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JUAREZ AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY TABASCO

Academic Division of Health Sciences

Basic English

The Digestive System


Team 3
-Miguel Leyva Snchez
-Berenice Molina Gernimo
-Mara del Carme Fuentes Crdova
-Marcela Alvarado Jaime

Teacher: Oscar Domnguez


Cruz

The Digestive
System
The digestive system is responsible
for breaking down nutrients from
food and incorporate them later in
the body's cells.
This process is called metabolism.
The purpose is to give the body the
energy needed for daily activity, as
well as materials for the construction
of new cells and tissues.

After ingested,
is
transported to the
circulatory
and
lymphatic systems,
and finally to the
body cells.
Another function is to
digest proteins and
other nutrients found
in the animal's blood
to form human blood
proteins
such
as
hemoglobin.

Classes of Nutrients
There are six general classes of
nutrients: carbohydrates, fats,
proteins, water, vitamins, and
minerals. Carbohydrates, fats,
and proteins are characterized
as energy nutrients. These
organic
molecules
are
responsible for providing our
bodies with the majority of the
energy
needed
for
daily
metabolic reactions.
For nutritional analysis the
term
kilocalorie
(1,000
calories) is frequently used

Classes of Nutrients

Energy
Production
aerobic
respiration,

In
energy is
produced in cells THROUGH the
glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the
electron transport chain (ETC).
The Krebs cycle and ETC Occur in the
mitochondria of the cell and use
oxygen to regenerate a cellular
energy molecule called adenosine
triphosphate (ATP). In the Krebs cycle,
the carbon-carbon bonds are broken
and a small amount of ATP is
generated.
Water is used to break the bonds
linking the monomers in a process
called hydrolysis.

Carbohydrate
s
All
carbohydrates
possess

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen


in a 1:2:1 ratio, respectively.
For example, the molecular
formula
for
glucose
is
C6H12O6.
The most common of these is
glucose, with the other two
being fructose and galactose.

The monosaccharides are linked


together by chemical bonds in to
form disaccharides. There are
three
different
disaccharides:
maltose, sucrose and lactose.
Polysaccharides, are composed of
long chains of glucose units.
Different
classes
of
polysaccharides vary the physical
structure of chemical bonds that
link the glucose units.
Starch has chemical bonds that are
easily digested by the digestive
system.

Fiber
The fibers are indigestible
by s
human
enzymes,
which play an increasingly
important role in humans
digestion.

Helps food move through


the system and provides
resistance to the muscles
of the gastrointestinal
tract.

Fats and
Are
sources of long-term energy.
Lipids

They are hydrophobic molecules.


Chemical secretions such as bile,
and specialized proteins called
lipoproteins, help transform and
transport
of
these
important
energy nutrients.

Protei
have
ns the

They
structural
function, as in the muscles.
Others
like
hormones.
Enzymes are an Important
component of the digestive
system and are covered in the
next section.
The monomer proteins
amino acids, are 20.

are

Food remains in the small


intestine for three to five hours on
average,
during
which
most
nutrients are removed.
The intestines receive over 10
quarts (9 liters) of water daily, of
which almost 95 percent is
recycled back into the body.

Vitamins, Minerals,
and Water
The
processing
of
vitamins,
minerals and water are broken
down by the digestive system.

Vitamin
Vitamins are organic molecules,
s as enzyme assistants,
and serve
or coenzymes.

Antioxida
nts

These serve as protectors


of the cellular machinery
(vitamins C&E). For vision
(vitamin A), or in the
building of healthy bones
(vitamins D&A).

Nutritionists divide the vitamins into


two groups:
The watersoluble
vitamins
Vitamin C&B.
These vitamins
are readily
absorbed by the
digestive system
and, with a few
exceptions, do
not require
special
processing.

The fat-soluble
vitamins
These are the
vitamins A, D, E,
and K, they are
packaged into
specialized
lipoproteins and
transported by
the lymphatic
system.

Mineral
Minerals are inorganic nutrients, function as assistants to metabolic pathways,
s
help regulate body fluid levels, and some serve as structural components of
bones. Are also the major electrolytes in the circulatory system.
Nutritionists divide minerals into two broad
classes:
MAJOR
MINERAL

MINERAL FUNCTION

TRACE
MINERAL

MINERAL FUNCTION

Calcium

Strong bones and teeth*, and muscle


contraction and relaxation**.

