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Ultimate SC

Strategies for
the GMAT
by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT,
Koramangala Bangalore)
sandeepgupta01@gmail.com
9739561394
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Further Resources:
1.
Preparation for SC (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT))
2.
Sandeep SC Notes (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT))
3.
Manhattan GMAT SC Guide 4th Edition
4.
700-800 SC Questions a set of 150 GMAT SC Questions (by
Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) Must Solve
5.
GMAT latest SC questions a set of 277 GMAT SC Questions (by
Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) Must Solve
6.
OG 12, 11, 10, OG Verbal Review 1st and 2nd Editions
7.
Platinumgmat.com (for Idiom review)
8.
GMAT-Prep Verbal Forum Questions from ManhattanGMAT.com
9.
1000 SC (not necessary, though)

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

SC Strategies
Note:
Refer to the NOTES at the bottom of each slide for
explanations. Wherever there are no explanations, the
statement on the slide will be correct.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

SC Tips
RULES RULE: Intuition is your last resort So any choice that seems
right, feels right, sounds right, smells right, etc. may not be the right answer.
It is not about conventional Grammar. It is about GMAT-specific SC
Questions. Understand the Examiners mindset. The most important thing
POE: Dont try to select the correct answer eliminate wrong ones
SCAN: Use Horizontal / Vertical Scanning to look for differences in the
choices
Paper: Use a tick cross system with a pencil
SPLIT: Look for a 2/3 or a 3/2 split. Most likely you are likely to narrow
down to two choices.
TRAP: Choice A can be the right choice in a substantial number of
questions. So dont reject an answer only because it is A.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

SC General Techniques
You must read the full sentence

even the non-

underlined portion no exception to this rule.

LOCATION of Errors:
Most of the errors on GMAT-SC occur at four potential places

The Beginning of the Underlined Portion


The End of the Underlined Portion
After the Comma
One word / phrase before the underlined portion

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

LET us see these thumbrules in application on


some real GMAT
Questions

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

With companies spending large parts of their advertising budgets


online, the market for content such as feature articles and opinion
essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and by individual
users, are expanding rapidly.
the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays
created by a professional writer, a blogger, and by individual users,
are expanding
the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays
created by professional writers, bloggers, and by individual users, are
expanding
the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays
created by a professional writer, a blogger, and individual users, is
expanding
the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays
created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users, are
expanding
the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays
created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users, is
expanding

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Consumption of bread products made from ergot-infected grains often


trigger severely debilitating symptoms such as muscle contractions,
seizures and gangrene but, at a proper dose, also cause a significant
reduction in maternal bleeding after childbirth.
bread products made from ergot-infected grains often trigger severely
debilitating symptoms such as muscle contractions, seizures and
gangrene but, at a proper dose, also cause a significant reduction in
products made from ergot-infected grains often trigger severely
debilitating symptoms such as muscle contractions, seizures and
gangrene but, at a proper dose, also cause significantly reduced
bread products made from ergot-infected grains often triggers severely
debilitating symptoms such as muscle contractions, seizures and
gangrene but, at a proper dose, also causes a significant reduction in
bread made from ergot-infected grains often triggers severely
debilitating symptoms such as muscle contractions, seizures and
gangrene but, at a proper dose, also cause a significant reduction in
bread products made from ergot-infected grains often trigger severely
debilitating symptoms such as muscle contractions, seizures and
gangrene but, at a proper dose, also causes a significantly reduced

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

3. Responding to growing demand for high-end vehicles, the


interiors of the newest models are so luxurious that they sell
for nearly twice the price of last year's models.
A. the interiors of the newest models are so luxurious that they
sell
B. the interiors of the newest models are so luxurious that the
cars are sold
C. auto makers have installed interiors in the newest models
that are so luxurious that they sell
D. the interior of the newest models are so luxurious that they
are sold
E. auto makers have installed such luxurious interiors in the
newest models that these cars sell

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

4.

Unsolicited electronic junk mail, also termed spam, has


hurt companies by both draining company resources used
to combat the problem and diminishing employee
productivity.
A. both draining company resources used to combat the
problem and diminishing employee productivity
B. draining both company resources used to combat the
problem and diminishing employee productivity
C. draining both company resources used to combat the
problem and diminishing how productive its employees are
D. both draining company resources used to combat the
problem and the productivity of employees is diminished
E. both draining company resources used to combat the
problem and diminishing how productive its employees are

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

5.

From the Civil War to soldiers in Vietnam, Smith &


Wesson, the legendary arms maker, equipped both the
soldiers and the sailors who have fought Americas wars.
A. the Civil War to soldiers in Vietnam, Smith & Wesson, the
legendary arms maker, equipped both the soldiers and
B. the Civil War to the Vietnam war, Smith & Wesson, the
legendary arms maker, equipped both the soldiers and
C. soldiers in the Civil War and soldiers in Vietnam, Smith &
Wesson, the legendary arms maker, equipped both the
soldiers and
D. soldiers in the Civil War to soldiers in Vietnam, Smith &
Wesson, the legendary arms maker, equipped both the
soldiers to
E. the Civil War and the Vietnam war, Smith & Wesson, the
legendary arms maker, equipped both the soldiers and
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

SC what to watch out for?


The following are crucial (in the respective
order of importance)
Grammar
Idiom (long list has to be memorized very
crucial for success on GMAT-SC)
Meaning Clarity
Concision (short vs. long)
GMAT favorites (long list has to be
memorized)
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Grammar Topics

Subject Verb Agreement


Modifier
Parallelism
Comparisons
Pronouns
Verbs
Prepositions, Idioms and Numerical Idioms
Punctuation
Style Short V/s Long sentences, Meaning Clarity
Miscellaneous errors

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

List of GMAT-Idioms cant


do without

Idioms are expressions that are the way they are


There can be no explanations / reasoning for
idioms
You have to memorize a list, e.g.,

Forbid to do NOT from doing


Cope with NOT cope up with
Comprise NOT comprise of
Mistake A for B NOT mistake A as B
Consider NOT consider to be or consider as The
list continues list in GMAT Book

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Meaning Clarity
The meaning of the sentence should
make sense. For example:
ONLY those passengers carrying an
Identification will be allowed to board the
plane. Right Meaning
Passengers carrying ONLY an
Identification will be allowed to board the
plane. Wrong Meaning
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Concision
AVOID
Despite the fact
that
Have the capability
Exactly the same
In close proximity to
Past experience
Final Outcome

USE
Although
Can
Same
Near
Experience
Outcome
..Long list

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

GMAT favorites
AVOID
Instead of
Due to
2 times
Being
Compare to
Do it
May be
If
Hopefully
As well as
Enough

USE
Rather than
Because of
Double / Twice
Lack of being
Compare with
Do so
Perhaps
Whether
It is hoped
And
So

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

GMAT favorites
AVOID

USE

Ability
Capability
As a result of
One time
4 times
Economical
Try and
Liable
Ought to
But
Which after the comma

Able
Can
Result from
Once
Quadruple
Economic
Try to
Likely
Should
Although
Avoid which after the comma

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

GMAT SC cases to avoid

Just like
Such like
Occurring
Due to
Seeming
On account of
Owing to
Lesser

Hopefully
Not any
And also
Requirement
Reduction
Being
Noun Forms
Apostrophe /
possessive forms

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

SC Error Type 1: Parallelism

Parallel Structure means


CONSISTENCY in writing.
Parallelism figures in more than
half of GMAT sentences the
single most important type of
ERROR on the test.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

List (String) Parallelism


1.

Noun + noun + noun: He likes roses, violets, and


bicycles.

2.

Verb + verb + verb: When she was on stage, she


danced, sang, and acted like an angel.

3.

Adjective + adjective + adjective: My teacher is fussy,


picky, and hard-headed.

4.

Infinitive + infinitive + infinitive: I like to sing, (to) draw,


and (to) write poetry.

Here one has to write to either only once or in all the parts.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

List (String) Parallelism


5. Phrase + phrase: With his arms akimbo and
in a state of bliss, he leaped off the cliff.
6. Clause + clause: If she capitulates and when
she apologizes, we will forgive her blunders
and unforgettable actions.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Exercise
7. Mumbai houses 20 million people, the cultural
capital of India, and has a lot of potential for a
newcomer with dreams.
8. Non-traditional students often study long
hours, get limited sleep, and up again with the
sunrise.
9. The volume of business depends on an
institutions delivery method, production time,
and whether or not it is open or closed.
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Exercise
10. Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction to a
bee sting may include dizziness, hives or
rashes, swelling of the wound, difficulty in
breathing, intense itching, and losing
consciousness.
11. The new employee will be responsible for filing
paperwork, answering phones, and will take
new orders.
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Exercise
12. Doctors Without Borders is a private organization that
arranges medical treatment in foreign lands,
particularly in nations with an endemic outbreak of
disease, states at war, and in poverty-stricken
countries.
13. Air Force One, the President's main mode of crosscountry travel, is not like any ordinary plane; it has
rooms for exercising, meeting with staff, operating in
case of medical emergency and a place to tape
interviews.
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String Special case

Sometimes the last element in a string may


actually not belong to the string it may
contain something contradictory / out of sync
14. Since the teacher introduced the classroom
reward system, students have begun paying
closer attention, completing homework,
following directions, and have stopped
causing disruptions during lessons.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

String Special case


WRONG: Since the teacher introduced the classroom
reward system, students have begun paying closer attention,
completing homework, following directions, and have
stopped causing disruptions during lessons.
Here, the list of begun includes only 3 things the fourth item is
stopped so the word and has to come before the last element in
the string and to make begun and stopped parallel, we need one
more and.

RIGHT: Since the teacher introduced the classroom reward


system, students have begun paying closer attention,
completing homework, AND following directions, and have
stopped causing disruptions during lessons.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

String Special case


Consider the following sentence:
15.The diet of the ordinary Greek in
classical times was largely
vegetarianvegetables, fresh
cheese, oatmeal, and meal cakes,
and meat rarely.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

String Special case


WRONG: The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times
was largely vegetarianvegetables, fresh cheese, oatmeal,
and meal cakes, and meat rarely.
The diet... was largely vegetarian: meat cannot be treated as part of
the list of vegetarian foods. So we have to show meat as a contrast.

RIGHT: The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times was


largely vegetarianvegetables, fresh cheese, oatmeal, and
meal cakes, with meat as a rarity.
The word with can be used to show contrast, e.g.,
He is brilliant, with some traces of dumbness.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Cause Effect Parallelism

If there is a clear cause and effect sequence, the cause is


generally in the past / present simple tense and all the effects
have to be parallel in the ing form (subordinate action):

16. Ken traveled around the world, visiting historic sites, eating native
foods, and learning about new cultures.
17. The rain continued to fall, providing water for the thirsty plants but
flooding the streets as well.
18. They danced through life, loving one another and enjoying their
adventures.

