= 6

n3= 35,
C3= 7,
7 R3= 8

Steps : i)
Inspect items of first sample of size 25,
25
ii)
If no. of defectives is 0 or 1, Accept the lot
iii)
If no. of defectives is 4 or more,
Reject the lot
more
iv)
If no. of defectives is 2 or 3, Inspect items of second sample of size
30 and then,
1) If no. of defectives in the combined sample (25 + 30) does not exceed
4,
Accept the lot
2) If no. of defectives in combined sample (25 + 30) is 6 or more,
more Reject
the lot.
3) If no. of defectives in the combined sample (25 + 30) is 5, Inspect
items
of third sample of size 35,
35 and then,
(a) If no. of defectives in combined sample (25 + 30 + 35) does not exceed
7, Accept the lot
(b) If no. of defectives in combined sample (25 + 30 + 35) is 8 or more,
Reject the lot.

Quality INSPECTION (Sampling Plan)

Solution to Problem 3 : (Multiple Sampling Plan)


Given, N=20,000,
n1= 25,
C1= 1,
1 R1= 4

n2= 30,

[contd..]

n3= 35,

C2= 4,
4 R 2= 6

C3= 7,
7 R 3= 8

Cases of Acceptance of the Lot :


The lot is accepted when no. of defectives found in,
1) Sample 1 : d1 = 0 or 1
2) Sample 1 : d1 = 2
3) Sample 1 : d1 = 3

and then Sample 2 : d2 = 0 or 1 or 2


and then Sample 2 : d2 = 0 or 1

4) Sample 1 : d1 = 2

and then Sample 2 : d2 = 3

d3 = 0 or 1 or 2
5) Sample 1 : d1 = 3
and then Sample 2 : d2 = 2
Sample 3 :
d3 = 0 or 1 or 2

(d 1 + d 2 = 5)

and then Sample 3 :

and then

Quality INSPECTION (Sampling Plan)

Comparison for Applicability among


Single, Double & Multiple Sampling Plans
Single Sampling Plan :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Simple Sampling Plan


Less storage space required for inspection
Cost of Inspection is low due to short continuing period of inspection
Average no. of items undergoing inspection per lot may be the large
Lower flexibility ie higher risk for acceptability of the lot
lot towards the
producer/supplier (more chance of rejection)

Multiple Sampling Plan :


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Complicated Sampling Plan


More storage space required for inspection
Cost of Inspection is high due to longer continuing period of
inspection
Average no. of items undergoing inspection per lot may be the low
Higher flexibility ie lower risk for acceptability of the lot
lot towards
producer/supplier (more chance of acceptance)

# Double Sampling Plan

having the criteria in between single

and multiple ones, is most acceptable

Quality INSPECTION (contd.)

(C) ACCEPTABLE QUALITY LEVEL (AQL) :

AQL is the HIGHEST Fraction Defectives in the inspection-sample size (n)

prescribed for the lot (offered for inspection), that can allow accepting the lot .

The whole lot with FRACTION DEFECTIVE EQUAL to or LOWER


than AQL is quality-wise accepted.
accepted
AQL is related to ACCEPTANCE NUMBER (C).
(C / n) x 100 % = AQL

or
C = n x (% AQL / 100)
AQL values usually lie between 0.5% and 3.0%.
value is prefixed and mutually accepted by both Buyer and seller.

AQL

# Rejecting a lot at AQL is AT PRODUCERS RISK.

(D) Rejectable Quality Level (RQL) :


It is the MINIMUM Fraction Defective
Defective in the inspection-sample size prescribed
for the lot (offered for inspection), , that can allow rejection of the lot .

The whole lot with FRACTION DEFECTIVE EQUAL to or MORE than


RQL is quality-wise REJECTED.
REJECTED
RQL is related to REJECTION NUMBER (R).
(R / n) x 100 % = RQL

or

R = n x (% RQL / 100)

[RQL is also denoted by LOT TOLERANCE PERCENT DEFECTIVES


As

R > C, RQL is always > AQL .


