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TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

Target Audiance

Electrical Engineers
Protection Engineers
Test & Commissioning Engineers
Power System Engineers
Utility Engineers
Electrical Technicians

> Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

> Transformer Protection

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
Introduction
Transformers are a
critical and expensive
component of the
power system. Due to
long lead time for
repair and replacement
of transformers, a
major goal of
transformer protection
is limiting the damage
to a faulted
transformer. The
comprehensive
transformer protection
provided by multiple
function protective
relays is appropriate for
critical transformers of
all applications.

> Transformer Protection

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

The type of protection


for the transformers
varies depending on
the application and
importance of the
transformer.
Transformers are
protected primarily
against faults and
overloads. The type of
protection used should
minimize the time of
disconnection for faults
within the transformer
and to reduce the risk
of catastrophic failure
to simplify eventual
repair.

> Transformer Protection

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

Any extended
operation of the
transformer under
abnormal condition
such as faults or
overloads
compromises the life
of the transformer,
which means
adequate protection
should be provided
for quicker isolation
of the transformer
under such condition.

> Transformer Protection

TYPES OF FAULTS

The various possible transformer faults are,


1. Overheating
2. Winding faults
3. Open circuits
4. External faults
5. Over fluxing

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> Transformer Protection

OVERHEATING

They are due to


Sustained overloads and short circuits
Failure of cooling system
Protection
The thermal overload relays and temperature relays, sounding
the alarm are used
The thermocouples or resistance temperature indicators are
also provided near the winding.
These are connected in a bridge circuits.
When the bridge balance gets disturbed for more than the
permissible duration circuit breaker trips.
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> Transformer Protection

WINDING FAULTS
The winding faults are called internal faults. The overheating or
mechanical shocks deteriorates the winding insulation. If the
winding insulation-is weak, there is a possibility of
Phase to phase faults
Earth faults
Inter turn faults
Persistent fault would have a possibility of oil-fire.
PROTECTION
Differential protection
Over current protection is also used as a backup protection
For earth fault protection, the restricted earth fault protection
system, neutral current relays or leakage to frame protection
system is used.

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> Transformer Protection

OPEN CIRCUIT

The open circuit in one of the three phases causes the


undesirable heating of the transformer.
Open circuits are much harmless compared to other faults.
Transformers can be manually disconnected from the system
during such faults.

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> Transformer Protection

THROUGH FAULTS
Through faults are the external faults which occur outside the
protected zone.
These are not detected by the differential protection.
If faults persists the transformer gets subjected to thermal and
mechanical stresses which can damage the transformer.
PROTECTION
The overcurrent relays with undervoltage blocking, zero
sequence protection and negative sequence protection are
used to give protection
The setting of the overcurrent protection not only protects
transformer but also covers the station busbar and portion of a
transmission line.

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> Transformer Protection

OVERFLUXING
The flux density in the transformer core is proportional to the
ratio of the voltage to frequency i.e. V/f
Transformers are designed to work with certain value of flux
density in the core. In the generator transformer unit, if full
excitation is applied before generator reaches its synchronous
speed then due to high V/f the overfluxing of core may occur.
PROTECTION
V/f relay called volts/hertz relay is provided to give the
protection against overfluxing operation.

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> Transformer Protection

Other faults
Tap changer faults
High voltage surges due to lightning
Switching surges
Incipient faults

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> Transformer Protection

Importance of Protection
Detect and isolate fault
Maintain system stability
To limit the damage in adjacent equipment
Minimize fire risk
Minimize risk to personnel

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> Transformer Protection

Transformer Connections

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> Transformer Protection

Transformer Connections
a a2

A
C1

A2

C2
C B1

A
B
C

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A2
B2

C2

A1
B1
C1

> Transformer Protection

a1
b1
c1

c1

A1
B2 B

a2

b2
c2

a1
b1

b2

c2
c
a
b

Clock face numbers refer to


position of low voltage phase neutral vector with respect to high
voltage phase - neutral vector.

Line connections made to highest


numbered winding terminal available.
Line phase designation is same as
winding.

