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Risk Management/

Preparedness Plan

Concepts of Risk
Provides a flexible framework for estimating,
planning and controlling the impact of the
It attempts to identify and manage threats
that can severely impact or bring down an
It creates a strategy to reduce financial loss,
physical injuries and property damage.
It analyzes the costs and benefits of those
programs and strategies.

Concepts of Risk
Levels of Risk Management
Crisis Management
- calls for plants to be in place if and when the crisis
Facilities Management
- calls for one long-term planned development of
buildings, offices and computers manufacturing plants and
their planned operation and maintenance.
Security Management
- calls for guarding of physical properties against theft,
fraud and forgery.
Safety management
- is about plants against workplace accidents.
Insurance management
- calls for planned transfer of risks

Concepts of Risk
Types of Risks to be Managed
Financial Risks
- related to involvement of funds
Industrial Risks
- related to hazards in factory, and stores.
Transportation Risks
- raw materials, finished goods, and machinery
Technology Risks
- Products like software data and programs, and
hardware like data storage, cable network, and Internet

Historical Development
Risk Management is our tool for survival and
Successful application of risk management
started around 1955 through concept of scientific
management by Taylor came about in 1930.
Concept of risk management grew out of
insurance buying and selling.
Product risk analysis followed development of
system reliability analysis used greatly in Space
Sciences and by Defense Departments.
Quantitative Risk analysis grew exponentially
into tools of Financial Risk Analysis.

Risk Control Measures

Procedural Protection
Fire emergency procedure
Disaster preparedness plan
Mutual aid scheme
Physical Protection
Built in safety devices and safety system
Fire proofing of steel structures
Burning waste gases in a flare system
Educational Protection
Mock fire drill
Safety manuals
Safety motivation schemes

Risks in Rural Areas

and its Prevention
Environmental Risks
Ozone layer depletion by methane formation for
animal dung
Low ground water level resulting in high fluoride
content in drinking water
Tree cutting for domestic use
Prevention Methods
Gobar plants
Check dams
Community tree plantation

Effective Communication
and Risk Management
Timely communication is essential for the
HSM(Health Safety Management) to produce result.
The development in IT(Information Technology)
and communication can help organization in a big
way and will save valuable time and money.
Risk Management is an essential part of health and
safety management.
Role of IT in Health and safety Management
Identification of Hazards and their Monitoring
Monitoring Health of Assets
Calibration of Measuring Equipment

Post Loss
Functions of Risk
An organization survives when its
production integrity remains intact, its
marketing force is seen on road and finance
does not emit any public signal of crunch.
Continuity of Operation
Making the continuity visible despite a
major loss.

Post Loss
Functions of Risk
Humanitarian Conduct
Handling human resources to ensure continuity
of their contribution towards the enterprise
Initiate and Conclude the Recovery Process
Recovery from insurers, debtors and other
agencies where the risk stood transferred and
spread should be completed at the earliest and
the resources to be handed over to management to
prevent volatility of resources.

Emergency Preparedness and Response

Planning (EPRP) In Major Accident
Hazard (MAH) Factories
Major Accident
Defined as an accident involving loss of life
inside and outside the installation, or ten or more
Major Accident Hazard Factory
Defined as a factory handling including
transport through carries or pipeline of hazardous
chemicals at a site equal to or in excess of the
threshold quantities specified under law.

EPRP in MAH Factories

An unplanned event that:
Can cause deaths or significant injuries to
employees, customers or the public
Can shutdown an industrial activity
Disrupt operation
Cause physical or environmental damage and it
includes fire, explosion and hazardous material

Emergency management
The process of preparing for, mitigating, responding to
and recovering from an emergency.

EPRP in MAH Factories

Emergency Preparedness Plan (EPP)
Describes the actions to be taken by the
employees to ensure their safety in case of an
emergency and its purpose is to facilitate and
organize employer and employee actions during
work place emergencies.
It consists of on-site emergency plan or off-site
emergency plan.
It provides and details on preparedness of the
industry to tackle an emergency.

EPRP in MAH Factories

Emergency Preparedness and Response
Handling accidents and emergencies, and incorporates both
preparedness of the organizations to tackle emergencies, and
response planning for such emergencies. It includes the
As assessment of risks scenario leading to spills and
probable impacts
Installation and maintenance of warning signages
Continuous access to the incident response manual
Staff training in incident response protocols
Availability of equipment to mitigate the effects of any
chemical spill
Planning for containment of contaminated water if there
is spill and/or fire

EPRP in MAH Factories

On-site Emergency Response Teams
Emergency response teams are the first line of defense in
emergencies. Physically capable and mentally alert to

perform the duties that are assigned thereto.