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Cause Effect Parallelism


19. The stock market crashed, which caused a lot of people to
lose money.
20. The stock market crashed, and it caused a lot of people to
lose money.
21. The stock market crashed and caused a lot of people to lose
money.
22. The stock market crashed, causing a lot of people to lose
money.
23. The snow covered the train tracks by more than a foot,
prompted the transit authority to shut down service
temporarily, and causing discontent among commuters who
were left stranded for hours.

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that and that Parallelism


24. He said THAT the college had rusticated him
and THAT his future was bleak.
25. The two biggest gains from the rise of the stock
markets are THAT companies look forward to
growth and THAT investors remain upbeat to
explore new opportunities.
26. The coach told the players THAT they should
get a lot of sleep, THAT they should not eat too
much, and THAT they should do some warm-up
exercises before the game.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

that and that Parallelism


27.The salesman expected THAT he
would present his product at the
meeting, THAT there would be time for
him to show his slide presentation, and
THAT questions would be asked by
prospective buyers.
28.My objections are, first, THAT the
measure is unjust; second, THAT it is
unconstitutional.
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Parallel Connectors (X || Y)

X rather than Y
Between X and Y
Both X and Y
(Range) From X to Y
Either X or Y
Neither X nor Y
Just as X so Y
Not only X but (also) Y
Not X but (rather) Y
Not so X as Y
Same X as Y
X is Greater, fewer, less,
more than Y

More X than Y
Believe X to be Y
X is Y
To think of X as Y
X regarded as Y
Prefer X to Y
Mistake X for Y
The same to X as to Y
As to X as to Y
No less was X than was Y
The more X. the er Y
As X as Y
Whether X or Y

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Parallel Connectors (X || Y)
29. Critics of the current Bowl Championship Series feel
that moving from a computer-ranking format to
creating a playoff system will improve the integrity of
the competition.
30. Jim Thorpe, the legendary multi-sport star, enjoyed
playing football more than he ran track and field, but it
was winning the gold medal at the 1912 Olympic
pentathlon that shot him to fame.
31. A time not for words, but action.
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Parallel Connectors

AND (X AND Y)
BUT
AS WELL AS
OR
YET
ALTHOUGH

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Parallel Connectors
32. Ralph likes a variety of people, including
those who are popular and who are not.
33. The Department of Motor Vehicles is
considering a new paging system that
would alleviate lines for walk-in
customers renewing their licenses and if
employees are overwhelmed they would
be assisted.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

X is Y parallelism

Consider the sentence:


34. One legacy of Madison Avenue's recent campaign to
appeal to people fifty years old and over is to realize that
when a person ages, his or her concerns change as well.
Here X is Y can be observed.
Legacy is to realize NOT parallel
RIGHT: One LEGACY of Madison Avenue's recent
campaign to appeal to people fifty years old and over is
THE REALIZATION that as people age, their concerns
change as well.

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X is Y parallelism
35. To say that I do not deserve her is being unfair
to me.
36. The experiences we have when children still
influence our behavior in adulthood.
37. The new toy was the fathers trying to appease
the ruffled child.
38. According to the teachings of the Buddhist and
Hindu religions, attaining nirvana is to enter a
state of supreme liberation.

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OMISSION (Parallel structure)


39. WRONG: The doctors have been and will continue to conduct
tests on the sick patient.
40. WRONG: She is a believer and supporter of the theory of love
at first sight.

RIGHT: The doctors have been conducting and will continue


to conduct tests on the sick patient.

RIGHT: She is a believer in and a supporter of the theory of


love at first sight.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Semicolon both sides parallel


41. WRONG: Formerly, science was taught
by the textbook method, while now the
laboratory method is employed.

RIGHT: Formerly, science was taught by


the textbook method; now it is taught by
the laboratory method.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Parallelism Mixed-bag Practice


GMAT style Questions

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

1. The earliest English settlers in Virginia failed to


survive their first winter in the New World because of
factors such as inadequate food supplies, harsh
weather, and an inability to communicate with Native
Americans.
A. an inability
B. that they were unable
C. because they were unable
D. being unable
E. Lacking an ability

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

2. Originally developed by ancient Hawaiians, surfing appeals to people due to the


sports unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an
unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and
formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops among people in their
common quest to conquer nature.
SAME
surfings appeal is its unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced
maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene,
violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops
surfings appeal to people is due to the sports unusual confluence of adrenaline,
skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns,
graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and developing camaraderie
surfing appeals to people due to the sports unusual confluence of adrenaline,
skill, and high paced maneuvering, a backdrop that is unpredictable and that is,
by turns, gracefully and serenely violent and formidable, and the camaraderie
that often develops
surfing appeals to people due to their unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill,
and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns,
graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often
develops

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

3.

Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the rise
of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan,
and the victory of the Usuli "mujtahids" in Shiite Iran and Iraq.
Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the rise
of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan,
and
Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were shown in
the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the
Sudan, and also
In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy were the rise
of the Wahhabis in Arabia, of the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the
Sudan, and
In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy were shown in
the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the
Sudan, and
In the first period of religious reformism, Islamic political militancy was manifested in the rise of
the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, and the Mahdi in the
Sudan, and in

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4. The basic needs of the average cat are simple


and largely inexpensive: food, water, affection,
and shelter, and occasional visits to the
veterinarian.
and occasional visits to the veterinarian
with occasional veterinarian visits
with occasional visits to the veterinarian
yet occasionally visiting the veterinarian
but some occasional visits to the veterinarian are
needed

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

5.

A.
B.

C.

D.

E.

Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the tulip craze of the seventeenth-century in
the Netherlands, include speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s,
Victorian real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and the obsession for
Beanie Babies in the 1990s.
SAME
Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the
Netherlands, include speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian
real estate in the 1880s, and the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, as well as
Coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, examples of
"tulipomania" include speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian
real estate in the 1880s, and the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, as well as
Coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, "tulipomania" includes
examples such as speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian
real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and
"Tulipomania," coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, included
speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the
1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

6.

Though once powerful political forces, labor unions have


lost much of their influence, which has resulted in a
political climate that some analysts claim to favor
management.
which has resulted in a political climate that some
analysts claim to favor
resulting in a political climate that some analysts claim
favors
which has resulted in a political climate that some
analysts claim that favors
resulting in a political climate that some analysts claim to
be in favor of
which has resulted in a political climate that has been
claimed by some analysts to favor

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

7. Agencies studying discrimination in housing have


experimentally proved that minority clients are often
discouraged as prospective buyers of residential real estate
and the antidiscrimination legislation of recent decades were
only mitigating, rather than abolishing, inequity in housing
practices.
the antidiscrimination legislation of recent decades were only
mitigating, rather than abolishing, inequity in housing practices
in recent decades, the antidiscrimination legislation only
mitigated, rather than abolishing, inequity in housing practices
that antidiscrimination legislation of recent decades has only
mitigated, rather than abolished, inequity in housing practices
that, in recent decades, antidiscrimination legislation has only
mitigated, rather than abolishing, housing practices inequity
that recent decades antidiscrimination legislation only were
mitigating, rather than abolishing, housing practices inequity
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

8. According to anthropologists, the use of human language


covers a wide spectrum from practical communication between
people engaged in the same task to establishing hierarchy
within a social group.
practical communication between people engaged in the same
task to establishing hierarchy
communicating practically between people engaging in the
same task to the establishment of hierarchy
practical communication between people engaged in the same
task to the establishing of hierarchy
communicating practically between people engaging in the
same task to hierarchy established
practical communication between people engaged in the same
task to the establishment of hierarchy

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

9. Art experts have attributed the enduring intrigue of Leonardo da


Vinci's Mona Lisa to everything from having an enigmatic smile,
which was never explained, to her association with the rich and
powerful families of Europe.
having an enigmatic smile, which was never explained
having an enigmatic smile, which has never been explained
her enigmatic smile, for which there has never been an
explanation
her enigmatic smile, which has never been explained
having an enigmatic smile, for which there has never been an
explanation

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

10. Recent research has indicated that sustainable weight


loss is generally a result not of self-deprivation or
adopting an extreme diet, but a healthy lifestyle that
integrates a balanced diet, regular exercise, and a longterm approach.
self-deprivation or adopting an extreme diet, but
self-deprivation or the adoption of an extreme diet, but of
self-deprivation or the adoption of an extreme diet, but
depriving oneself or adopting an extreme diet, but
depriving oneself or adopting an extreme diet, but that of

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11.

Though laypeople often refer to the panda as a bear, due to its


physical resemblance to one, DNA testing has shown that it is more
closely related to the common raccoon than any member of the
bear family.
due to its physical resemblance to one, DNA testing has shown that
it is more closely related to the common raccoon than
due to the fact that it physically resembles one, DNA testing showed
that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than is
because of its physical resemblance to one, DNA testing has shown
that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than
because of its resemblance to one physically, DNA testing has
shown that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than is
because of its physical resemblance to one, DNA testing has shown
that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than to

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12. While larger banks can afford to maintain their own dataprocessing operations, many smaller regional and
community banks are finding that the cost associated with
upgrading data-processing equipment and with the
development and maintenance of new products and
technical staff are prohibitive.
A. cost associated with
B. costs associated with
C. costs arising from
D. cost of
E. costs of

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13.

A.
B.

C.

D.

E.

The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earths
outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through
the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earths magnetic
field.
SAME
core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earths outer layers is responsible for
advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the
formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earths magnetic field
core rotates independently and more quickly than Earths outer layers are responsible for
advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how
Earths magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction
core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earths outer layers, are responsible for
advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the
formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earths magnetic field
core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earths outer layers, is responsible for
advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how
Earths magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

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14.

Though now eaten in large quantities around the world and harmless, the
tomato is a member of the generally toxic nightshade family, including
belladonna, and was once thought to be poisonous itself as a result.
Though now eaten in large quantities around the world and harmless, the
tomato is a member of the generally toxic nightshade family, including
belladonna, and was once thought to be poisonous itself as a result.
The tomato, though now eaten in large quantities around the world and
harmless, is a member of the generally toxic nightshade family, which
includes belladonna, and it was therefore once thought to be poisonous
itself.
Once thought to be poisonous itself, the tomato is harmless and now eaten
in large quantities around the world, and is a member of the generally toxic
nightshade family, including belladonna.
Though now eaten in large quantities around the world and known to be
harmless, the tomato was once considered poisonous because it is a
member of the generally toxic nightshade family, which includes
belladonna.
A member of the generally toxic nightshade family, including belladonna,
the tomato was once considered poisonous even though it is harmless and
now eaten in large quantities around the world.

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15.

The coloration of insects can serve as camouflage, as in the case of


green insects that spend their lives in or near foliage, or to warn
predators, as in the case of insects colored in yellow and black,
which often signals that it is poisonous.
or to warn predators, as in the case of insects colored in yellow and
black, which often signals that it is poisonous.
or for warning predators, as in the case of insects that have yellow
and black coloring, which often signals that it is poisonous.
or as a warning to predators, as in the case of insects bearing a
combination of yellow and black, which often signals that they are
poisonous.
or as a predator's warning, as in the case of insects that are colored
yellow and black, which often signals that they are poisonous.
or to warn predators, as in the case of yellow-and-black insects,
which often signals that they are poisonous.