# Accepting a lot at RQL is AT CONSUMERS RISK.

(LTPD)].
LTPD

Quality INSPECTION (contd.)

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS CURVE


( O.C. CURVE ) showing Producers Risk ( ) &
Consumers Risk ()

Pa
100%
89%

89% Acceptance Probability

The O.C. Curve for an Attribute Sampling Plan is the


graph of the Probability of Acceptance
Acceptance (Pa)
Pa

Producers Risk ()
= 100% 89%
= 11% (Rejection
probability)

against Fraction Defectives


Defectives (Fd)
Fd in a lot .
O.C. Curve is used for Quality Acceptance or
Rejection Scheme.
In any Sampling Plan, the O.C. Curve shows the
Probability of Acceptance (Pa)
Pa of the lot [on Yaxis] varies depending on variation of Fraction
Defective (Fd)
Fd [or Percentage Defective (100.Fd)]
[on X-axis].

A lot with 3% defective has chance of 35% to be accepted

35%

100% Rejection
Probability

90% Rejection
Probability

10%

0.01 (1%)
AQL

0.03 (3%)

Consumers Risk () = 10%

(Fd) Fraction
0.05 (5%)
RQL

8%

Defectives
(% Defective)

Quality INSPECTION (contd.)

(E) AVERAGE OUTGOING QUALITY (AOQ) :


It is the average percentage defectives in the outgoing products
including all accepted lots and also all rejected lots which have been 100%
inspected and all defectives have been replaced with non-defective ones.
If,
K = No. of lots,
N = Lot size,
n = Sample size,

Fd = Percent or Fraction Defectives,

Pa = Probability of Acceptance,

Total no. of items in outgoing lots = K.N (at Fraction Defective of Fd)
Total no. of defectives originally = K.N.Fd
Total no. of defectives in accepted lots = K.N.Fd x Pa
AOQ = K. N.Fd .Pa
= K. N. Fd .Pa = Fd . Pa
K.N.Pa + K.N.(1 Pa)
K.N

AOQ = Fd . Pa

(vi)

AVERAGE OUTGOING QUALITY LIMIT(AOQL) :

It is the maximum AOQ.


AOQ It is the max. average Fraction defectives in out going lots
when all rejected lots are 100% inspected and all defectives are replaced by good ones.
AOQ [= Fd x Pa]

AOQL occurs at a particular Fd.


Fd

AOQL

Max. AOQ

*
F
d

Fd (Fraction Defective)

(vii)
Producers Risk ( ) :
It is the probability of rejecting a good quality (AQL quality)
quality lot in the Sampling
Plan. The risk of rejecting the lots of AQL quality in a sampling plan, should be smaller
than the designated Producers Risk ().
Rejecting a lot at AQL is AT PRODUCERS RISK.
(viii)
Consumers Risk () :
It is the probability of accepting a bad quality (RQL quality)
quality lot in the Sampling
Plan. The risk of accepting the lots of RQL quality in the sampling plan, should be
smaller than designated Consumer Risk().
Accepting a lot at RQL is AT CONSUMERS RISK.

Quality INSPECTION (contd.)

Problem - 3 : In inspection of a lot comprising of 40,000 items with an


AQL of 2%,
2% the sample size is 1500.
1500 What is the Acceptance
Number ? Explain the condition of acceptability of the lot. What
will be your decision on acceptance of the lot of 40,000 items, if
the no. of defectives found in the sample is 30 ?
-

The sample size for inspection is 1500 pieces for the lot of
40,000. In inspection of 1500 items of the sample-size, if
number of defective items found does not exceed the
Acceptance Number (C) the whole lot is accepted.
AQL being 2%

of sample size,

The Acceptance Number, C = % AQL x (n /100)


= 2 x (1500 /100)
= 30
The whole lot of 40,000 items will be accepted,
because number of defectives (found in the sample)
30,
30 is not greater than the Acceptance Number 30.
30

AOQL on AOQ vs p curve

Problem 4 : Find the AOQL and show it on AOQ vs Percent Defectives curve,
based on the data given below, as available from OC Curve.