Transformer Vector Groups

Phase displacement

Yy0
Dd0
Zd0

Phase displacement

Yy6
Dd6
Dz6

Lag phase displacement

Yd1
Dy1
Yz1

Lead phase displacement

Yd11
Dy11
Yz11

Group 1
0
Group 2
180
Group 3
30
Group 4
30

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> Transformer Protection

Transformer Connections

Clock Face numbers refer to position of low voltage


phase-neutral vector with respect to high voltage phase
neutral vector

Line connections made to highest numbered winding


terminal available

Line phase designation is same as winding


Example 1 : Dy 11 Transformer
High
Voltage
Windings
A Phase
Winding
s
B Phase
Winding
s
C Phase
Winding
s

A2
B2
C2

Low
Voltage
Windings

a1

a2

B1

b1

b2

C1

c1

c2

A1

Question : How to connect windings ?

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> Transformer Protection

Overcurrent Protection

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> Transformer Protection

Transformer Overcurrent Protection

Requirements
Fast operation for primary short circuits
Discrimination with downstream protections
Operation within transformer withstand
Non-operation for short or long term overloads
Non-operation for magnetising inrush

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> Transformer Protection

Use of Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection

HV

LV

50
51
50 set to 1.2 - 1.3 x through fault level
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> Transformer Protection

Transient Overreach
Concerns relay response to offset waveforms (DC
transient)
Definition

I1 - I2
x 100
I2

I2
I1

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D.
C
.
> Transformer Protection

I1 = Steady state
rms
pick up
current
I2 = Fully offset
rms
pickup
current

Instantaneous High Set Overcurrent


Relay Applied to a Transformer

5
1
LV

5
1
HV
1

5
1
HV
2

HV1
Tim
e

HV2

LV

IF(LV)

IF(HV)

1.2IF(LV)
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> Transformer Protection

Curren
t

Current Distribution

I3

I3

0.866
I3
I3

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> Transformer Protection

HV relay

0.4 sec
LV relay

0.866 I3 I3
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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

Parallel Transformers
Directional Relays (1)

51
Grid supply

67
Feeders

51

67
51
33

> Transformer Protection

51

Parallel Transformers
Directional Relays (2)

51
Grid supply

51

Bus
Section

Feeders

51

51
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> Transformer Protection

51

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> Transformer Protection

Earth Fault Protection

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> Transformer Protection

Transformer Earth Faults


3 p.u. turns 1 p.u. turns

IP

PR

Protective
Relay

ResistorlimitsE/Fcurrentto fullloadvalues

IF

Thus,primarycurrent, P

. F.L.
3

For a fault at : Faultcurrent . F.L.


Effectiveturnsratio 3 :

If C.T. ratio (on primary side) is based on full


load current of transforme r, then C.T. secondary

2
circuit
3
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> Transformer Protection

x .F.L.
3

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity


to Earth Faults (1)
If as multiple
of IF.L.
1.0
0.9

IF

0.8

Star
Side

0.7
0.6

51

0.5

Overcurrent
Relay

0.4

Delta
Side

0.3
0.2
0.1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Overcurrent Relay Setting >


IF.L.
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> Transformer Protection

p.u..

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity


to Earth Faults (2)
If as multiple
of IF.L.
10
9
8

IF

Star
Side

7
6

51

Overcurrent
Relay

4
3
2

Delta
Side

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
p.u..

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> Transformer Protection

Overcurrent Relay Sensitivity


to Earth Faults (3)
If as multiple
of IF.L.
10
IF

IF

9
8
7
6

IP

IN

IP

5
4
3
2

IN

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


0.9 1.0

40

> Transformer Protection

p.u..

Earth Fault on Transformer Winding

I=

2
3

For relay operation, I > IS

e.g. If IS = 20%, then > 20% for


operation
3
2

Differential
Relay
Setting = IS

41

i.e. > 59%


Thus 59% of

winding is not protected

Differential Relay Setting


10%

% of Star Winding Protected


58%

20%

41%

30%

28%

40%

17%

50%

7%

> Transformer Protection

Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (1)

51
N

5
1

Provides back-up protection for system


Time delay required for co-ordination

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> Transformer Protection

5
1

5
1

Unrestricted Earth fault Protection

51
N

51
N

5
1

5
1

5
1

Can provide better sensitivity


(C.T. ratio not related to full load current)
(Improved effective setting)
Provides back up protection for transformer and system
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> Transformer Protection

Star Winding REF

Protected
Zone

RE
F

Relay only operates for earth faults within protected zone.