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16. To tackle the issue of Congressional campaign spending is


becoming embroiled in a war which is raging between those
who support public financing with those who would lift the limits
on the amount political parties and individuals may donate.
becoming embroiled in a war which is raging between those
who support public financing with
becoming embroiled in a war raging among those who support
public financing with
to become embroiled in a war raging between those who
support public financing and
to become embroiled in a war which is raging among those
who support public financing and
becoming embroiled in a war raging between those who
support public financing and
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17. A result of the recent election is realizing that in this


increasingly urban area, there is now more worry about
crime than health care.
realizing that in this increasingly urban area, there is now
more worry about crime
the realization that in this increasingly urban area, they now
worry more about crime
the realization that in this increasingly urban area, voters
now worry more about crime
a realizing that in this increasingly urban area, there is now
more concern about crime
the realization that in this increasingly urban area, concerns
about crime are greater
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18. Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains


of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural
mutation of a single strain of influenza.
influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural
mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain,
known as antigenic drift
influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain,
known as antigenic drift
influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the
natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the
natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

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Topic 2: Subject Verb Agreement


With singular
subjects, use the
singular verb form

Is
Has
Was
Does
Keeps
Goes
Runs

With plural subjects,


use the plural verb
form

Are
Have
Were
Do
Keep
Go
Run

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Every sentence must have a Subject and a


Verb.
The subject is the noun that performs the
action expressed by the verb:
The DOG with the gray ears RUNS out of the
house.
The subject is dog, and the verb is runs. In
every sentence, the subject and the verb must
make logical sense together. Moreover, the
subject and the verb must agree in number.

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Subject and Verb Must Both Exist


If a sentence is missing the subject or the verb,
the sentence is a Fragment: in other words, it is
not a complete sentence!
On the GMAT, an answer choice that makes the
sentence a fragment is wrong.
One way the GMAT disguises the error is by
dropping the verb:
Wrong: The electron named in 1894.
Wait a minute, what about named? Named
certainly looks like a verb.
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But in this context, named is NOT a Working Verb, a


verb that can run a sentence by itself.
Of course, we do not mean that the subject (the electron)
actually named anything. Rather, something or someone
else did the naming.
Right: Jack NAMED the electron in 1894.
In this sentence, named is a working verb.
Or we can express the sentence this way:
Right: The electron WAS NAMED in 1894.
In this sentence, the words was named make up the full
working verb.
Within was named, the word named is a Past Participle.
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A Past Participle by itself is not a working verb:


The electron named in 1894 is not a sentence.
A sentence can be a fragment in another way: it could start
with a Connecting Word and contain no Main Clause (a clause that
could stand alone as a sentence as is, with its own subject and
verb):
Wrong: BECAUSE the dog was never mine.
Wrong: WHICH will be approved tomorrow.

Because and which are connecting words.


These are also known as Subordinators, because they turn the clauses
they are attached to into Subordinate Clauses, which cannot stand by
themselves. To fix this sort of fragment, you either need to attach it to a
main clause or drop the connecting word (and if necessary add some
words, as in the second case:
The plan will be approved tomorrow).
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Subject and Verb Must Make Sense Together


Wrong: The development of a hydrogen car based on expected
performance parameters will be able to travel hundreds of miles
without refueling.
At first glance, this sentence may seem okay. But be careful:
The development of a hydrogen car ... will be able to travel... ?
Something is wrong. It is not the development that will be able
to travel.
We want to say that the hydrogen car itself will be able to travel.
Right: Once developed, a hydrogen CAR based on expected
performance parameters WILL BE able to travel hundreds of miles
without refueling.
Make sure that the subject and the verb actually have a

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sensible
meaning
together!

Subject and Verb Must Agree In Number


A singular subject requires a singular verb form:
The dog runs out of the house.
A plural subject requires a plural verb form:
The dogs run out of the house.
Consider this example:
The discovery of new medicines (was/were) vital to the
company's growth.
What is the subject, discovery or new medicines? If you ask
yourself "What is vital to the company's growth?" you may be
able to talk yourself into either choice.
To find the subject, you must ignore all the words that are
not the subject.
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And vs. Additive Phrases


The word and can unite two or more singular subjects, forming a
compound plural subject.
Joe AND his friends ARE going to the beach.
Mathematics, history, AND science ARE mandatory high-school
subjects.
Many other words and phrases besides and can "add" to a subject.
These words and phrases are called Additive Phrases.
Joe, as well as his friends, IS going to the beach.
Mathematics, in addition to history and science, IS a required
subject.

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Or, Either ... Or, & Neither ... Nor


In such cases, find the noun nearest to the verb, and make sure
that the verb agrees in number with this noun.

Neither the coach nor the players ARE going to the beach.

Neither the players nor the coach IS going to the beach.

In the first example, the plural subject players is nearest to the


verb, so the verb takes the plural form are. In the second
example, the singular subject coach is nearest to the verb, so the
verb takes the singular form is.

CAUTION: Note that when the words EITHER or NEITHER are in


a sentence alone (without OR or NOR), they are considered
singular and take only singular verbs.

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Collective Nouns: Almost Always Singular

People: agency, army, audience, class, committee, crowd,


orchestra, team
Items: baggage, citrus, equipment, fleet, fruit, furniture

In some rare circumstances, collective nouns can be considered


plural (e.g., when you emphasize the individual actors, not their
unity).
However, on the GMAT, collective nouns are almost always
considered singular and therefore require singular verb forms.
Note: in British usage, many of these nouns are normally
considered plural. Not so on the GMAT!

The CROWD in the stands IS cheering loudly as the home TEAM


TAKES the field.
Our ARMY of a hundred thousand soldiers IS attacking the

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enemy.

Indefinite Pronouns: Usually Singular

Pronouns are words that replace other nouns or pronouns. An


Indefinite Pronoun is not specific about the thing to which it refers.
Anyone is an example of an indefinite pronoun. The following
indefinite pronouns are considered singular and require singular
verb forms. Note that all the pronouns that end in -one, -body, or
-thing fall into this category.
Anyone, anybody, anything
Each, every
something

(as

pronouns)

Everyone, everybody, everything

No one, nobody, nothing


Someone,

somebody,

Whatever, whoever

Either, neither (may require a plural verb if paired with or/nor)

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Singular or Plural
There are, however, 5 indefinite pronouns that can be either
singular or plural depending on the context of the sentence. You
can remember these 5 by the acronym SANAM.
THE SANAM PRONOUNS: Some, Any, None, All, More / Most

How can you tell if these pronouns are singular or plural?


You should look at the noun object of the Of-phrase to determine
the number of the subject.

Some of the money WAS stolen from my wallet. (MONEY is


singular)

Some of the documents WERE stolen from the bank.


(DOCUMENTS is plural)

Technically, none of + plural noun can take either a singular or

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a Sandeep
plural verb

Each and Every: Singular

The subject of a sentence, EACH' or EVERY requires a singular


verb form. The same is true for any subject preceded by the word
each or every:

Right: Every dog HAS paws.


Right: Every dog and cat HAS paws.
Right: Each of these shirts IS pretty.

You may think that the subjects of the second and third sentences
are plural. However, in each case, the subject is preceded by each
or every. Therefore, the subject is considered singular.

Note that each following a subject has no bearing on the


verb form:

They each ARE great tennis players.

Here, the plural subject THEY requires the plural verb form ARE.
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Quantity Words and Phrases

The phrase THE NUMBER of takes a singular verb, but A


NUMBER of takes a plural verb.

THE NUMBER of hardworking students in this class IS quite


large.

A NUMBER of students in this class ARE hard workers.

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Choose the correct option (s)


1.

Each of the Femina Miss India (contestants / contestant) (has / have)


long and lustrous hair.

2.

This is one of those (book / books) that (was / were) published last year.

3.

Either a slice of toast or eggs (is/are) what I will eat for breakfast.

4.

Neither the driver nor the passengers (was/were) aware of the seat belt
law.

5.

Each of the five boys (is/are) going to attend.

6.

One of my (friend/friends) (is/are) a doctor.

7.

Dhoni is one of those cricketers who (does / do) modeling assignments.

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Exercise

8.

The feline leukemia virus, characterized by a loss of


appetite, weight loss, poor coat condition, and other
debilitating losses, are rampant among cats on the
island.

9.

The Supreme Courts rulings on assisted suicide, which


overturned two previous decisions by a United States
Circuit Court, dictates that any health care official
involved can be held responsible.

10. They each is applying for a job.


11. Each of the five TV channels are going to broadcast the
match.
12. Five TV channels each are going to broadcast the
match.
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Exercise
13. Everyday, the scent of apples and cinnamon sticks
permeate throughout the cider mill, causing most visitors
to purchase snacks while on the tour.
14. The number of car accidents involving deer, up
seventeen percent from ten years ago and continuing to
rise throughout the country, have decreased in
Michigans upper peninsula due to the increased use of
car-mounted deer whistles by residents.

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Exercise
15. Ernest Hemingway and his contemporaries, all
of whom were authors born at the turn of the
century, was revered for describing the sense of
aimlessness felt by their generation.
16. Once the flight landed, neither the flight
attendants nor the captain, who even tried using
a hammer, were able to open the emergency
exit door.

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Exercise
17. At the Springfield Museum of Art, each painting and
sculpture, some purchased for millions of dollars and
others found discarded at garage sales, have their
history displayed on a board beside the piece.
18. At the beginning of the play, each of King Lears
daughtersGoner, Regan, and Corneliaappear to be
jealous, treacherous, and immoral, but it is soon
discovered that Cornelia is virtuous and loyal.

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Exercise
19. Because a hive of European honeybees produce much
more honey than the bees can consume, beekeepers
harvest the excess for human consumption.
20. Tear gas, launched in the form of grenades or aerosol
cans, are irritants used by police to calm rioting crowds
and unruly mobs.
21. During the debate, each of the candidatesGeorge
Bush, Bill Clinton, and Ross Perotwas allowed to ask
one question of each of his opponents.

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Exercise
22. Bill and Lass believed that if they were coached
every day and dedicated themselves to practice,
their dream of becoming a professional skater
could someday be a reality.
23. Hospitals have always been thought of as a
place for the sick and dying so many people
avoid them, even for preventative medicine.
24. The three Supreme Court Justices appointed by
the current President were judged on their trial
records as an attorney and as an elected judge.
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Exercise
25. Despite their cute and cuddly image,
hippopotamusesAfrica's most feared animal
account for more human deaths than any other
African creature.
26. In South America and Southern Mexico, a
colony of Driver ants, known for their fiercely
defensive behavior, have been known to kill
immobile livestock, such as tethered cows or
corralled horses.
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Lets solve some real


GMAT SVA Questions

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1.