Use of fire extinguishers
First aid, including cardiopulmonary resuscitators
Shutdown procedure
Evacuation procedure
Chemical spill control measures
Use of self contained breathing apparatus
Search and emergency rescue procedure
Trauma counseling

EPRP in MAH Factories

Off-site Emergency Response Teams
Fire Brigade
Ambulance Service
Poison Centers
Mutual Aid
Local Administration
District Authority
Occupational Health Services
Non-governmental Organizations

EPRP in MAH Factories

A local population is demographically trapped if it
has exceeded, or is projected to exceed the
combination of:
A. The carrying capacity of its own ecosystem.
B. Its ability to obtain the products, and
particularly the foods, produced by other
ecosystems except as food aid.
C. Its ability to migrate to other ecosystems in a
manner which preservers (or improves) its
standard of living.

EPRP in MAH Factories

Four tragedies of Entrapment
Die from disease
Slaughter itself or its neighbors
Be supported indefinitely by food aid (if food is

EPRP in MAH Factories

Confined Space is a space of any size, which
has certain characteristics include:
Limited opening for entry and exit
Unfavorable natural ventilation
Often an atmosphere which is
contaminated or oxygen deficient
Examples: Gas tanker, silos, degreasing baths,
drains and sumps, sewerage man holes

EPRP in MAH Factories

Confined Space is also a space, which is not
intended as a regular workplace.
Hazards which may exist in a confined space:
Risk of explosion
Oxygen Deprivation or being overcome by
toxic gases and vapors

EPRP in MAH Factories

Flammable Liquid Hazards Stem from Vapors
The vapor and air in a room form a mixture that
threatens to explode at the first spark from a light
switch, faulty electrical equipment of static
Some flammable liquids are solvents, cleaning
fluids and fuels. Keeping the lid on is a matter of
good house keeping. Avoid spilling the liquid on
Ventilating the area will prevent buildup of
vapors. Areas surrounding the work area should be
either sealed off or ventilated as well.

EPRP in MAH Factories

First Aid
No matter how small the injuries get first aid first and
then get medical aid
Never administer the first aid of your own, if you do not
Take the assistance of the first aid trained persons.

Fire Kill Fire Before It Kills You

In case of fire, no matter how small it is, try to control the
fire by using the extinguishing media.
Raise alarm when you notice a fire.
Immediately report to the concerned for future action.
Use right type of extinguishing media for specific type of

EPRP in MAH Factories

When not handled properly can cause fires, explosions
or toxic exposures. Safe storage, proper handling and
transportation are needed.
Hazards in Manufacturing Industries
A hazard in any existing or potential condition in the
workplace which, by itself or interacting with other
variables, can result in accidents. Those responsible for
maintenance may sometimes cause hazards in the
Such failures are not intentional. Often maintenance
management does not have safety standards in place, or
has not trained their workers in safe maintenance

Safety Education
under EPRP
Defined as a condition or state of being resulting
from the modifications of human behavior and/or
designing of the physical environment to reduce the
possibility of hazards there by reducing accidents.
Safety Education
Proactive development of knowledge, attitude,
attitude, behavior and skills of the employee on safety.
Feedback from the participants of all the groups
should be obtained after conducting the designed
safety education program.

Implementation of the Designed Safety Education

Groups of Persons



Works Incident controller
Works Main Controller
Other Key Personnel
Essential Workers
Non-essential Workers
Fire Brigade
District Authority
Ambulance Services
Poison centers
Occupational Health
Mutual aid members
NGOs and experts
Local Administrators

Module 1

Once in Six Months

Module 2

Once in every year

Module 3

Once in every year

Disaster Management
Four distinct steps in disaster management research
Emphasis on relief
Contingency planning for disaster preparedness
Emphasis on hi-tech tools and techniques
Vulnerability analysis and hazard assessment
Types of Disasters
o Natural: Flood, drought, cyclone, earthquake,
volcanic eruption, heat waves, cold waves, tidal
surge, and landslides etc.
o Manmade:
accident, building fire, pressure on infrastructure
declining quality of life, traffic accidents, terrorist
atrocities, contagious diseases, bio-terrorism,
chemical and nuclear warfare

Disaster Management

Disasters Categorization
Water and climate related hazards
Geological related hazards
Chemical, industrial and nuclear related disasters
Accident related disasters
Biologically related disasters
Factors Affecting Disasters
Population growth and urban development
Development practice industrial development and
high tech
Shortage of water
Effects of environment degradation rise of global
temperature/retreat of mountain glacier etc.