Copper

Helps turn food into energy*. Brain and


nerve functions.

Iodine

Make certain hormones, the thyroid


gland. Growth, development,
metabolism, and reproduction.

Iron

Carries oxygen through the body and


helps build red blood cells. *

Magnesium
Phosphorous

Turn food into energy***, build


enzymes and antioxidants.
*, *** and to store extra energy.

Potassium

Water balance****, muscle


contraction, and nerve impulses.
Works with Na to control blood
pressure.

Sodium

**** and **. Works with K to control


blood pressure.

Manganese

* and healthy bones and cartilage


formation.

Zinc

A strong immune system and a good


sense of taste and smell.

Wate
The digestive system is a water-based system that uses water to
rmove nutrients, deliver digestive enzymes, lubricate the length of the
gastrointestinal tract, and facilitate the absorption of nutrients into
the circulatory and lymphatic systems. The average human requires
about 2.65 quarts (approximately 2.5 liters) of water per day to meet
the metabolic requirements of the body. The majority of this comes
from liquids and foods that are consumed throughout the day.
The digestive system must simultaneously retain
enough water for its own operation and supply the
body with the water it needs to function; involves
the use of minerals such as potassium and sodium
to establish concentration gradients to efficiently
move water. The large intestine, or colon, is the
major digestive organ responsible for this process.

The Gastrointestinal
Tract: Oral Cavity,
Esophagus, and Stomach
The human digestive system is actually a
series of organs that form a long, enclosed
tube. This organ system of the human body is
specialized for breaking down incoming food
into the needed nutrients for the bodys vast
array of metabolic functions.
The organs of the GI tract are those that
physically comprise the tube, also called the
alimentary canal, these include the oral
cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,
and large intestine.

Gastrointestinal
Trac
The upper
GI tract
Consists of the
oral cavity,
esophagus, and
stomach, as
well as
associated
valves and
accessory
organs.

The lower
GI tract

Consists
primarily of
the small
intestine
and colon.

The Oral
Cavity

The human mouth, also


called the oral cavity or
buccal cavity, is the
entry point into the
human
digestive
system.
Also serves as the connecting
point between the respiratory
system
and
the
outside
environment, as well as the
location of a significant amount of
sensory input from chemical
receptors, most notably taste

Salivary
Vital Glands
to the
digestive
functions of the oral cavity.
-Two pairs are located
along the bottom of the
oral cavity.
-The sublingular glands are
located just below the
tongue,
and
the
submandibular glands are
positioned just beneath
these, near the mandibula
(jawbone).
-A third set, called the
parotid glands, are located
just in front of, and slightly
below, the ears.

Saliv
a
The chemical secretion
of the salivary
glands
Saliva is primarily water (99.5 percent), which
serves to lubricate and moisten the digestive
system. However, the remaining 0.5 percent
contains important ions, such as potassium,
chloride, sodium, and phosphates, which serve
as pH buffers and activators of enzymatic
activity.
Lysozyme: inhibits, the
formation of bacterial colonies in
the oral cavity.
Salivary Amylase: initiates
the process of carbohydrate
digestion.

Enzym
es

Mechanical
InDigestion
the oral cavity:

First, the action of the teeth and


tongue break the food into small
portions so that it may be sent to the
stomach via the esophagus.
The
action
of
chewing,
or
mastication, is the first stage of
mechanical digestion.
Second stage in the mechanical
processing of the food involves the
action of the tongue.

The movement of the tongue is


controlled by the extrinsic
muscles
that
enable
the
movement of the tongue. These
muscles move the food from the
area of the teeth to the back of
the mouth (pharynx), where it is
formed into a small round mass
of material called a bolus.

The pharynx: serves as


the junction between the
respiratory
system
and
digestive system.

Teeth

There are three major types of


teeth, molars and premolars
are classified as one type.

The combination of different


types of teeth in the mouth
allows for the processing of a
large variety of foods.

Teeth are made from a calcified form of


connective tissue called dentin, which is
covered with a combination of calcium
phosphate and calcium carbonate commonly
called enamel.
Within the center of each tooth is an area
called the pulp cavity, which contains
nerves, blood vessels, and ducts of the
lymphatic system.

Papillae
The
papillae
are
sometimes
mistakenly
referred to as the taste
buds, but the taste buds
are actually specialized
receptors located at the
base of certain types of
papillae. There are three
different
forms
of
papillae, which differ in
their appearance and
location on the tongue.