Fd
(%)

Pa (%)

0.4

96.3

1.0

82.7

1.4

71.8

1.6

66.3

1.8

61.0

2.0

55.8

2.2

50.9

2.5

44.1

3.0

34.3

3.5

26.2

4.0

19.9

AOQL on AOQ vs p curve

Solution 4 :
Given

Page 1of 2

Solution:

Fd
(%)

Pa (%)

0.4

Fd(%)

Pa

% AOQ (Fd x Pa)

96.3

0.4

0.963

0.385

1.0

82.7

1.0

0.827

0.827

1.4

71.8

1.4

0.718

1.005

1.6

66.3

1.6

0.663

1.061

1.8

61.0

1.8

0.610

1.098

2.0

55.8

2.0

0.558

1.116

2.2

50.9

2.2

0.509

2.5

44.1

2.5

0.441

1.102

3.0

34.3

3.0

0.343

1.029

3.5

26.2

3.5

0.262

0.917

4.0

19.9

4.0

0.199

0.796

AOQL =

1.120 Max Value

Solution 4 :
Page 2 of 2

Average Outgoing Quality Limit (AOQL) :


% AOQ

AOQ curve

1.5
1.2

AOQL

(Drawn on given data given in the example, next page)


Max. AOQ

1.12

1.0

(with rectification)

0.796
0.385

AOQ = Fd x Pa

Fd (Fraction Defective)
0.004

0.01

0.022

0.04

CONTROL
CHARTS
&

CONTROL
LIMITS

CONTROL CHARTS are the graphical representation of the collected


information / observations / measurements plotted with respect to the
Control Limits, which detects the variation (defects) in production
process and warns if there is any Deviation from the specified
TOLERANCE LIMIT.
Purpose of Control Chart :
(i)
Specifies the state of statistical control of Quality of products,
(ii)
Indicates tolerance for inspection to attain statistical Q. control,
(iii) Judges whether the process is under control.
control
_
(1)Quality Characteristics ( X, R, S charts)
CONTROL CHARTS
(2) Fraction Defective (P Chart) &
No. of Defects per Unit (C Chart)
(3) Non-conformities (C chart) &
per unit (u chart)

Non-conformities

[ (1) is Control Chart for Variables


Variables
(2) & (3) are Control Charts for Attribute.]
Attribute
_
X Chart : Average Variable (on measurements) Chart
R Chart : Range Chart (SPREAD of measurements)
S Chart : Standard Deviation of process

Control Chart for Variables


Let, Variables (individual measurements/observations) = Xi , (where i = 1 to n),
Sample Size for each sub-group (sample) = n,
No. of Sub-group (sample) in the lot = N.
_
Sample Average (Sample Mean), Xmean, X = ( Xi ) n where i = 1 to n
=

Process Average (Process Mean), X = ( Xi ) N


Range (in each sample),

where i = 1 to N

Ri = ( X max Xmin)

Mean Range (of the Process),

R = ( Ri ) N

where i = 1 to N

Standard Deviation (in each Sample), Sj = [ ( Xi Xmean )2 (n-1) ]


_

Mean Standard Deviation for the lot, S = ( Sj) N

Standard Deviation of population,

= R d2

_
= S C2


X Chart and R-Chart

X Chart

Central Line (CL)

R-Chart

=
X

Upper Control Limit (UCL)

X + A2.R

_
D4 . R

Lower Control Limit (LCL)

X A2.R

_
D3 . R

UCL

=
X

_
R

LCL

_
X - Chart

UCL

LCL

N
R - Chart

X Chart and R-Chart

Central Line (CL)

X Chart

R-Chart

=
X

_
R

Upper Control Limit (UCL)

X + A2.R

_
D4 . R

Lower Control Limit (LCL)

X A2.R

_
D3 . R
S-Chart

_
X Chart and SChart
Central Line (CL)
Upper Control Limit
(UCL)

X Chart
=
X

_
S

X + A3.S

_
B4 . S

Control
Limit (LCL)applicable
= over X R chart, when _
# [ X Lower
S charts
are preferably
X A3.S
B3 . S
(1) Sample size, n > 10,
(2) Tight control of Process Variability is needed, and
(3) Sample size n varies.]