Uses high impedance principle.
Stability level : usually maximum through fault level of
transformer
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> Transformer Protection

Restricted E/F Protection

A B C N

LV restricted E/F
protection trips
both HV and LV breaker
Recommended setting : 10%
rated

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> Transformer Protection

Restricted E/F Protection

A B C N

LV restricted E/F protection trips both HV and LV breaker


Recommended setting : 10% rated

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> Transformer Protection

Delta Winding Restricted Earth Fault

Source

Protected zone
REF

Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence current to


system
Stability : Consider max LV fault level
Recommended setting : less than 30% minimum earth fault
level
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> Transformer Protection

High Impedance Principle


Protected
Circuit
Z
M

RCT

RCT
RL

IF

IS

VS
RL

RL

RS
RT

Voltage Across Relay Circuit

RL

VS = IF (RCT + 2RL)

Stabilising resistor RST limits spill current to IS (relay setting)


VS
RST =
- RR
where RR = relay burden
IS
CT knee point
VKP = 2VS = 2IF (RCT + 2RL)
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> Transformer Protection

The Use Of Non-Linear Resistors (Metrosils)

During internal faults the high impedance relay circuit


constitutes an excessive burden to the CTs.
A very high voltage develops across the relay circuit and
the CTs.
Causes damage to insulation of CT, secondary
winding and relay.
Magnitude of peak voltage VP is given by an approximate
formula (based on experimental results)
VP = 2 2VK (VF - VK)
Where VF = Swgr. Fault Rating in amps x Z of relay
circuit
CT ratio
@ setting
Metrosil required if VP > 3kV
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> Transformer Protection

Non-Linear Resistors (Metrosils)


IOP
RST
VM

VS
RR

Metrosil Characteristic
V = CI

Suitable values of C & chosen based on :


Max secondary current under fault conditions
Relay setting voltage
50

> Transformer Protection

REF Protection Example

1MVA
(5%)
11000V
415V

1600/1
RCT =
4.9

Calculate :
1) Setting voltage (VS)

80MV
A

2) Value of stabilising
resistor required
3) Effective setting
1600/1
RCT =
4.8

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> Transformer Protection

RS

MCAG14
IS = 0.1
Amp
2 Core 7/0.67mm
(7.41/km)
100m Long

4) Peak voltage
developed by CTs
for internal fault

Solution (1)
Earth fault calculation :Using 80MVA base
Source impedance = 1 p.u.
Transformer impedance = 0.05 x 80 = 4 p.u.
1
p.u.

1 P.U.

Total impedance = 14
1

4
I1 = 1 = 0.0714 p.u.
14

I1

Base current = 80 x 106


3 x 415

= 111296 Amps

I2
IF
4
I0
Sequence Diagram
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> Transformer Protection

= 3 x 0.0714 x 111296
= 23840 Amps (primary)
= 14.9 Amps (secondary)

Solution (2)

(1) Setting voltage


VS = IF (RCT + 2RL)
Assuming earth CT saturates,
RCT = 4.8 ohms
2RL = 2 x 100 x 7.41 x 10-3 = 1.482 ohms
Setting voltage = 14.9 (4.8 + 1.482)
= 93.6 Volts

(2) Stabilising Resistor (RS)


RS = VS - 1
IS IS2

Where IS = relay current setting

RS = 93.6 - 1 = 836 ohms


0.1
0.12

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> Transformer Protection

Solution
(4)

Peak voltage = 22VK (VF - VK)


VF = 14.9 x VS = 14.9 x 936 = 13946 Volts
IS
For Earth CT, VK = 1.4 x 236 = 330 Volts (from graph)
VPEAK = 22 x 330 x (13946 - 330)
= 6kV
Thus, Metrosil voltage limiter will be required.