In comparison with tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone


systems have a relatively broad zone of maximum winds located
farther from the center, and typically have a less symmetric wind
field.
SAME
with tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone systems have a
relatively broad zone of maximum winds located farther from the
center, and typically has
with tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone systems have a
relatively broad zone located farther from the center of maximum
winds, and typically have
to tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone systems have a
relatively broad zone of maximum winds located farther from the
center, and typically have
to tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone systems have a
relatively broad zone of maximum winds located farther from the
center, and typically has

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2. Mathematical analysis of humpback whale


sounds provide evidence that animals other
than humans use a hierarchical structure of
communication.
provide evidence that animals other than
humans
provides evidence that animals other than
humans
provide evidence that an animal other than
humans
provides evidence that an animal other than a
human
provide evidence that animals, like humans,
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3.

The increase in unemployment rates, coupled with


significantly increased retail prices as well as energy
costs, are forcing many homeowners to look into
alternative sources of fuel in order to save money on
winter heating.
unemployment rates, coupled with significantly
increased retail prices as well as energy costs, are
rates of unemployment, coupled with significant
increases in retail prices and energy costs, have been
unemployment rates, coupled with significant
increases in both retail prices and energy costs, is
unemployment rates, coupled with significantly
increased retail prices as well as energy costs, is
rates of unemployment, coupled with significant
increases in both retail as well as energy costs, had
been

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4. Hogarth's engravings, which provide a


vivid portrait of eighteenth-century
London, are of interest to both artists and
historians.
are of interest to both
are interests both for
are both interesting to
is of interest to both
is interesting for both

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5.

The amount of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like


accidents caused by faulty wiring, has increased significantly
since regulations on manufacturing have been relaxed.
SAME
The amount of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like
those caused by faulty wiring, have increased significantly
since regulations on manufacturing were relaxed.
The number of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like the
number caused by faulty wiring, have increased significantly
since regulations on manufacturing were relaxed.
The number of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like
accidents caused by faulty wiring, has increased significantly
since regulations on manufacturing had been relaxed.
The number of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like the
number caused by faulty wiring, has increased significantly
since regulations on manufacturing were relaxed.

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6.

A higher interest rate is only one of the factors, albeit an


important one, that keeps the housing market from
spiraling out of control, like it did earlier in the decade.
keeps the housing market from spiraling out of control, like
it did
keep the housing market from spiraling out of control, as it
did
keeps the housing market from spiraling out of control, as
it did
keep the housing market from spiraling out of control, like
keep the housing market from spiraling out of control, like
it did

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7. The Daughters of the American Revolution, a


volunteer service organization, admits as
members only women who can prove lineal
descent from a patriot of the American Revolution.
admits as members only women who can prove
lineal descent
admit as members only women who can prove
lineal descent
admits as members women who can prove lineal
descent
only admit as members women who can prove
lineal descent
admits as members women who can prove lineal
descent only
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SC Type 3 Errors: Verbs

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Conditional (if, then) sentences

To indicate realistic future:

Use Present + Future combination


1.

If I score 700+, I will apply to Harvard Business School.


Dont write: If I will score 700+, I will apply to Harvard Business
School.

To indicate the could-have-been possible past:

Use Had + Would have combination


2.

If I had scored 700+, I would have applied to Harvard Business


School.
OR Had I scored 700+, I would have applied to Harvard Business
School.
Dont write: If I would have scored 700+, I would have applied to
Harvard Business School.

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To express wish use WERE


3. I wish he were here.
4. If I were the CEO, I would effect a lot of
changes.
5. He behaves as if he were the boss.
6. She dresses as though she were a
fashion model.
With as if / as though, use WERE.
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To express indirect speech

Look at the sentence:


7. He said THAT the college had rusticated him
and his future was dark. WRONG.

We need both these words ... said THAT ....... and


THAT ......... the second THAT is compulsory. So
the correct sentence will be:

He said THAT the college had rusticated him


and THAT his future was dark. RIGHT.
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Imagining correct sequence of tenses

Consider the sentence:


8. In 1975, Sippy produced a film that became
the biggest blockbuster Indian Cinema has
ever seen till date. WRONG.
In 1975, Sippy produced a film that would
become the biggest blockbuster Indian
Cinema has ever seen till date. RIGHT.

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Also, if we look at this sentence,


9. He said, "I will go to New York next week."

In indirect speech, the sentence will


become:
He said that he WOULD go to New York

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The Subjunctive
Look at the following sentences. All are considered
Grammatically correct. Though, seemingly, all might
look absolutely WRONG.
10.

The Supreme Court decreed that he take charge of the situation.

11.

Ann suggested that he go to the Chinese restaurant.

12.

I insist that she be quiet.

13.

I suggest that he study.

14.

Is it essential that Tanya be there?

15.

Don recommended that John join the committee.

16.

He often asks that she bring a tape recorder to the interview


sessions.

17.

I propose that Amy apologize to Mark, and we forget this ever


happened.

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Contd
18.

Alexandra never insists that Michael call her after a date,


but he does anyway.

19.

The attorney proposed that the session be adjourned until


the following day.
I insist that the chairman resign!
Their main demand was that the lawsuit be dropped.
We insist that he do the job properly.
The committee proposes that she be appointed treasurer
immediately.
It is essential that we be informed of your plans.
It is crucial that he be there before Tom arrives.
It is important that she attend the meeting.
It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him if
he wants to hike to the bottom of the Grand Canyon.

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

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Verbs Followed by the Subjunctive


The structure is:
Verb + that + the BASE form of the verb or BE

to advise
to ask
to command
to demand
to desire
to insist
to propose
to recommend
to request
to suggest
to urge

Ordered
Mandatory
Ruled
Authorized
Condition
Imperative
Important
Required
Proposed
Necessary
demand

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VERB TENSES

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Past Tense various situations


Only one action in the past:
Written in PAST SIMPLE (second form
of the verb without HAD):
28.I watched a movie yesterday. NOT HAD
WATCHED.
29.At a recent conference, the minister said
NOT HAD SAID.
30.India progressed throughout the 20th
century NOT HAD PROGRESSED.
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Past Tense various situations


Two actions in the past
(happening simultaneously):
Both written in PAST SIMPLE (second
form of the verb without HAD):
31.While he slept, I studied.
32.When he came, I left.

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Past Tense various situations

Two actions in the past (happening one


after the other):

The earlier action is written in PAST PERFECT


(HAD + third form of the verb) and the later action is
written is PAST SIMPLE (second form of the verb
without HAD):
33. The flight had taken off before I reached the airport.
34. The patient had died before the doctor reached.
35. I had had (eaten) my dinner before the phone rang
etc.

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Present Tense Various Situations

To show a trend:
Use Present simple
36. These days, Indian cricketers spend a lot of their
time endorsing products. NOT ARE
SPENDING.
37. As per a recent study, men show more
vulnerability to psychosomatic disorders than
women. NOT ARE SHOWING.

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Present Tense Various Situations

To show something that has just finished:


Use Present perfect
38. It has rained for 3 hours.
39. India has become a strong economy.
40. He has got a raise in salary.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Present Tense Various Situations

To show something that has been


continuing for some time:
Use Present perfect continuous
41. It has been raining for 3 hours.
42. I have been studying since 3 pm.
43. Property values have been rising for a decade
now.
44. I have been going to the gym since 1999.

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Never put an adverb between to and


verb
45. WRONG: He asked me to quickly give
my opinion.
46. WRONG: Commodity prices can cause
inflation to suddenly rise.

Right: He asked me to give my opinion


quickly.
Right: Commodity prices can cause
inflation to rise suddenly.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Active V/s Passive


RULE: Prefer the ACTIVE VOICE, unless
the meaning of the sentence specifically
demands the PASSIVE VOICE.
So, meaning clarity is to be checked before
deciding upon ACTIVE V/s PASSIVE.

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Mixed-bag Questions
on VERBS

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1. The architect proposed that supplies for the new wing of


the hospital, which hospital administrators hoped to open
by the end of the year, will be procured from local
providers.
A. Same
B. that supplies for the hospitals new wing, which hospital
administrators hope to be opened by the end of the year,
be
C. that the hospitals new wings supplies, which hospital
administrators hope to be opened by years end, might be
D. that supplies for the new wing of the hospital, which
hospital administrators hope to be open by the end of the
year, were
E. that supplies for the hospitals new wing, which hospital
administrators hope to open by the end of the year, be
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

2. If the new department store would open by


Thanksgiving, it will be attracting many holiday
shoppers.
A. would open by Thanksgiving, it will be attracting
B. would be opened by Thanksgiving, it would be
able to attract
C. was opening by Thanksgiving, it would be able
to attract
D. was to open by Thanksgiving, it also will attract
E. opens before Thanksgiving, it will attract

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

3. With government funding for the arts


dwindling, even major orchestras would
feel the pressure of trying to meet their
payroll and travel costs over the past
several years.
A. would feel
B. will feel
C. have felt
D. feel
E. are feeling
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

4. Many analysts have recently predicted that


democratic institutions will develop in China, as
the growth of democracy has generally followed
industrial development in other countries
throughout the 20th century.
A. has generally followed industrial development
B. generally followed industrial development
C. had generally followed industrial development
D. generally follows industrial development
E. followed general industrial development

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5.

Although he resisted the assignment, T. E. Lawrence, later known


as Lawrence of Arabia, successfully led an Arab uprising against the
Ottoman Empire.
Although he resisted the assignment, T. E. Lawrence, later known
as Lawrence of Arabia, successfully led an Arab uprising against the
Ottoman Empire.
Although he had resisted the assignment, T. E. Lawrence, later
known as Lawrence of Arabia, successfully led an Arab uprising
against the Ottoman Empire.
Although he resisted the assignment, T. E. Lawrence, later known
as Lawrence of Arabia, had successfully led an Arab uprising
against the Ottoman Empire.
Although he had resisted the assignment, Lawrence of Arabia, who
successfully led an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire, was
earlier known as T. E. Lawrence.
T. E. Lawrence, later known as Lawrence of Arabia, successfully led
an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire, although they had
resisted the assignment.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

6. A recent and popular self-help book wryly notes


that if adolescence was not so painful, it would
have a droll comedic aspect, at least in
retrospect.
A. was not so painful, it
B. was not so painful, they
C. were not so painful, they
D. were not so painful, it
E. were not so painful, being one

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7.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

In the wake of several serious cases of mercury


poisoning caused by tainted fish, the state government
ordered that all lakes and streams should be tested for
mercury levels.
all lakes and streams should be tested for mercury
levels
all lakes and streams should have their mercury levels
tested
the mercury levels be tested for all lakes and streams
the mercury levels of all lakes and streams should be
tested
the mercury levels of all lakes and streams be tested

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

8.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

While the stock market was bouncing back from its 2002
low, U.S. families are still reeling from the recent
recession; between 2001 to 2004, typical household
savings plummeted nearly 25% and the median
household debt rose by a third.
was bouncing back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are
still reeling from the recent recession; between
bounced back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are still
reeling from the recent recession, from
has bounced back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are
still reeling from the recent recession; between
has bounced back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are
still reeling from the recent recession; from
bounced back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are still
reeling from the recent recession; from

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9.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

The recent global boom in the market price for scrap steel and
aluminum leads to a sudden rise in the theft of everyday metal
objects like manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs.
leads to a sudden rise in the theft of everyday metal objects like
manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs
have led to a sudden rise in the theft of everyday objects such as
manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs
has led to a sudden increase in the number of thieves for everyday
metal objects like manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs
has led to a sudden rise in the theft of everyday metal objects such
as manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs
is leading the suddenly rising theft of everyday metal objects:
manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs

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10. Rust can deteriorate a steel pipe to such an


extent that it will snap easily, as though it was a
twig.
A. will snap easily, as though it was a twig
B. will snap easily, like a twig does
C. will snap easily, as though it is a twig
D. might snap easily, as though it was a twig
E. will snap easily, as though it were a twig

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11.