Values of Statistical Constants


Sample
Size (n)

A2

D3

D4

A3

B3

B4

d2

C2

1.88

3.27

2.66

3.27

1.128

0.7979

1.02

2.57

1.95

2.57

1.693

0.8862

0.73

2.28

1.63

2.27

2.059

0.9213

0.58

2.11

1.43

2.09

2.326

0.9400

0.48

2.00

1.29

0.03

1.97

2.534

0.9515

0.42

0.08

1.92

1.18

0.12

1.88

2.704

0.9594

0.37

0.14

1.86

1.10

0.19

1.81

2.847

0.9650

0.34

0.18

1.82

1.03

0.24

1.76

2.970

0.9693

10

0.31

0.22

1.78

0.98

0.28

1.72

3.078

0.9727

A Model of Data Sheet for X R chart


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Department :
Specification :
Drawing No. :
USL :
LSL :
Part Name. :
Sample Size :
Part No. :
Sample frequency :
Machine :
Total No. of Sample :
Operator :
Inspector :
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sample No.
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
Xmean
Range R
(= Xi n)
(Xmax Xmin)
1.
2.
3.
4.
:
:
N (normally 20 -25)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------======-----------=======
Xmean
R
=
_
X = ( Xmean ) N =
R=R N=
CL =
UCL =
LCL =
_

CL =
UCL =
LCL =

CAUSES OF VARITION
OF MEASUREMENTS
Variation in measurement (quality) can be caused in two ways,
i)
Assignable Causes
ii)
Natural or Chance or Random Causes.

ASSIGNABLE CAUSES
Basic Nature :
1) For Assignable Causes the variations are generally greater in
magnitude (in comparison to Natural Causes)
2) The variations do not follow Normal Statistics.
Statistics
3) The Assignable causes & variations are not inevitable.
inevitable
4) Assignable Causes of variation are generally easily traceable &
identifiable
5)
Assignable Causes of variation normally can be avoided /
rectified / eliminated.
eliminated
6)
If Assignable Causes are not rectified, the process becomes
Out of Control.
Control

CAUSES OF VARITION

Basic Assignable Causes :


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Faulty process
Quality of raw materials and/or components,
components
Wear & Tear of the machine and equipment
Operating Condition of Equipment / machineries, like vibration,
leveling defect, defective centering, non-alignment, etc
Improper fixing / fitting of tools
Wrong tools
Wrong setting of machine
Faulty jigs and fixtures
Improper Maintenance
Use of uncalibrated or poorly calibrated instrument, gauges,
gauges etc.
Faulty Environmental Condition of working place (improper
lighting & ventilation,
ventilatio dust,
dust smoke,
smoke temperature variation, toxic
or corrosive atmosphere, humidity, etc),
Operating Condition of Instrumentation & Control,
Inadequate Skill of workers / operators,
Mental condition / Mood of workers / operators,
Carelessness and mistake on the part of operators,

CAUSES OF VARITION

Natural or Chance or Random Causes


Basic Nature :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Such causes are inherent in the process and thus are


INEVITABLE,
INEVITABLE
The variations in measurement are generally smaller in
magnitude
Such causes are unpredictable and thus non-rectifiable in
nature.
The causes are very difficult to identify & trace and thus very
difficult to rectify even under best care & conditions.
Variations due to such causes follow Statistical Rules and
Normal Curve (chance factor ie Probability is involved).
With this type of variations,
variations the process is said to be UNDERCONTROL.
If the variations do not follow Normal Curve,
Curve there must be
some Assignable Causes which can be detected and rectified.