54

> Transformer Protection

Traditional Large Transformer


Protection Package
33K
V

200/5

51 5
0

10MVA
33/11KV
600/5

51
N

64

600/5
5/5A

55

> Transformer Protection

87

Differential Protection

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> Transformer Protection

Differential Protection
Overall differential protection may be justified for
larger transformers (generally > 5MVA).
Provides fast operation on any winding

Measuring principle :
Based on the same circulating current principle as the
restricted earth fault protection
However, it employs the biasing technique, to maintain
stability for heavy through fault current

Biasing allows mismatch between CT outputs.


It is essential for transformers with tap changing
facility.
Another important requirement of transformer
differential protection is immunity to magnetising in
rush current.
57

> Transformer Protection

Biased Differential Scheme

Differential
Current

I1

BIAS

OPERATE

BIAS I
2

I1 I2

OPERATE

I1 I2

RESTRAIN

I1 +
I2
2

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> Transformer Protection

Mean Through
Current

Differential Protection

HV

PROTECTED
ZONE

LV

Correct application of differential protection requires CT ratio


and winding connections to match those of transformer.
CT secondary circuit should be a replica of primary system.
Consider :
(1)
(2)
(3)
59

> Transformer Protection

Difference in current magnitude


Phase shift
Zero sequence currents

Differential Connections And polarity markings

P1

P2

A2

A1

60

> Transformer Protection

a1

a2

P2

P1

Use of Interposing CT
P1

S1

P2

A2

A1 a1

P1

S2

S1 P1

Interposing CT provides :
Vector correction
Ratio correction
Zero sequence compensation
> Transformer Protection

P2

S2

S2

61

a2

P2

S1

Interposing current transformers

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> Transformer Protection

Interposing current transformers

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> Transformer Protection

Interposing current transformers

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

67

> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

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> Transformer Protection

Differential Protection
150/5
P2
P1
S1

15MVA
66kV / 11kV
A2

A1 a1

a2

800/5
P2
P1
S2

S2

S1

Dy1

Given above: Need to consider (1) Winding full load current


(2) Effect of tap changer (if any)
(3) C.T. polarities
Assuming no tap changer
Full load currents:66kV: 131 Amp = 4.37 Amps secondary
11kV: 787 Amp = 4.92 Amps secondary
However, require 11kV C.T.s to be connected in
Thus, secondary current = 3 x 4.92 = 8.52A

RATIO CORRECTION IS REQUIRED


81

> Transformer Protection

Differential Protection
800/5

150/5
P1
S1

P2

A2

A1 a1

a2

P2

P1

S2

S2

4.37A

4.92A

S1

S2 P1

(2.56)

S1

P2

(5)

R
R

It is usual to connect 11kV C.T.s in


and utilise a
/
interposing C.T. (this
method reduces lead VA burden on the line C.T.s)
Current from 66kV side = 4.37 Amp
Thus, current required from
winding of int. C.T. = 4.37 Amp
Current input to
winding of int. C.T. = 4.92 Amp
Required int C.T. ratio = 4.92 / 4.37 = 4.92 / 2.52
3
May also be expressed as : 5 / 2.56
82

> Transformer Protection

Effect of Tap Changer

e.g. Assume 66kV +5%, -15%


Interposing C.T. ratio should be based on mid tap position
Mid Tap (-5%)

= 62.7 kV

Primary current (15 MVA)

= 138 Amp

Secondary current

= 4.6 Amp

Interposing C.T. ratio required = 4.92 / 4.6


3
(
/
)
= 4.92 / 2.66
May also be expressed as : 5 / 2.7
Compared with 5 / 2.56 based on nominal voltage

83

> Transformer Protection

Combined Differential and


Restricted Earth Fault Protection
A1 a1

A2

a2

P1

P2

S1

P1

P2

S1
S2

REF

S2

P2
P1
S1
S2

To differential relay
84

> Transformer Protection

Three Winding Transformer


63MV
A
132KV

300/5

25MV
A
11KV

1600/5

50MV
A
33KV

1000/5
4.59

5.51

10.33

2.88

2.88

All interposing C.T. ratios refer


to common MVA base (63MVA)
85

> Transformer Protection

Traditional Use of Interposing CT


Dy1(-30)

