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Indoor

Air
Quality
Ramon Crisostomo
Jaira Samantha Hernandez
Joshua Errol Legaspi
Cristopher Pangan
Sharinnel Salazar

Introduction

All of us face a variety of risks to our health as we


go about our day-to-day lives. Driving in cars, flying
in planes, engaging in recreational activities, and
being exposed to environmental pollutants all pose
varying degrees of risk. Some risks are simply
unavoidable. Some we choose to accept because to
do otherwise would restrict our ability to lead our
lives the way we want. And some are risks we
might decide to avoid if we had the opportunity to
make informed choices. Indoor air pollution is one
risk that you can do something about.

Introduction

In the last several years, a growing body of


scientific evidence has indicated that the air within
homes and other buildings can be more seriously
polluted than the outdoor air in even the largest
and most industrialized cities.
In addition, people who may be exposed to indoor
air pollutants for the longest periods of time are
often those most susceptible to the effects of indoor
air pollution. Such groups include the young, the
elderly, and the chronically ill, especially those
suffering from respiratory or cardiovascular disease.

IAQ Problems
Poor

Indoor Air Quality


- can cause or contribute to the
development of infections, lung cancer,
and chronic lung diseases such as
asthma. In addition, it can cause
headaches, dry eyes, nasal congestion,
nausea and fatigue. People who already
have lung disease are at greater risk.

HEALTH and SAFETY


Having

clean air indoor is very


important for the health of the whole
population of the world most especially
the babies, children, and elderly. Health
effects from indoor air pollutants may
be experienced soon after exposure or
probably years later.

List of the sources


and effects of indoor
air pollutants

Some basic things to


do in reducing
concentrations of
indoor air pollutants

Source

management is the
most effective control method
when it can be practically
applied.
Source removal is very
effective.
Source substitution includes
actions such as selecting a
less toxic art material or
interior paint than the
products which are currently
in use.

Indoor air
contaminats/pollution
Indoor

air pollution refers to chemical,


biological and physical contamination of
indoor air. It may result in adverse
health effects.

Main source of indoor air


pollution
biomass

smoke which contains


suspended particulate matter (5PM)
nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
sulphur dioxide (SO2)
carbon monoxide (Ca)
formaldehyde and polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons(PAHs).

Causes of indoor air


contaminants
the

polyurethane common in mattresses


formaldehyde and organic chemicals like
dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and
polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) used in lots of
furniture and other interior elements are all
harmful to us humans.
Drapes, carpets and other absorbent fabrics
can help trap these nasties, along with dust,
mites and other allergens, and our modern,
mostly airtight homes keep them inside.

Below is a tabulated form of some of the


indoor air contaminats:

VI. SYMPTOMS OF POOR


INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ)
It is common for people to report one or more of the
following symptoms:
Dryness and irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and skin
Headache
Fatigue
Shortness of breath
Hypersensitivity and allergies
Sinus congestion
Coughing and sneezing
Dizziness
Nausea

Health related issues:

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) is used to describe


cases in which building occupants experience adverse
effects while in the building, but no clinically diagnosed
disease is found.
Building-Related Illness (BRI) refers to less frequent
(but often more serious) cases of people becoming ill
after being in a specific building at a certain time.
Multiple
Chemical
Sensitivity
(MCS)
or
Environmental Illness (EI)a controversial condition
where an individual has or develops sensitivity to even
low levels of certain chemicals due to extended
exposure.

Investigating Indoor Air Quality

A typical IAQ investigation requires several


steps:
Planning
Gather background information about the
building and its systems.
Interview affected peopleunderstand the
complaints and symptoms and check for
patterns as to where and when they occur.
Set objectives.
Determine the strategy to be employed.

Investigating Indoor Air Quality

Gathering datamake necessary measurements


throughout the building, possibly including
temperature, humidity, CO2, CO, particles, VOCs,
chemicals and bioaerosols.
Analyzing the datacheck for acceptable
measurements to eliminate certain areas or
suspected problems, as well as anomalies that direct
you to areas requiring additional focus (remember,
there can be multiple problems).
Reporting findingsall results indicating a need for
corrective action should be reported.
Offering assistanceprepare an IAQ management
plan that includes setting policies and conducting
routine measurements to ensure good air quality is
maintained.

Investigating Indoor Air Quality


Often, it is advisable to consult with an experienced
IAQ professional, health and safety specialist or
industrial hygienist when devising an IAQ
investigation. So many issues must be considered in
a complete investigation that this precaution will
probably end up saving time and increasing the
likelihood of a successful outcome. To help steer an
investigation, the affected occupants should be
asked questions such as:
1. What symptoms are you experiencing?
2. When did the symptoms begin?
3. Are the symptoms present all the time or just
during certain times (hour, day, season of the year,
etc.)?

Investigating Indoor Air Quality


4.

Where do the symptoms occur?