A.
B.

C.

D.

E.

Until Antoine Lavoisier proved otherwise in the eighteenth century,


many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston,
an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood.
many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston,
an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood
many scientists believed that phlogiston was an imaginary
substance released by combustion and its properties were not fully
understood
phlogiston was an imaginary substance whose properties were not
fully understood and which many scientists had believed was
released by combustion
phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully
understood, was believed by scientists to be released by
combustion
many scientists had believed that phlogiston was released by
combustion and was an imaginary substance whose properties
were not fully understood

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12. Aerugo, also known as verdigris, is the green "bloom"


visible on many copper items, and is produced, like iron
rust, over the course of time by the exposure of the
metal to the oxygen in the atmosphere.
A. visible on many copper items, and is produced
B. that is visible on many copper items, and which
produces
C. visible on many copper items, and produces
D. that is visible on many copper items, and that produces
E. which is visible on many copper items, and which is
produced

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13. Though most paper currency was at one time


backed by fixed assets such as gold or silver, it
now derives its purchasing power from a
declaratory fiat of the issuing government.
A. was at one time backed by
B. had at one time been backed by
C. was at one time backing
D. had at one time backed
E. has at one time been backed by

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SC Type 4 Errors: Pronouns

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Pronouns
The following are the pronouns errors typically tested on
GMAT-SC.
Pronoun Agreement (singular / plural)
Pronoun Ambiguity / Reference / Antecedent (WHICH/IT/THEY)
Implied Reference (to a full clause, verb or expression)
Possessive Pronouns
Pronoun Case
Pronoun Position
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Pronoun Agreement
1.

When a person calls take down THEIR information.

2.

Everyone here will need THEIR own pencil.

3.

Some people believe that the benefits of a healthy diet


outweigh that of regular exercise.

4.

If one is hungry, he may eat.

5.

Meg left all her class notes at school because she


decided that she could do her homework without it.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Pronoun Agreement
6.

While the definition of Generation X is hotly debated


concerning the age ranges of its members, culturists
generally agree that they describe a group of adults
that are self-focused, cynical, and skeptical.

7.

With the release of their fifth album, Hotel California,


the band explored the pursuit of the American dream
when accompanied by the loss of innocence and the
presence of temptations.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Pronoun Agreement
8.

Counting each of the nine planets and their many


moons, there are 162 known and accepted celestial
bodies in our solar system.

9.

The bank has offered so many convenient services,


such as checking by phone and online banking, that
many of their customers no longer visit the bank.

10. After Ben Franklin returned from his visit to the


Iroquois Nation, the founding fathers created a
constitution that resembled those of the Native
Americans.
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Pronoun Agreement
11. During the charity auction, the organization collected
over two hundred thousand dollars, nearly twice as
much as they expected.
12. Because her mother was unable to support a family,
Marilyn Monroe spent the first eleven years of her life
with a couple who became foster parents to
supplement their income.
13. Jim may not be elected CEO by the board because he
does not meet their standards.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Pronoun Agreement
14. Hippies, rebellious youth of the 1960s and
1970s, expressed their desire for pacifism and
tolerance through peace movements, which
included marches and protests.
15. Upon hearing of the chairman's illness, the
committee motioned to postpone their next
meeting until after he was released from the
hospital.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Pronoun Reference
16. Ill position the target, and when I nod
my head, shoot at it.

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Pronoun Reference
Ohhh, nooo!

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Pronouns Reference / Ambiguity


17. If the baby does not thrive on fresh milk, it should be boiled.
18. Mother told Ann that her skirt is too short.
19. At Ivy-GMAT, they provide a great deal of practice on
computer.
20. The team's poor sportsmanship made all of them look like
whiners.
21. The parents tried to explain the risks involved in hitch
hiking, but it was useless.
22. After interviewing several nurses, I realised that it was not
the career for me.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

23. Student admissions to Business school are not


accepted solely based on their GMAT scores;
other considerations include their undergraduate
grade point averages, extracurricular activities
and work experience.
24. A manatee differs from its relative, the dugong,
in both size and shape; the largest difference is
the dugongs tail, which is forked, unlike their
paddle-shaped tail.
25. Last night on the news, they said pilot error
caused the air show collision.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

26. By adding a value menu and allowing customers to


choose side orders such as salads and baked
potatoes, Wendys has not only lured customers
away from Burger King and McDonalds, but has
enticed them to choose fast-food over meals
prepared by finer dining establishments.
27. From 1995 to 1999, the posted speed limit on
Montana's highways was reasonable and prudent,
meaning their drivers could travel at speeds in
excess of 80 mph when road conditions were good.

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Implied reference
28. Susan has changed her major twice this semester.
This might mean she is unsure of her career goal.
29. When John finally proposed, it was only because he
had learned of her inheritance.
30. The storm lasted all weekend long, which made us feel
depressed.
31. You didnt return any of his calls. This made him feel
that you dont care.
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Implied reference
32. While most Americans have heard of and used
Microsoft products, few people know that its
name is actually short for microcomputer
software.
33. During World War II, the French strategy for
protection was a wall of staggered forts and
lookout points called the Maginot Line, but its
weakest section ultimately led to their invasion.

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Special Construction
34. Real Estate analysts have found that home
prices have nearly doubled in the last ten
years in the Southern California market, which
is consistent with the increases in population
and inflation there.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Special Construction

Imagine the statement:


35. We like meeting people having different interests.

Here, it is not clear whether we have different


interests or people One way to correct this
is:

We like meeting people who have different interests.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Special Construction

The statement
36. We test-drove a car having engine trouble. could
be better written as:

We test-drove a car that had engine trouble.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Special Construction
37. When your kids reach a certain age, you must prepare
to talk to them about marriage, even if youve never
done it before.
38. The company, known for its benevolence and
community-involvement, has donated over $100,000 to
charity over the last twenty years and will continue to do
it as long as it is financially able.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Pronoun Case
39. He runs faster than (I / me).
40. He is older than (I/me)
41. The cat licked (its / its) tail.
42. This is to be kept between you and (I / me).
43. Let Raju and (I / me) enter the room.
44. Doctor, My child and (I / me) would like to visit you
tomorrow, said the lady over the phone.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Pronoun Case
45. Janice and ME went on a picnic together.
46. The picnic was attended by Janice and I.
47. WHO are you going to marry?
48. Who are you going to take to the movies?
49. I dont understand why me and Bob always have to
take out the garbage.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Pronoun Case
50. The manager yelled at the umpire, whom had
called the pitch a strike, before throwing first
base into the dugout.
51. NASA has agreed to send one American
astronaut to the International Space Station for
a six month experiment, although who it will
send has yet to be determined.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Possessive Pronoun
52. Janes first novel was so well received that she thought of writing
its sequel.
53. Janes first novel was so well received that her bank balance
soared.
54. Janes first novel was so well received that the publisher thought
of giving her an additional royalty of 10%, lending credence to the
fact that her subsequent writings could be even more passionate.
55. Janes first novel was so well received that her skeptical husband
also started appreciating her writing style.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Possessive Pronoun
56. Kathys suitcase was so stuffed that she decided to
pack another one.
57. The students work improved over the course of the
semester, and they should be commended for it.
58. The players helmets need to be repainted so that they
will be ready to be used at practice on Sunday.
59. Samanthas face looked blurry in the photo, but I could
tell she wasnt smiling.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Possessive Pronoun
60. Marco Polos travels, which took him over seventeen
years, are documented in his book, Il Milione.
61. Although I own the bands album, I have never seen it
in concert.
62. Jose's room is so messy that HIS mother calls HIM a
pig.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Placing of pronoun
63. We finally chose the coffee table towards the back of
the store, which we thought would complement our
living room furniture.
64. At the end of the day, the chaperones took the fourth
graders back to school, who were exhausted from
running after the children.
65. We finally returned all the books to the library, which
we left at the front desk.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Pronoun Mixed-bag
Questions

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1. In the small, closed Bedouin world, in which secrets are hard to


keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing a carrier and their
families, subsequently lowering their chances for marriage
should word get out that a genetic disease runs in her family.
in which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing
a carrier and their families, subsequently lowering their
in which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing
a carrier and her family, subsequently lowering her
which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing a
carrier and her family, subsequently lowering her
in which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing
a carrier and her families, subsequently lowering her
which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing
carriers and their families, subsequently lowering their

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

2. The Confederate general Stonewall Jackson led a feared army


that idolized him; they all mourned his ironic death from
friendly fire.
him; they all mourned his
him; they mourned his
him; it mourned his
him; it mourned their
him, it mourned his

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

3. The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to
impose an injunction against the hardware manufacturer,
arguing that they should take immediate action in order to
prevent further economic damages against their client.
they should take immediate action in order to prevent further
economic damages against their client
the judge act immediately in order to prevent the client from
suffering further damages of an economic nature
they should act immediately to prevent further economic
damages being suffered by the client
the judge act immediately in order to prevent them from
suffering economic damages further
immediate action should be taken to prevent their client from
suffering further economic damages
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

4. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of
vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such
vision.
As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of
vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such
vision.
A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of
vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult
As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of
vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult
A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of
vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be
deemed legally blind.
As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of
vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about
20/500.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

5. When housing prices climb too quickly, the Federal Reserve


often responds by raising the key interest rate, which has the
curious effect of actually lowering housing prices instead of
raise them, as one might expect.
SAME
an action that has the curious effect of actually lowering
housing prices rather than raising them
which has the curious effect of actually lowering housing prices
instead of raising them
which rather than raising housing prices actually has the
curious effect of lowering them
an action that has the curious effect of actually lowering
housing prices instead of raise them

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

6. Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal


deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments,
which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there.
Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of
industrial activity there
Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is
consistent with these findings
Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of
industrial activity
sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth
of industrial activity in the area
sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of
industrial activity there

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

7. During and immediately after the California gold rush, the


way for a merchant to generate the most profit was to move
a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as
quickly as possible, rather than to carry larger loads more
slowly, determining the design of the clipper ship.
to carry larger loads more slowly, determining
to carry larger loads more slowly, a situation that
determined
carry larger loads more slowly, which determined
slowly carry larger loads which determined
carrying larger loads more slowly, and this was a situation
in determining