Yd11(+30)

R
R

Interposing CT provides :
Vector correction
Ratio correction
Zero sequence compensation
86

> Transformer Protection

Integral Vectorial and Ratio


Compensation
Power transformer

Numeric
Relay

Ratio
correction

Vectorial
correction
Virtual interposing CT

87

> Transformer Protection

Differential
element

Virtual interposing CT

Transformer Magnetising
Characteristic
Twice
Normal
Flux

Normal
Flux

Normal
No Load
Current
No Load Current
at Twice Normal
Flux
88

> Transformer Protection

Magnetising Inrush Current


Steady State

+ m

V
Im

- m

89

> Transformer Protection

Magnetising Inrush Current


Switch on at Voltage Zero - No residual flux

Im

2m

90

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection


Effect of Magnetising Current

Appears on one side of transformer only


Seen as fault by differential relay
Normal steady state magnetising current is less than
relay setting
Transient magnetising inrush could cause relay to
operate

91

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection


Effect of Magnetising Inrush

SOLUTION 1 : TIME DELAY

Allows magnetising current to die away before relay can


operate

Slow operation for genuine transformer faults

92

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Differential Protection


Effect of Magnetising Inrush

SOLUTION 2 : 2ND (and 5TH) HARMONIC RESTRAINT

Makes relay immune to magnetising inrush


Slower operation may result for genuine transformer faults
if CT saturation occurs

93

> Transformer Protection

Typical Magnetising Inrush


Waveforms

A
B
C

94

> Transformer Protection

Inter-Turn Fault Protection

95

> Transformer Protection

Inter-Turn Fault

CT
E
Load
Shorted
turn

Nominal turns ratio


Fault turns ratio
Current ratio

- 11,000 / 240
- 11,000 / 1
- 1 / 11,000

Requires Buchholz relay

96

> Transformer Protection

Interturn Fault Current / Number


of Turns Short Circuited
100

10
Fault current in short
circuited turns

80
Fault current
(multiples of
rated current)

60

6
Primary input current

40

20

10

15

20

25

Turn short-circuited (percentage of winding)

97

> Transformer Protection

Primary current
(multiples of
rated current)

Non-electrical Protection
Buchholz Protection
Pressure Relief Protection
Sudden Pressure Protection
Winding Temperature Protection
Oil Temperature Protection
Oil Level Abnormal Protection

98

> Transformer Protection

Buchholz Protection

The function of the relay is to detect an abnormal condition


within the tank and send an alarm or trip signal.

99

> Transformer Protection

Buchholz operate when:

Gas produced from the transformer due to fault


An oil surge from the tank to the conservator
A complete loss of oil from the conservator (very low oil level)

100

> Transformer Protection

Pressure Relief Device

Transformers last line of defense against internal pressure

101

> Transformer Protection

Sudden Pressure Protection

Used to detect sudden increase in gas pressure caused by


internal arcing
Set to operate before pressure relief device

102

> Transformer Protection

Oil Temperature Protection

Typically sealed spiral-bourdon-tube dial indicators with liquidfilled bulb sensor

103

> Transformer Protection

Buchholz Relay Installation

3 x internal pipe
diameter (minimum)

Conservator

5 x internal pipe
diameter (minimum)

Oil conservator
3 minimum
Transformer

104

> Transformer Protection

Buchholz Relay

Petcock
Alarm bucket

Counter balance
weight

Mercury switch

Oil level

To oil
conservator

From transformer

Trip bucket

Aperture adjuster
Drain plug

105

> Transformer Protection

Deflector plate

Overfluxing Protection

106

> Transformer Protection

Transformer protection

Over fluxing protection


Over fluxing arises principally from the
following system conditions.
High system voltage
Low system frequency
Geomagnetic disturbances
The latter result in low frequency earth
currents circulating through a transmission
system.
107

> Transformer Protection

Overfluxing
Generator transformers
Grid transformers
Usually only a problem during run-up or shut down, but can be
caused by loss of load / load shedding etc.