Distinguish between
Natural Causes and Assignable Causes
Natural Error Assignable Error
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Inherent in the process of production


Exists Outside the process
Inevitable to occur
Can be avoided
Difficult to identify / detect
Easy to identify / detect
Very difficult to eliminate / rectify
can be easily eliminated / rectified
Errors (variations) are very small in
Errors (variations) are great in
magnitude.
magnitude
Variations follow standard Statistical
Variations does not follow any
Laws of Variations.
standard Statistical Laws of Variations.
Variations or Errors occur at random
Variations or Errors occur steadily and
continuously

Possible ERROR in MEASUREMENT of Variations in a Lot


1.
2.
3.
4.

Sampling Error
Testing Process / Method Error
Error in Measuring devices or Instrument
Personal Error.
Error

Normal Distribution Curve


Frequency of
occurrence

-3

-2

=
X ()

68.28%
95.46%
99.73%

Area under the Curve


indicates Population

3 Deviation
Limits

Normal Distribution Curve & Six Sigma

99.99966% ie 3.4 defects per million population come under the range
( 4.5 ) . So, Six Sigma range covers 3.4 defects per million
population, even with a shift of Mean by 1.5 Sigma.

# [ X S charts are preferably applicable over X R chart, when


(1) Sample size, n > 10,
(2) Tight control of Process Variability is needed, and
(3) Sample size n varies.]
SPECIFIED TOLERANCE :

Process Control Limits :

USL = Upper specified Limit

UCL = Upper Control Limit

LSL = Lower specified Limit


LCL = Lower Control Limit
(USL LSL)
LSL = Specified Spread (S)
Center Line of Specified Spread = (USL + LSL) / 2
NATURAL TOLERANCE :
=
Process Central Line = X
Upper Natural Tolerance Limit =

UNTL = Process CL + 3

Lower Natural Tolerance Limit =

LNTL = Process CL 3

(Natural)
Natural Process SPREAD = (UNTL LNTL)
LNTL = 6
PROCESS CAPABILITY RATIO
(PCR) = Specified Spread.
Spread
Process Spread

PCR = (USL LSL)


LSL = S
6
6

TOLERANCE
Tolerance is the acceptable / allowed limits of variations of the measurements
(dimensions, strength, properties, finish, etc) of the items of the lot.
Tolerance Limits are the maximum variations of the measurement those can
be acceptable / allowed, above (Upper Control Limit) or below (Lower Control
Limit) the corresponding specified measurement. Example :
+ 0.2
+ 0.8
+10
Diameter 455 mm, Cr content 14
%, Strength 540
kg/cm2
0.3
0. 5
0
Tolerance may be : (i) Natural Tolerance

and/or

(ii) Specified Tolerance

Natural Tolerance : If the process is Under Control (ie the variations are
small and follow statistical laws), the Upper Control Level (UCL) and the
Lower Control Limit (LCL) together indicate the Natural Tolerance.
The gap between Natural Tolerance Limits UCL & LCL (ie 6 ) is BAND.
Specified Tolerance : The tolerance limits (U & L) predefined or
specified by the designer or the user of the product (depending on the
quality needed to fit it in its use) is termed as Specified Tolerance.
Specified Tolerance is not directly related to or dependent on Natural
Tolerance ie Natural Control Limits. Specified Tolerance is important and
considered in QC of industrial Products.
The gap between Specified Tolerance Limits USL & LSL is SPREAD.

Quality-Control based on SPREAD and Process BAND


1) If 6 < S
The process can be easily be
kept under control by adjusting
=
the position of X very near to Centre
Line of the Spread (S).
Position 2 is shifted and kept

at position 1.
2) If 6 = S
Strict Centering care to be taken
=
to keep the Control (Centre) Line X
perfectly at the Centre Line of Spread.
It is also better to relax the Specified
Tolerance to make S> 6 . Position 2
is shifted and kept at position 1.
3) If 6 > S

=
X

USL

CL

=
X

LSL

USL
1

6
=
X 6

CL
=

Even with Extreme care & control and


LSL
Perfect Centering, the process is not under
Control. The Process is said to be
Out of Control. Quality non-conformance will be there and there by Quality Rejection
Will take place.
Care to be taken : (1) Fundamental change in process,
(2)
Revision of Specified Tolerance,
(3) Perfect Centering,
(4)
100% inspection