On-Site and
Emergency Plans

On-site Emergency Plan

On-site Emergency
If an accident/incident takes place in a factory and its affects
are confined to the factory premises, involving the persons
working in the factory and the property inside the factory.
Objectives of the plan
To control and contain the incident/accident and eliminate
it if possible
To minimize the effects of the incident on person, property
and environment
Mock drills
Should be carried out periodically to make the plan foolproof
and persons are made fully prepared to fight against any
incident in the plan.

On-site Emergency Plan

Emergency Action Plan
The action plan should consist of:
A. Designated Emergency Control Centre/Room
B. Key personnel
A. Emergency Control Centre
This is the main center from where the operations to
handle the emergency are directed and coordinated.

On-site Emergency Plan

B. Key Personnel for On-site Emergency
Works Main Controller
Works Incident Controller
Communication Officer
Security and Fire Officer
Telephone Operators
Medical Officer
Personnel/Administrative Officer
Essential Work Team Leaders

On-site Emergency Plan

Alarm System
Varies and will depend upon the size of the works
area. Automatic alarm may be needed for highly
hazardous nature of plant.
Assembly Points
A safe place far away from the plant should be
predetermined as assembly point where in case of
emergency personnel evacuated from the affected areas
are to be assembled.
Communication System
Communication is a key component to control an

On-site Emergency Plan

Siren for Emergency
Siren for emergency should be different from the normal
siren. It should be audible to a distance of 5km radiuses.
The emergency siren should be used only in case of
Escape Route
The shortest route to reach out of the plant area to open
area, which leads to assembly point. It should be clearly
All non-essential staff should be evacuated from the
emergency site

On-site Emergency Plan

Counting of Personnel
All personnel working in the plant should be counted
All Clear Signal
After control of emergency the Works Incident
Controller will communicate to the Works Main controller
about the cessation of emergency. The main Controller
can declare all clear by instructing the time office to
sound All Clear Sirens
Mutual Aid System
Introduced among industries so that in case of
emergency necessary help from mutual aid partner may
be extended

On-site Emergency Plan

Mock Drills
It should be conducted once in 6 months and
sequence of events should be recorded for
improvement of the exercise.
Emergency Facilities
The following facilities should be provided in any
factory to tackle any emergency at any time:
Fire protection and fire fighting facilities
Emergency lighting and standby power
Emergency equipment and rescue-equipment
Safety equipment

Off-site Emergency Plan

Off-Site Emergency
If the accident is such that it affects inside the factory
are uncontrollable and it may spread outside the factory
Objectives of the plan
To save lives and injuries
To prevent or reduce property losses
To provide for quick resumption of normal situation
or operation
Risk Assessment
Most essential before preparing any off site
emergency plan.

Off-site Emergency Plan

Central Control Committee
A Central Control Committee in consultation with
the factory management and government agencies
shall prepare the Off-site Emergency plan. The plan
contains up-to-date details of out side emergency
services and resources.

Mock exercises
It should be carried out at least once in a year to
train the employees, up to date the plan, observe
and rectify the deficiencies.

Off-site Emergency Plan

Hazop Study
Before making the On-site and Off-site plans
Hazop study has to be carried out to identify
the potential hazardous situations and to find
out possible control measures. It is to be carried
out by a team of experts.
The finalized Disaster/Off-site plan shall be
given to all concerned for implementation and
rehearsal for preparedness.

Tips During Emergency

Be calm, do not get panicky.

Decide win direction. Move away perpendicular to wind direction.
Do not run, walk quickly.
Cover your nose with wet cloth and breathe through it.
If possible, use any available vehicle to move away.
Try to save lives, do not bother about properties.
Set the live stocks free.
Extinguish any open flame.
On hearing siren during emergency, switch on the media for any
important message.
Communicate to everybody about the emergency.
Extend full co-operation to those who come forward to help and