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

8. Analysts blamed May's sluggish retail sales on unexciting


merchandise as well as the weather, colder and wetter than was
usual in some regions, which slowed sales of barbecue grills and
lawn furniture.
colder and wetter than was usual in some regions, which slowed
which was colder and wetter than usual in some regions, slowing
since it was colder and wetter than usually in some regions,
which slowed
being colder and wetter than usually in some regions, slowing
having been colder and wetter than was usual in some regions
and slowed

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

9. Residents of affected coastal cities continue to lobby for


funds and request supplies to aid them in recovering from
oil spills occurring more than a decade ago.
in recovering from oil spills occurring more than a decade
ago
to recover from oil spills that had occurred more than a
decade ago
in recovery of oil spills that occurred more than a decade
ago
in recovering from oil spills having occurred more than a
decade ago
in recovering from oil spills that occurred more than a
decade ago

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

10. In June of 1987, The Bridge of Trinquetaille,


Vincent van Gogh's view of an iron bridge over
the Rhone sold for $20.2 million and it was the
second highest price ever paid for a painting at
auction.
Rhone sold for $20.2 million and it was
Rhone, which sold for $20.2 million, was
Rhone, was sold for $20.2 million,
Rhone was sold for $20.2 million, being
Rhone, sold for $20.2 million, and was

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

11. The cameras of the Voyager II spacecraft detected six small,


previously unseen moons circling Uranus, which doubles to
twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting the distant
planet.
which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as
orbiting
doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known to orbit
which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known in
orbit around
doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting
which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known that
orbit

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

12. In theory, international civil servants at the United Nations


are prohibited from continuing to draw salaries from their own
governments; in practice, however, some governments merely
substitute living allowances for their employees' paychecks,
assigned by them to the United Nations.
for their employees' paychecks, assigned by them
for the paychecks of their employees who have been assigned
for the paychecks of their employees, having been assigned
in place of their employees' paychecks, for those of them
assigned
in place of the paychecks of their employees to have been
assigned by them

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13. Agatha Christie's travels with her archaeologist husband


inspired her to write several mystery novels; travelers to Egypt
can still stay at the Old Cataract Hotel, the model for the hotel in
one of Christie's most famous books.
Agatha Christie's travels with her archaeologist husband
inspired her to write several mystery novels
Agatha Christie used her travels with her archaeologist husband
to inspire several mystery novels
Because her husband was an archaeologist, Agatha Christie
was able to use their travels as inspiration for several of her
mystery novels
Together with her archaeologist husband, Agatha Christie was
inspired to incorporate their travel into several of her mystery
novels
Agatha Christie's travels with her archaeologist husband served
as inspiration for several of her mystery novels
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14. Created in 1731, Anders Celsius original thermometer had a scale where
the value of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after he died in
1744 the scale was reversed to its present form.
in 1731, Anders Celsius original thermometer had a scale where the value
of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after he died in 1744 the
scale was reversed to its present form.
in 1731, Anders Celsius original thermometer had a scale in which the value
of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after his death in 1744 the
scale was reversed to its present form.
in 1731, Anders Celsius original thermometer had a scale in which the value
of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after he died in 1744 the
scale was reversed to its present form.
by Anders Celsius in 1731, his original thermometer had a scale in which the
value of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; reversing the scale to
its present form after his death in 1744.
by Anders Celsius in 1731, his original thermometer had a scale where the
value of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after his death in 1744
the scale reversed to its present form.
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SC Type 5 Errors: Comparisons

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Illogical Comparisons (Apples


and Oranges)
1. The damage done by the flood was
worse than the fire.
2. The girl's teeth were prettier than the
boy.
3. Education Hall is older than any building
on campus.
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Watch out for Comparison Signals

Like
Unlike
Likening
More than / greater
than / less than etc.
Different from
Same as/that
AS

As good as / As much
as etc.
Compared to / with
In contrast with / to
Just as so
Like V/s As
Like V/s Such as
Like V/s As if

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Parallelism rules here too


When LIKE, UNLIKE, THAN, Same as,
Compared with, In contrast with etc. are
used, the 2 sides must be parallel.

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Comparison Words Parallelism


4. Like birds, wings have evolved in some
mammals.
5. Like most desks at work, Spence has his
laden with pictures of his family.
6. Like a woman I once met on the bus, the
hostess attire was somewhat
flamboyant.

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Comparison Words Parallelism


7. While the company insists that its starting
salary for a man working in the executive
branch of the organization be the same as
a woman in equal capacity, the watchdog
group found a significant gender wage
gap.

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Comparison Words Parallelism


8.The sixth Harry Potter book, by British
author J.K. Rowling, sold a record 8.9
million copies in the first 24 hours it was
on salemore than any author till date.
9.Frank's build, like his brother, is extremely
broad and muscular.

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Clause || clause comparison


10. The blue dress looks more flattering on you than the red one.
11. Three times more students attended the prom this year than last
year.
12. Covering the floors with tiles costs twice as much as linoleum.
13. The tycoon contributed more to the candidates campaign than
anyone else in the industry.
14. Sam was away on vacation longer than his friends.

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Two or more
While comparing 2, use the comparative form greater,
better, worse
While comparing more than 2 (3 or more than 3), use the
superlative form greatest, best, worst

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More examples
15. Mary is the wealthier of the three musicians.
16. In many respects, George Bush and George W. Bush
had the same political agenda, but the younger Bush,
who was able to pass more legislation, had the most
cooperative Congress.
17. Completed sometime between 480 and 450 B.C., the
play Oedipus Rex by Sophocles is much more
foreboding than sixteenth century William
Shakespeare.

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Usage of Just as so / as if
18. Just LIKE swimming is good exercise, skiing is a
great way to burn calories.
19. It seems like the St. Louis Cardinals are going to
lose again.

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Like V/s As
When comparing
NOUNS, use like
Like cant be followed by
a VERB.
20. WRONG: Like I said
earlier
21. WRONG: Bella and June, AS
their mother Stacy, are
extremely smart.
22. RIGHT: Speak like an
American.
23. Wrong: Speak like an
American does.

When comparing Actions,


trends, use as
As has to be followed by
a VERB or a Preposition
Right: As I said earlier
Right: Bella and June, like
their mother Stacy, are
extremely smart.
RIGHT: Speak as an American
does.
WRONG: Speak as an
American.

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Exercise (Like V/s As)


24. I look as my brother.
25. As a detective, Andrea solved the puzzle.
26. The fountain sounds as a bubbling brook.
27. Like I mentioned earlier, the test date has been moved up.
28. My dog is very skittish, like you might expect a rescued
animal to be.

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Exercise (Like V/s As)


29.

The sliding roof closes as a dome.

30.

As with other children in her neighborhood who were home-schooled, Joan


sometimes missed being in a classroom with her peers.

31.

2006, like 2005, was a prosperous year.

32.

As in 2005, property values rose in 2006 as well.

33.

In the final innings he played like a champion.

34.

Owning a car is still Dans goal, like that of his parents when they were his
age.

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Like V/s Such as


Like is used to highlight. The particular noun is
essential.
35. Animals like lions and zebras live on the Plain.
Such as is used to give examples. The particular
noun is replaceable.
36. Animals such as lions and zebras live on the
Plain.

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37. According to a survey conducted by the school administration,


incoming seniors planning to attend college prefer not only
rigorous courses, like honors and advanced placement
courses, to those that require less work, but also science and
math courses to those in the humanities.
38. It was not long after the 1930s commenced that baritone
singers like Bing Crosby and Russ Columbo contributed to the
popularization of a type of romantic, soothing singing that came
to be called crooning.

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1.

A.
B.
C.

D.

E.

Unlike Mozart, whose funeral was sparsely attended being buried in an


unmarked common grave, Beethovens was attended by more than thirtythousand mourners and his final resting place lies in a famous Vienna
cemetery near the graves of Schubert and Brahms.
SAME
being buried in an unmarked common grave, Beethovens funeral was
attended by about thirty-thousand mourners and his final resting place was
near the graves of Schubert and Brahms in a famous Vienna cemetery
and he was buried in an unmarked common grave, Beethoven was given
a funeral attended by more than thirty-thousand mourners and his final
resting place lies near the graves of Schubert and Brahms in a famous
Vienna cemetery
and who was buried in an unmarked common grave, Beethovens funeral
was attended by more than thirty-thousand mourners and his final resting
place lies in a famous Vienna cemetery near the graves of Schubert and
Brahms
and who was buried in an unmarked common grave, Beethoven was given
a funeral attended by more than thirty-thousand mourners and lies buried
near the graves of Schubert and Brahms in a famous Vienna cemetery

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2. Based on recent box office receipts, the public's


appetite for documentary films, like nonfiction books,
seems to be on the rise.
A. like nonfiction books
B. as nonfiction books
C. as its interest in nonfiction books
D. like their interest in nonfiction books
E. like its interest in nonfiction books

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3.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

More than thirty years ago Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel
Prize winner, reported that genes can "jump," as pearls
moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.
as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to
others
like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to
others
as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to
some other one

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4. Archaeologists have shown that ingesting lead in


drinking water was a significant health hazard for the
ancient Romans, like that of modern Americans.
A. like that of modern Americans
B. as that for modern Americans
C. just as modern Americans do
D. as do modern Americans
E. as it is for modern Americans

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5. Like many of his contemporaries did, Bob Dylan


wrote songs that became anthems for a generation
of antiwar activists.
A. Like many of his contemporaries did, Bob Dylan
wrote songs
B. Bob Dylan wrote songs like many of his
contemporaries
C. As did many of his contemporaries, Bob Dylan wrote
songs
D. Like the songs of his contemporaries, Bob Dylan
wrote songs
E. As did many of Bob Dylans contemporaries, he
wrote songs
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6.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can
understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as
an expert doescomputers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns,
deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these.
as an expert doescomputers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns,
deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these
as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment
breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan
like an expertcomputers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing
equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan
like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of
equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized
like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to
authorize a loan or not, or the like

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7.