Flux V
f
Effects of overfluxing :

Increase in magnetising current


Increase in winding temperature
Increase in noise and vibration
Overheating of laminations and metal parts (caused by stray flux)

Protective relay responds to V/f ratio

Stage 1 - lower A.V.R.


Stage 2 - Trip field

108

> Transformer Protection

Overfluxing Basic Theory

V = kf

2m

CAUSES

Low frequency
High voltage
Geomagnetic disturbances
EFFECTS

Tripping of differential element (Transient overfluxing)


Damage to transformers (Prolonged overfluxing)

109

> Transformer Protection

Ie

V/Hz Overfluxing Protection

V K
f
Trip and alarm outputs for clearing prolonged overfluxing
Alarm : Definite time characteristic to initiate corrective action
Trip : IDMT or DT characteristic to clear overfluxing condition
Settings
Pick-up 1.5 to 3.0 i.e.

110V x 1.05 = 2.31


50Hz

DT setting range 0.1 to 60 seconds

110

> Transformer Protection

V/Hz Characteristics
Enables co-ordination with plant withstand characteristics

t = 0.8 + 0.18 x K
(M - 1)2
1000
K = 63
K = 40
K = 20
K=5
K=1

100
Operating
time (s)

10
1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

M = V Hz
Setting
111

> Transformer Protection

1.5

1.6

Thermal Overload Protection

112

> Transformer Protection

Over temperature
Generally regarded as overload protection also deals
with failure of or interference with pumps and fans or
shutting of valves to pumps
Winding hot spot temperature is the main issue, but both
oil and winding temperature are usually measured and
used to:
initiate an alarm
trip circuit breakers
control fans and pumps

113

> Transformer Protection

Over temperature
Two temperatures must be monitored:
Winding temperature (WTI) -(short
thermal ) this can rise rapidly, without
much of an increase in oil temperature
Oil temperature (OTI) -(long thermal )
this can rise slowly to a critical point
without an unacceptable winding
temperature increase

114

> Transformer Protection

Typical alarm and trip levels

winding alarm - 90C to


110C
winding trip - 110C to
135C
oil alarm - 80C to 95C
oil trip - 95C to 115C
115

> Transformer Protection

Overheating Protection

I load

Alarm

TD
setting
Top oil of
power
transformer

Trip

I load

On

Fan
control
Off
On

Pump
control

Off

Heater

Temp. indication
Local

Thermal
replica

116

> Transformer Protection

Temperature
sensing resistor

Remote

Typical Transformer Protection to


Feeders

117

> Transformer Protection

Protection of Parallel
Transformer Feeders

Higher voltage
busbar
Z

OC

OC

FTS

FTS
REF

REF

DP

DP
Bh

WT

WT

Bh

REF

DOC

REF

SBEF
2 stage

SBEF
2 stage

OC

OC

Load
Load
118

> Transformer Protection

Lower voltage
busbar

DOC

Transformer Feeders
FEEDE
R

PW

PILOT
S

P
W

For use where no breaker separates the transformer from the


feeder.
Transformer inrush current must be considered.
Inrush is a transient condition which may occur at the instant of
transformer energisation.
Mag. Inrush current is not a fault condition
Protection must remain stable.
MCTH provides a blocking signal in the presence of inrush
current and allows protection to be used on transformer feeders.
119

> Transformer Protection

Transformer Feeder Protection


Dy11
A
B

P1
S1

P2
S2

23
24
25
26
27
28

II

ii

III

iii

MCTH

MBCI

27
28

MFAC
14

19
17

17

PILOTS

18
19

18 17
19
1

+ MVTW
02

13
14

120

> Transformer Protection

S1

A
B
C

17

19

P1
S2

MCTH 23

17

23
24
25
26
27
28

P2

MBCI
18

24
25
26
27
28
23
24
25
26
27
28

Protection
of Transformer Feeders

Power transformer

P540
Scheme

Ratio
correction
Vectorial
correction

Virtual interposing CT

121

> Transformer Protection

Virtual interposing CT