5. Do symptoms subside when you leave the
affected the area? How soon?
6. Have there been changes to the areanew
furniture, carpet, paint, remodeling or
construction projects, etc.?
7. Is there a smoking or parking area nearby?
8. Have you recently moved?
9. Have you had a significant change in your
activities?
10. Does anyone else near the affected area
have symptoms similar to yours?

MEASUREMENTS
Temperature
Humidity
3vs
Carbon

Monoxide
Airborne Particles
Ultrafine Particles
Bioaerosols
Chemical in Aerosol Form
Light, Noise, Vibration, Ergonomics, Odors, etc.

Temperature

Temperature is one of the basic IAQ measurements that


has a direct impact on perceived comfort and, in turn,
concentration and productivity. According to ASHRAE
Standard 55, the recommended temperature ranges
perceived as "comfortable" are 73 to 79F (22.8 to
26.1C) in the summer and 68 to 74.5F (20.0 to 23.6C)
in the winter. Measurements should be taken periodically
at many areas of the building to be sure that air is
distributed evenly and temperatures are consistent. TSI
offers a number of instruments that measure
temperature. These include IAQ monitors,
thermohygrometers and multi-parameter ventilation
meters.

Temperatures that are too cold or too hot


ranked as #1 and #2 on a list of top office
complaints according to a survey by the
International Facility Managers Association.
Excessively high or low temperatures in an
office area can lead to symptoms in building
occupants and reduce productivity. High
temperatures have been associated with
fatigue, irritability, headache and a
decrease in performance and alertness.
Likewise, if the office is too cold, persons
may experience discomfort to their hands
and feet, shivering, fatigue and a decrease
in performance and alertness.

HUMIDITY
Humidity

is the amount of water vapor


in the air. Water vapor is the gaseous
state of water and is invisible. Humidity
indicates the likelihood of precipitation,
dew, or fog. Higher humidity reduces
the effectiveness of sweating in cooling
the body by reducing the rate of
evaporation of moisture from the skin.

EFFECTS of HUMIDITY
Respiratory

infections

Allergies.
Humidity

is a good thing when it comes


to air quality because if a building isn't
humid enough, people will experience
discomfort such as scratchy eyes and
dry mucus membranes.

But

if the humidity is too high, the body


loses its ability to cool itself. High
humidity conditions (primarily occurs in
the summer months) can result in
persons feeling wet and clammy

3Vs (volume, variety and


velocity)

3Vs (volume, variety and velocity) are three


defining properties or dimensions ofbig data.
Volume refers to the amount of data, variety
refers to the number of types of data and
velocity refers to the speed of data
processing. According to the 3Vs model, the
challenges ofbig data managementresult
from the expansion of all three properties,
rather than just the volume alone -- the sheer
amount of data to be managed.

Gartner analyst Doug Laney introduced the


3Vs concept in a 2001 MetaGroup research
publication,3D data management:
Controlling data volume, variety and
velocity. More recently, additional Vs have
been proposed for addition to the model,
includingvariability-- the increase in the
range of values typical of a large data set -andvalue,which addresses the need for
valuation of enterprise data.

Carbon Monoxide
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a deadly,
colorless, odorless, poisonous gas.
Exposure limits for CO are an average of
35 ppm for one hour, not more than one
time per year, or 9 ppm over any eighthour period. (U.S EPA)
Instruments like IAQ monitors and
combustion analysers can be used to
measure carbon monoxide.

Airborne Particles

Airborne particles are very fine particles made up of either


solid or liquid matter that can stay suspended in the air and
spread with the wind. Common examples of such particles
are: fog, which is made up of tiny water droplets; dust,
which is made up of very fine particles of solid matter; and
smoke, which is made up of both solid matter and liquid.
Airborne particle size varies greatly, and they are often
measured in microns, meaning it is so small that it cannot
be seen with the naked eye. Sources of airborne particles
can be natural, such as the dust and smoke created by
volcanic eruptions and forest fires, or man-made, such as
the soot from the burning ofcoalin a power plant or the
residual oil particles in vehicle exhaust fumes. Scientific
studies show that this particle pollution can cause health
problems in humans and affect the Earth's climate.

Ultrafine Particles

Ultrafine particles (UFPs), defined as particles less


than 0.1 micrometer diameter, are often produced
by combustion and some chemical reactions.
They are so small that they can pass easily
through the body's natural defense mechanisms
to the deepest areas of the lungs. Certain people
are extremely sensitive to ultrafine particles,
sometimes regardless of chemical composition. It
is suspected that the sheer number of particles
and their cumulative surface area may trigger a
reaction in these people.

The

only practical instrument for detecting


ultrafine particles is a condensation
particle counter (CPC), a device that
grows the small particles to a size large
enough to be counted using conventional
particle counting techniques. TSIs
ultrafine particle counter employs CPC
technology to detect and track ultrafine
particles within the building environment.

BIOAEROSOLS
A

bio aerosol or biological aerosol is a


suspension of airborne particles that
contain living organisms or were
released from living organism. These
particles are also referred to as organic
dust.