During the rule of Emperor Claudius, which was known for his
military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci
and Catti, the population of ancient Rome exceeded any city in
the Roman Empire.
A. SAME
B. known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of
the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome was
exceeded by no other
C. known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of
the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome
exceeded that of any
D. known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of
the Chauci and Catti, ancient Rome exceeded any
E. known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of
the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome
exceeded that of any other
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8. Studies of test scores show that watching


television has a markedly positive effect on
children whose parents speak English as a
second language, as compared to those who
are native English speakers.
A. to those who are
B. with children who are
C. with
D. to those whose parents are
E. with children whose parents are
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9. While Jackie Robinson was a Brooklyn Dodger, his


courage in the face of physical threats and verbal
attacks was not unlike that of Rosa Parks, who
refused to move to the back of a bus in
Montgomery, Alabama.
A. not unlike that of Rosa Parks, who refused
B. not unlike Rosa Parks, who refused
C. like Rosa Parks and her refusal
D. like that of Rosa Parks for refusing
E. as that of Rosa Parks, who refused

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10. Teratomas are unusual forms of cancer because they are


composed of tissues such as tooth and bone not normally
found in the organ in which the tumor appears.
A. because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and
bone
B. because they are composed of tissues like tooth and bone
that are
C. because they are composed of tissues, like tooth and bone,
tissues
D. in that their composition, tissues such as tooth and bone, is
E. in that they are composed of tissues such as tooth and
bone, tissues

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11. As business grows more complex, students majoring in


specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been
becoming increasingly successful in the job market.
A. majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing
have been becoming increasingly
B. who major in such specialized areas as finance and marketing
are becoming more and more
C. who majored in specialized areas such as those of finance and
marketing are being increasingly
D. who major in specialized areas like those of finance and
marketing have been becoming more and more
E. having majored in such specialized areas as finance and
marketing are being increasingly

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SC Error Type 6: MODIFIERS


Focus on the following sentences:
1. Using the latest technology, the mechanical problem was
identified quickly.
2. Upon leaving the counter, the cashier handed the customer a
receipt.
3. Locked in a vault for 50 years, the owner of the coins decided
to sell them.
4. Sailing up the river, the Statue of Liberty was seen.
5. Walking back from the village, my wallet was lost.
6. At the age of twenty, my father let me drive his car.
7. Unskilled in complex math, Bill's score on the entrance exam
was poor.
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So the rule is:


After the comma, have the subject of the preceding
part of the sentence
As we can see, this error is called MODIFIER as it
modifies (changes) the intended meaning of the
sentence.
The meaning of the sentence can also be affected by
the placement of a word or a group of words. E.g.,

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Lets see these sentences


8. Two cars were reported stolen by the police
yesterday.
9. Do not sit in the chair without being fully assembled.
10. The patient was referred to a psychologist with
several emotional problems.
11. The store sold inflatable childrens toys.
12. We provide restrooms for ladies that are clean and
comfortable.
13. I lost my hat running down the street.
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1. Although covered in about 11 inches of snow,


aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at
the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
A. SAME
B. the runway conditions during the emergency landing
were acceptable according to aviation officials
C. according to aviation officials, the runway was in
acceptable condition during the time of the
emergency landing
D. the runway was in acceptable condition during the
emergency landing, according to aviation officials
E. aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at
the time of the emergency landing were acceptable
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2.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Discouraged by new data that show increases in toxic


emissions from domestic factories, searches for alternative
investment opportunities are being conducted by
shareholders of the nations leading manufacturing
companies.
SAME
searches are being conducted by shareholders of the nations
leading manufacturing companies who are looking for
alternative investment opportunities
shareholders of the nations leading manufacturing
companies had begun searching for investment opportunities
outside of the manufacturing industry
the nations leading manufacturing companies are searching
for alternative investment opportunities for its shareholders
shareholders of the nations leading manufacturing
companies are searching for alternative investment
opportunities

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3.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Hailed as a key discovery in the science of evolution,


the fossils of a large scaly creature resembling both a
fish and a land-animal provide evidence of a possible
link in the evolutionary chain from water-based to landbased organisms.
the fossils of a large scaly creature resembling both a
fish and a land-animal provide evidence of
a large scaly creature resembling both a fish and a
land-animal provides fossils that are evidence
a large scaly creature, whose fossils resemble both a
fish and a land-animal, provides evidence of
the fossils of a large scaly creature, which resembles
both a fish and a land-animal, provides evidence of
the fossils of a large scaly creature resemble both a
fish and a land-animal and provide evidence of

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4.

A.
B.

C.

D.

E.

By applying optimization techniques commonly used to plan


operations, it is possible to determine how much effort ought to be
devoted to each of a companys products in order to meet its goals in
both the short and long terms.
SAME
a companys managers can determine how much effort should be
dedicated to each of the companys products in order to meet its short
and long term goals
it can be determined by company managers how much effort ought to
be devoted to each of the companys products in order to meet its
goals, both short and long term
it may be possible for company managers to determine how much
effort should be dedicated to each of these products in order to meet
the companys short and long term goals
managers at a company can determine how much effort ought to be
dedicated to each of these products in order to meet the companys
goals in both the short and long term

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5.

A.
B.
C.

D.
E.

In order to properly evaluate a patients state of mind and gain


informed consent prior to surgery, a substantial period of time must
be spent with the operating physician by the patient to become fully
aware of the pros and cons of undergoing a surgical procedure.
SAME
the operating physician and the patient must spend a substantial
amount of time together, thus ensuring full awareness of the pros
and cons of undergoing the surgical procedure
the patient must spend a substantial amount of time with his or her
operating physician, thus ensuring that he or she has been made
fully aware of the pros and cons of undergoing the surgical
procedure
the operating physician must spend a substantial amount of time
with the patient, thus ensuring that the patient is fully aware of the
pros and cons of accepting the undergoing procedure
the operating physician must ensure that he or she is fully aware of
the pros and cons of undergoing a surgical procedure by spending
a substantial amount of time with the patient

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6. Based on accounts of various ancient writers,


scholars have painted a sketchy picture of the
activities of an all-female cult that, perhaps as early
as the sixth century B.C., worshipped a goddess
known in Latin as Bona Dea, "the good goddess."
A. Based on accounts of various ancient writers
B. Basing it on various ancient writers' accounts
C. With accounts of various ancient writers used for a
basis
D. By the accounts of various ancient writers they used
E. Using accounts of various ancient writers
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7.

Architects and stonemasons, huge palace and temple


clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or
animal transport.

A.

huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya


without benefit of the wheel or animal transport

B.

without the benefits of animal transport or the wheel, huge


palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya

C.

the Maya built huge palace and temple clusters without the
benefit of animal transport or the wheel

D.

there were built, without the benefit of the wheel or animal


transport, huge palace and temple clusters by the Maya

E.

were the Maya who, without the benefit of the wheel or


animal transport, built huge palace and temple clusters

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8.

A.
B.

C.

D.

E.

The physicist Richard Feynman presented a comprehensive


introduction to modern physics designed for undergraduate students
in a two-year course.
SAME
For undergraduate students, the physicist Richard Feynman
presented a two-year course, being a comprehensive introduction to
modern physics.
A comprehensive introduction was in a two-year course by the
physicist Richard Feynman presenting to undergraduate students an
introduction to modern physics.
Presenting a comprehensive introduction, the physicist Richard
Feynman introduced modern physics in a two-year course designed
for undergraduate students.
In a two-year course designed for undergraduate students, the
physicist Richard Feynman presented a comprehensive introduction
to modern physics.

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SC Topic 7: Miscellaneous Errors

Idioms / Prepositions
Quantity (Numerical) Expressions
Adjective V/s Adverb
Punctuation
Concision (shortest possible sentence)
Meaning Clarity

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List of GMAT-Idioms cant


do without

Idioms are expressions that are the way the are


There can be no explanations / reasoning for
idioms
You have to memorize a list, e.g.,

Forbid to do NOT from doing


Cope with NOT cope up with
Comprise NOT comprise of
Mistake A for B NOT mistake A as B
Consider NOT consider to be or consider as The
list continues list in GMAT Book (have to memorize
more than 50 idioms)

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Numerical Idioms
For countable

Few
Many
Fewer
Number

For uncountable

Little
Much
Less
Amount

GREATER can be used to denote number alone


to show quantity or percentage, use MORE
Avoid Equivalent; Use as many / as much
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1.

The botanist was pleased to see that much of the recently


planted and heavily fertilized flowers were in bloom.

2.

Although the area had little traffic and pedestrians, the


developers were convinced that the restaurant should be
opened in the district; it was only a matter of time before
urban sprawl would bring residents and visitors alike.

3.

The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass is not


as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.

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4.

A large percentage of New York City residents are native


from other countries.

5.

During the Civil War, a fierce disagreement in Kentucky


took place among those residents who supported the
election of Abraham Lincoln with those who wanted to
secede with Jefferson Davis.

6.

The number of volunteers at the Relay for Life increased


by more than twice from 2002 to 2005.

7.

The newly enacted term limits prohibited the popular city


council chairperson to run for office during the next
election.

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Idiom Mixed-bag

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1. In the past few months, there has been


extensive dispute over if fare hikes should be a
first or last recourse in improving the transit
system.
A. over if fare hikes should be a first or last
recourse
B. about if fare hikes are a first or last recourse
C. about hiking fares as being a first or last
recourse
D. over whether fare hikes should be a first or last
recourse
E. concerning fare hikes and whether to raise them
as a first or last recourse
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

2. In a seminar paper delivered at the annual American Psychological


Association conference, Dr. Spagnoli distinguished pronounced alterations in
mood, which may be frequent and occasionally severe without their
constituting a clinical illness, from bipolar disorders.
A. pronounced alterations in mood, which may be frequent and occasionally
severe without their constituting a clinical illness, from bipolar disorders
B. bipolar disorders and pronounced alterations in mood, occurring frequently
and occasionally severely, without constituting a clinical illness
C. pronounced alterations in mood, perhaps frequent and occasionally severe
without constituting a clinical illness, and bipolar disorders
D. between pronounced alterations in mood, which may be frequent and
occasionally severe without constituting a clinical illness, from bipolar
disorders
E. between pronounced alterations in mood, which may be frequent and
occasionally severe without constituting a clinical illness, and bipolar
disorders

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

3.

A.
B.

C.
D.

E.

In the conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians, the refusal
of each side to acknowledge the other as a legitimate national
movement is closer to the heart of the problem than is any other
issue.
the refusal of each side to acknowledge the other as a legitimate
national movement is closer to the heart of the problem than
that the refusal of each side to acknowledge another as a
legitimate national movement is closer to the heart of the problem
as
the refusal of each side to acknowledge another as a legitimate
national movement is closer to the heart of the problem than
that the refusal of each side to acknowledge another as a
legitimate national movement is closer to the heart of the problem
than
the refusal of each side to acknowledge each other as a legitimate
national movement is closer to the heart of the problem as

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

4.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

The first decision to be made by a person being


considered for employment at Reven-Tech is if to submit
to a drug test.
being considered for employment at Reven-Tech is if to
submit
considered for employment at Reven-Tech is if he or she
should submit
being considered for employment at Reven-Tech is
whether submission
considered for employment at Reven-Tech is whether,
when submitted
considered for employment at Reven-Tech is whether to
submit

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5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Yellowstone National Park officials have begun to fine


those campers who fail to lock their cars at night,
exposing their cars and other campers with scavenging
bears.
night, exposing their cars and other campers with
night and expose their cars and other campers toward
night, and expose their cars and others campers with
night and who expose their cars and other campers to
night, by exposing their cars and other campers to

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

6. Deforestation significantly alters the population


of an area by creating a habitat in which few
species and vegetation can survive.
A. in which few species and vegetation can survive
B. in which few species and little vegetation can
survive
C. where little species and vegetation can survive
D. in which fewer species than vegetation can
survive
E. where little species and few vegetation can
survive
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

7.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

One idea for Social Security reform was to disallow payments for
those with a certain level of income; although the idea was rejected,
citizens can choose to refuse social security payments for private
sources of income, whether derived by pension funds or personal
savings, if they want.
for private sources of income, whether derived by pension funds or
personal savings
in favor of private sources of income, whether derived from pension
funds or personal savings
for private sources of income, whether derived from pension funds
or personal savings
and use private sources of income, derived either by pension funds
or personal savings
rather than private sources of income, whether derived from
pension funds or personal savings

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8. Local reporters investigating the labor dispute


reported that only half of the workers in the plant
were covered by the union health plan; at least
as much as a hundred and more others had not
any health insurance whatsoever.
A. at least as much as a hundred and more others
had not any
B. at least as much as more than a hundred others
had no
C. more than a hundred others had no
D. much more than a hundred others had no
E. more than a hundred others did not have
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9.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

The numbers of internet users has grown by more than


a 10 percent increase in the past year.
The numbers of internet users has grown by more than
a 10 percent increase in the past year.
The number of internet users has grown by greater than
10 percent in the past year.
The numbers of internet users have grown by more than
10 percent in the past year.
The number of internet users grew by more than 10
percent in the past year.
The number of internet users grew by greater than 10
percent in the past year.