By the action of the tongue, the


food is lubricated with saliva to
facilitate swallowing .

Enzymatic Digestion
Enzymatic digestion is responsible for breaking organic material into
smaller subunits that can be absorbed into the circulatory system.
The salivary glands, primarily the submandibular and sublingual glands,
secrete an enzyme called salivary amylase.
The salivary amylase is mixed into the food by the action of the
tongue and cheeks and continues to break down the starches in the food
for about an hour until deactivated by the acidic pH of the stomach.

Enzymatic Digestion
Contains salivary amylase.

Once mechanical digestion begins lower in the


stomach, the salivary amylase is quickly
inactivated.

Swallowing
Reflex
1. The tongue moves upward against the roof (hard palate) of
the mouth to prevent the food from reentering the oral cavity.
2.

The uvula, an inverted-Y-shaped flap of skin at the rear of


the mouth, moves upward to block the nasal passages.

3.

The vocal cords in the larynx tightly close over the opening
of the windpipe, or glottis.

4.

As the bolus passes into the esophagus, it forces a flap of


cartilaginous tissue called the epiglottis downward over the
glottis as an added precaution to protect against the food
entering the respiratory system.

Layers of The
Digestive System
The

serosa is the outermost


layer of the digestive tract
and
is
comprised
of
connective tissue.

These

two muscle layers are


the inner circular muscle
and the outer longitudinal
muscle.

The

next layer inward is a


dense section of connective
tissue
called
the

Esophagus and Stomach


The

esophagus is not a major digestive organ, because the


only enzymes that are active here are the salivary amylase
and lingual lipase from the oral cavity.

The stomach is commonly


recognized as a muscular
sac that functions as a
holding site for food before
it enters into the small
intestine, as well as the
location where the food is
mixed and partially digested
by mechanical processes.

Composition of Gastric Juice


The

stomach
produces
about 2.12 quarts (2 liters)
of gastric juice per day.

The

gastric pits of the


stomach
showing
the
location of
chief and
parietal cells.

The

parietal
cells
are
responsible
for
manufacturing hydrochloric
acid.

Regulating
stomach motility
The emptying of the stomach
contents, also called motility, usually
take between two four hours
following completion of a meal and is
dependent on a large number of
factors. These factors either inhibit or
stimulate the movement of the
chyme.

For the most part, actions of


the stomach increase motility
into the duodenum, while
feedback from the duodenum
inhibits movement of chyme
through the pyloric sphincter.

There are three distinct phases


to stomach motility:

The cephalic
phase
the
cephalic
phase refers to
the interaction
of the brain
with
the
stomach.

Gastric phase
As its name
implies,
the
gastric
phase
involves
the
activity of the
stomach.

Intestinal
phase
The duodenum of
the small intestine
may also regulate
the activity of the
stomach during
the intestinal
phase.

The cephalic
phase
If chemical receptors detect the
smell or taste of food, a signal
is sent to the medulla oblongata
in the brainstem, which relays a
signal along the vagus nerves
to the submucosal plexus in the
stomach.
The
submucosal
plexus then stimulates the
activity of chief and parietal
cell,
thus
preparing
the
stomach for incoming food.

Gastric phase

Two factors influence its activity.


First, the amount of distention, or
stretching of the stomach lining, acts
as an indicator of the fullness of the
stomach. As the stomach fills, and
the rug relax, stretch receptors in
the lining stimulate the release of
gastrin by G cell in the mucosal
lining of the antrum.

Intestinal
phase
Since the small intestine represents
the major organ of digestion and
absorption
in
the
body,
the
duodenum must be ready to receive
the incoming chyme for processing.
the
duodenum
primarily
has
inhibitory effect on stomach motility.
Distention of the duodenum, due to
the presence of a large volume of
chyme, initiates a neural response
called the enterogastric reflex,
which through the action of the
medulla oblongata decreases the
strength
of
peristaltic
the

Absorption of nutrients
As mentioned previously, very few
nutrients are absorbed through the lining
of the stomach, primarily due to the
presence of the mucus layer, which
isolates the mucosa tissue from the
hydrochloric acid. However, water and
some ions are able to be absorbed
directly into the circulatory system. In
addition, both ethyl alcohol (the form
found in alcoholic beverages) and
acetylsalicylic acid (commonly known as
aspirin) are able to penetrate the mucus
layer and enter into the circulatory
system.