EFFECTS of BIOAEROSOLS
Respiratory

symptoms
Lung function impairment
Tuberculosis
Bacterial pneumonia

Measles
Gastrointestinal

illness
CancerBio aerosols are also associated
with some noninfectious airway
diseases, such as allergies and asthma.

AEROSOLS
Aerosols

are collections of tiny particles


of solid and/or liquid suspended in a
gas. The size of particles in an aerosol
ranges from about 0.001 to about 100
microns. (A micron is one-millionth of a
meter.)
The most familiar form of an aerosol is
the pressurized spray can, which can
dispense anything from hair spray to
enamel paint to whipping cream.

Common aerosols subgroups


Fumes.Fumes

consist of solid particles


ranging in size from 0.001 to 1 micron
suspended in a gas. Probably the most
familiar form of a fume is smoke. Smoke
is formed from the incomplete
combustionof fuels such as coal, oil, or
natural gas. The particles that make up
smoke are smaller than 10 microns in
size.

Dusts.Dusts also contain solid particles


suspended in a gas, usually air, but the particles
are larger in size than those in a fume. They
range from about 1 to about 100 microns in
size, although they may be even larger. Dust is
formed by the release of materials such as soil
and sand, fertilizers, coal dust, cement dust,
pollen, and fly ash into the atmosphere.
Because of their larger particle size, dusts tend
to be more unstable and settle out more rapidly
than do fumes, which do not settle out at all.

Mists.Mists are liquid particlesless than about 10


microns in sizedispersed in a gas. The most
common type of mist is that formed by tiny water
droplets suspended in the air, as on a cool summer
morning. If the concentration of liquid particles
becomes high enough to affect visibility, it is then
called a fog. A particular form of fog that has become
significant in the last half century issmog. Smog
forms when natural moisture in the air interacts with
human-produced components, such as smoke and
other combustion products, to form chemically active
materials.

Sprays.Sprays

form when relatively


large (10+ microns) droplets of a liquid
are suspended in a gas. Sprays can be
formed naturally, as along an ocean
beach, but are also produced as the
result of some humaninventionssuch
as aerosol can dispensers of paints,
deodorants, and other household
products.

Sources of aerosols
About

three-quarters of all aerosols found in Earth's


atmosphere come from natural sources. The most
important of these natural components are sea salt,
soil and rock debris, products ofvolcanicemissions,
smoke from forest fires, and solid and liquid particles
formed by chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
Volcanic eruptions are major, if highly irregular,
sources of atmospheric aerosols. The eruptions of
Mount Hudson in Chile in August 1991 and Mount
Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991 produced
huge volumes of aerosols that had measurable effects
on Earth's atmosphere.

THE DANGER IN AEROSOL SNIFFING

Another risk associated with commercial


aerosols is their use as recreational drugs.
Inhalation of some consumer aerosol
preparations may produce a wide variety of
effects, including euphoria, excitement,
delusions, and hallucinations. Repeated
sniffing of aerosols can result in addiction
that can cause intoxication, damaged
vision, slurred speech, and diminished
mental capacity.

LIGHT, NOISE, VIBRATION,


ERGONOMICS, ODOR,
ETC.
Light
Poor lighting can results to:
difficulty seeing document or screen
eye fatigue
Headache
Minor accidents and injuries

Noise
Noise can result to:
Communication interference
Annoyance
Stress
Permanent
hearing loss

Solving noise problem:


Source Control - adding acoustical materials to the
noise-radiating surfaces may help reduce the noise
strength at the source
Path Control - by adding sound-absorbing panels to
walls and by hanging sound-absorbing devices (unit
absorbers) from ceilings and by using enclosures or
acoustical barrier walls between the source and
receiver.
Receiver Control - Ear plugs or ear muffs are
considered highly economical methods for reasonably
effective receiver noise control.

Vibration
Hand-arm vibration exposure when a
worker operates hand-held materials,
vibration affects hands and arms.
Effect of HAVS:
tingling and loss of sensation in the fingers
diseases of the blood vessels in the fingers
loss of grip strength
bone cysts in fingers and wrists

Whole-body vibration exposure - When a


worker sits or stands on a vibrating floor or seat,
the vibration exposure affects almost the entire
body.
Effect of whole-body vibration:
fatigue
Insomnia
stomach problems
Headache
shakiness

Vibration can be control by using:


Appropriate tool selection
Vibration-absorbing materials (gloves)
Good work practices - Wear sufficient
clothing, including gloves. Avoid
continuous exposure by taking rest
periods.
Education programs training in proper
use of vibration tools

Thermal Comfort
It means that a person wearing a normal amount of
clothing feels neither too cold nor too warm.
The most important environmental factors
contributing to thermal comfort are:
air temperature
radiant temperature (ie. the temperature of the
walls, floor, windows etc)
humidity
air speed
the amount of physical activity
the amount and type of clothing worn.

Odour
Some symptoms are reported like:
Headache
Dizziness
Loss of appetite
Upper respiratory symptoms
Skin irritation
Maintain good air quality. Ensure that air is
being replaced with fresh air.
Reduce emissions from building materials,
cleaning products, etc.