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10. As a result of the Black Death, the plague that afflicted


Europe in 1348-49, as many as half the population died
and less than half the work force remained in certain
cities.
A. as many as half the population died and less than half
the work force remained
B. as much as half the population died and fewer than half
the work force remained
C. as many as half the people died and less than that
remained in the work force
D. as much as half the population died and less than half
the work force remained
E. as many as half the population and less than half the
work force died or remained
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11.

According to the enrollment statistics published by U.S. medical


schools, the number of female medical students is equivalent to the
number of male medical students currently enrolled in medical
school.

A.

the number of female medical students is equivalent to the number


of male medical students currently enrolled in medical school

B.

as many female as male students are currently enrolled in medical


school

C.

the number of female students is as many as that of male students


currently enrolled in medical school

D.

as great as the number of female is the number of male students


currently enrolled in medical school

E.

female and male students are currently enrolled in equal numbers in


medical school

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Adjective V/s Adverb


Adjectives qualify nouns
Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives and
adverbs

A good collection.
Run quickly (not quick).
Extremely beautiful.
Truly succinctly expressed.

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1. The main tourist attraction in Dorchester-onThames, a rather tiny village west of London,
is the surprising large abbey; built 10 the
seventh century, it remains of one of the
largest churches in Oxford.
2. Studies have shown that first-born children
learn speech faster, but speak quieter, than
children born later to the same parents.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

3.

Patrons reported that they would visit the restaurant


more frequent than they currently do, provided the
management hired an efficient wait-staff and offered
more nightly specials.

4.

Many celebrities, such as Britney Spears, Tom Cruise,


and Jessica Simpson, have secretly vacationed on
Turtle Island in Fiji an exclusively tropical resort known
for its privacy and beauty.

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1. Carbon-14 dating reveals that the megalithic


monuments in Brittany are nearly 2,000 years as
old as any of their supposed Mediterranean
predecessors.
A. as old as any of their supposed
B. older than any of their supposed
C. as old as their supposed
D. older than any of their supposedly
E. as old as their supposedly

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

2.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Dr. Tonegawa won the Nobel Prize for discovering how


the body can constantly change its genes to fashion a
seeming unlimited number of antibodies. each
specifically targeted at an invading microbe or foreign
substance.
seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each
specifically targeted at
seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted
specifically to
seeming unlimited number of antibodies, all specifically
targeted at
seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, all of them
targeted specifically to
seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted
specifically at

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WORDINESS / REDUNDANCY
V/s
CONCISION
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Wordiness
1.

The value of the stock rose by a 10% increase.

2.

The three prices sum to a total of $11.56.

3.

Being excited about her upcoming graduation, Kelsey


could barely focus on her final exams.

4.

Jane made an attempt not to see her new job as ideal.

5.

Past experience reveals that cancer patients rarely ever


exhibit the exact same symptoms.

6.

Tom and his boss have differences over the way in


which the company should invest its money.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Wordy Expression
after the conclusion of
at this point in time
despite the fact that
due to the fact that
excessive number of
in order to
in the event that
is in a position to
regardless of the fact that

Concise Correction
after
now
although, even though, despite
because, because of, since, for, as
too many
to
if
can
although, despite

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Some Redundant Expressions

advance planning
all year round
annually each year
biography of his life
close proximity
customary habit
end result
essential requirement
exactly identical
forward progress
free gift
group together
honest truth
joint cooperation
meet together

necessary requirement
new breakthrough
past history
postpone until later
protest against
reduced down
repeat again
reverse back
rising increase
sharing the same
temporary loan
terrible disaster
usual habit
wealthy millionaire

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

1. As a result of having nostrils, called nares,


connected to olfactory bulbs that go back to the
brain, sharks are capable of smelling even a few
molecules of blood in the water.
A. As a result of having
B. As a result of their having
C. Because they have
D. Because of having
E. Because of their having

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

2.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

It was anomalies in the orbit of Uranus that led to the


discovery of Neptune.
It was anomalies in the orbit of Uranus that
It was the orbit of Uranus showing anomalies that
They were anomalies in the orbit of Uranus that
The orbit of Uranus being anomalous was what
The anomalies in the orbit of Uranus was what

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

3.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

While the immune system helps the human bodys trying


to defend itself from a virus or disease that is harming it,
certain immunodeficiency disorders like AIDS attack the
immune system itself and disable its healing
mechanisms.
bodys trying to defend itself from a virus or disease that
is harming it
bodys tries to defend itself from a virus or disease
harming it
body to try to defend itself from a virus or disease that
harm it
body to attempt to try to defend itself from a virus or
disease that is harming it
body to try to defend itself from a virus or disease that is
harming it

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

4.

A.
B.

C.

D.

E.

After the company recalled one of its best-selling products, it would be


forced to accept a one billion dollar loss, an expense that would have
forced its main competitor to declare bankruptcy if it had suffered such a
loss.
SAME
As the company recalled one of its best-selling products, it accepted a one
billion dollar loss; forcing its main competitor to declare bankruptcy if it had
suffered such a loss.
After the company recalled one of its best-selling products, its one billion
dollar loss would have to be accepted; such a loss would have forced its
main competitor to declare bankruptcy.
After the company recalled one of its best-selling products, it was forced to
accept a one billion dollar loss; its main competitor would have been
forced to declare bankruptcy if it had suffered such a loss.
When the company recalled one of its best-selling products, a one billion
dollar loss it was forced to accept, an expense that would have forced its
main competitor into bankruptcy.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Punctuation: comma / semicolon / colon

A comma is used to separate two parts of a sentence at least one


part is dependent on the other part for its meaning.
1.

A Semicolon is used to separate two parts of a sentence that can


stand independently of each other (i.e., each has a subject and a
verb)
2.

Though he is disabled, he is full of passion.

Jack and John are inseparable; they do everything


together.

A Colon is used to start a string of examples: the left side must


stand alone:
3.

I love many kinds of music: classical, rock, and pop.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Punctuation
4.

The night before the GMAT, Ken stayed up until midnight;


which is why he did so poorly on the test.

5.

The worst pandemic in history, the bubonic plague swept


through Eurasia during the 1300s and killed over 200 million;
nearly one in three people.

6.

Despite the fact that it has a duck-shaped bill and lays eggs,
the platypus is not a bird; rather the most unique mammal in
Australia and quite possible the world.

7.

Barbara Steisand, whose career spans four decades, has


received ten Grammy awards, including three for best
Female Playback Singer; 1964, 1965 and 1966.

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Meaning Clarity

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Meaning Clarity

The meaning of the sentence should


make sense. For example:
1. ONLY those passengers carrying an
Identification will be allowed to board the
plane. Right Meaning
Passengers carrying ONLY an
Identification will be allowed to board the
plane. Wrong Meaning
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

2. The Battle of Gettysburg, considered the


turning point of the Civil War, saw one-third
of its participants killed and injured.
3. In The Matrix, Neo can choose either the
blue pill, which will allow him to forget all
that he has learned and return to life as he
knew it, and the red pill, which will keep
him in reality.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

4.

Edgar Allan Poe attended the University of Virginia and


West Point Military Academy and was expelled from
both of them; he incurred gambling debts at Virginia
and intentionally neglected his duties at West Point.

5.

Global warming has already made the Hudson River a


seeming fragile ecosystem, the introduction of invasive
species has the potential to destroy nearly all of the
aquatic plants and animals that inhabit the river.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

1.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Several of the canvases that were singed and


incinerated in yesterdays museum fire were painted by
a famous Russian artist.
Several of the canvases that were singed and
incinerated in yesterdays museum fire were
In yesterdays museum fire, several of the canvases that
had been singed and incinerated were
Yesterday several of the canvases that were singed or
incinerated in the museum fire were
Several of the canvases that were singed and
incinerated in yesterdays museum fire had been
Several of the canvases that were singed or incinerated
in yesterdays museum fire had been

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

2.

A.
B.
C.

D.
E.

Some of the wild dogs that were distributed to local pet


sanctuaries by city health officials and exterminated last year
were collected as part of the citys initiative to protect local
residents from dog attacks.
SAME
Some of the wild dogs that the local pet sanctuaries received
and city health officials exterminated have been
Some of the wild dogs that were distributed to local pet
sanctuaries or exterminated by city health officials last year
had been
Last year some of the wild dogs that were distributed to local
pet sanctuaries or exterminated by city health officials made
Last year city health officials distributed to local pet
sanctuaries as well as exterminated some of the wild dogs
that had been

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

3. The company claimed to have created a


backpack so capacious that it could
simultaneously hold four textbooks, a laptop
computer, and necessary school supplies and so
light and well-designed that even a seventhgrader could wear it comfortably.
A. supplies and so light
B. supplies so light
C. supplies, and it was so light
D. supplies, yet being so light
E. supplies, yet so light
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

4.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Commercial pilots receive their training from regional


airlines with increasing frequency, often preferring to
avoid the expense of the requirements of training offered
by private companies and the service required by the
Navy or Air Force.
the requirements of training offered by private
companies
requirements offered for training by private companies
the training requirements of private companies
the training offered by private companies
private companies training

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

5. Doctors in the early twentieth century commonly


mistook endometriosis as simple menstrual
cramps and informed women that there was no
medical cure for their condition.
A. endometriosis as simple menstrual cramps
B. endometriosis for simple menstrual cramps
C. simple menstrual cramps for endometriosis
D. endometriosis to be simple menstrual cramping
E. endometriosis and simple menstrual cramps

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,

Further Resources:
1.
Preparation for SC (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT))
2.
Sandeep SC Notes (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT))
3.
Manhattan GMAT SC Guide 4th Edition
4.
700-800 SC Questions a set of 150 GMAT SC Questions (by
Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) Must Solve
5.
GMAT latest SC questions a set of 277 GMAT SC Questions (by
Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) Must Solve
6.
OG 12, 11, 10, OG Verbal Review 1st and 2nd Editions
7.
Platinumgmat.com (for Idiom review)
8.
GMAT-Prep Verbal Forum Questions from ManhattanGMAT.com
9.
1000 SC (not necessary, though)

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com,