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CHAPTER 1

Waves

What?
Waves is produced by an oscillating or
vibrating object.
Repeating action fro and trough
Tranferring of energy without
transferring matter.
*oscillation repeating action

Ex: transfer of energy by


matter

In this case, the energy is transfer from the


source ( the boy) to a receiver (the wall) with
the transfer of matter (the ball)
https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=LyxLxx3xifo

Types of waves
a) Transverse waves:
- Vibration of particles in the medium
is perpendicularly with the wave
motion.

Example of transverse waves:


a) Light waves
b) Water waves

Types of waves
b) Longitudinal waves:
- Vibration of particles in the medium
is parallels with the wave motion.

Wavefront
Wavefronts are the imaginary lines on
a wave that joining all points that are
in the same phase.
Wavefronts are perpendicular to the
direction of motion.

Graphical representation of
waves
a) Displacement-Distance
graph

a) Displacement-Time
graph
Displacement/cm

Time/
s

Oscillation System
One complete oscillation is to-and-fro
motion from the equilibrium position.

Terminologies.
a) A crest is the point on a wave with the
____________ positive displacement.
b) A trough is the point on a wave with the
__________ negative displacement.
c) Amplitude is the ___________ displacement of the
object from its equilibrium position. Unit SI
(metre/m)
d) Period (T) is the time taken for _____ complete
cycle.
e) Frequency (f) is the _____of complete oscillations
__________.

1.5 interference of waves


Principle of superpositionthat where
two or more waves meet, the total
displacement at any point is the vector
sum of the displacements that each
individual wave would cause at that
point.

Principle of superposition
Is the ability of wave motions to
combine together.

Coherent sources
Two set of waves that :
A) Have same frequency
B) Have same amplitude
C) In phase ( either both waves are trough or both are crest)

Types of interference
a) Constructive interference

Two waves occurs in same phase


Crest of one wave meets another crest of other waves. Gives out a
bigger crest
OR
Trough of one wave meets another trough of other waves. Gives out a
bigger trough.

a) Destructive interference

Two waves arrive exactly out of phase


Crest of one wave meets the trough of another
waves . Their amplitude cancel each other.

Interference pattern

Antinode point points where constructive


interference happen.
Node point points where destructive
interference happen.

Antinodal lines line that connecting all


antinode point
Nodal lines line that connecting all node
point

Interference pattern of light


waves

The Youngs Double slit


experiment
Interference of light waves can be produced by
passing a MONOCHROMATIC light through a
DOUBLE SLIT.
The two sets of the waves emerging from the
double slit have the SAME FREQUENCY and are
IN PHASE.
The interference pattern consist of dark and
bright lines called FRINGES.
DARK FRINGES destructive interference
BRIGHT FRINGES CONSTRUCTIVE
interference

http://h2physics.org/?cat=48

Interference of sound waves

1.6 SOUND WAVE.


1. What is sound?
Sound is a form of energy propagated as
waves that make our eardrums vibrate.
Sound waves are caused by vibrating
objects.
Sound waves are longitudinal waves.

Object that produces


sounds

2. How is sound produced by a vibrating objects?


Sound waves are produced when a vibrating object
causes the air molecules around it to vibrate.
When a tuning fork vibrates, layers of air vibrate and
the sound energy is propagated through the air
around it in the form of waves.
When the tuning fork moves forwards, the air is
compressed.
When the tuning fork moves backwards, the air
layers are pulled apart and cause a rarefaction.
Therefore, a series of compression and rarefactions
will produce sound.

3.Why does sound waves is a


longitudinal waves?
The air particles vibrate backward and
forward in the direction parallel to the
direction of propagation of the sound wave.

4. Explain how
the loudness
relates to
amplitude
The loudness of
the sound
depends on
its amplitude.
If the amplitude
is increased, the
loudness
increases.

5. Explain how the pitch relates to frequency


A high pitch sound corresponds to a high frequency and a low pitch
sound corresponds to a low frequency of vibration.

6.
The reflection of sound is called echoes.
i) Ultrasound waves (higher than 20 000 Hz)
is used to scan and capture the image of a
fetus in a mothers womb.
ii) Sonar is the technique of using ultrasound
to locate underwater objects or to measure
the depth of a seabed.

Distance travel by the pulse of sound


wave is given by:
Distance =Speed X time
d= v X t
2

Example: 1
Diagram showsa how the reflection
of sound wave is used to find the
wrecked ship.
What is the depth of the wrecked
ship if the reflected sound waves is
detected 0.4s after transmission?
[speed of sound wave in water=
1500ms-1]