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NOTATIONS

FOLLOWING NOTATIONS SHOULD BE FOLLOWED WHILE NAMEING


DIFFERENT VIEWS IN ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS.
OBJECT
ITS TOP VIEW
ITS FRONT VIEW
ITS SIDE VIEW
a b

POINT A
a
a

LINE AB
ab
a b

VP
2

nd

Quad.

1ST Quad.

Observe

X Y

HP

3rd Quad.

4th Quad.

THIS QUADRANT PATTERN,


IF OBSERVED ALONG X-Y LINE ( IN RED ARROW DIRECTION)
WILL EXACTLY APPEAR AS SHOWN ON RIGHT SIDE AND HENCE
IT IS FURTHER USED TO UNDERSTAND ILLUSTRATION PROPERL
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POINT A IN
Point A is
Placed In
2ND QUADRANT
different
A
quadrants
and its Fv &
Tv
are brought in
same plane for
HP
Observer to
see
clearly.
Fv is visible as
t is a view on
VP. But as Tv
is a view on
Hp,
t is rotated
downward 900,
n clockwise
Direction (in
1st
HP
quadrant).The
n front part of
Hp comes
below
xy line.

A
The HP behind POINT A IN
the Vp is also
3RD QUADRANT

rotated
clockwise, and
therefore
comes above

POINT A IN
1ST QUADRANT

VP
a

VP
a

a
HP

OBSERVER

OBSERVER

a
HP
OBSERVER

a
a

VP

OBSERVER

VP

POINT A IN
4TH QUADRANT

Convention: Horizontal plane is always rotated clock


3

PROJECTIONS OF A POINT IN THE 4 QUADRANTS


V
P

HP
PF

V
P

V
P

PF

V
P

PT
HP

HP

PT
POINT IN 2nd QUADRANT

POINT IN 1st
PT: TOP VIEW QUADRANT

HP

PF: FRONT
VIEW
POINT IN 4th QUADRANT

POINT IN 3rd
QUADRANT

PT
HP

HP

HP

V
P

PT

PF

P
V

HP

V
P

PF
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How you will draw on the sheet


PF

PF

PT

y
PT

POINT IN 2nd QUADRANT

POINT IN 1st
QUADRANT

PT

PT: TOP VIEW


PF: FRONT
VIEW

PF
POINT IN 3rd
QUADRANT

y
PT
PF

POINT IN 4th QUADRANT

PROJECTIONS OF A POINT IN FIRST QUADRANT.


POINT A ABOVE HP
& INFRONT OF VP

POINT A ABOVE HP
& IN VP

POINT A IN HP
& INFRONT OF VP

For Tv

For Tv

For Tv

a
A
Y

A
Y

For
Fv

For
Fv

a
X

a
For
Fv

ORTHOGRAPHIC PRESENTATIONS
OF ALL ABOVE CASES.
Fv above xy,
Tv below xy.

Fv above xy,
Tv on xy.

VP

Fv on xy,
Tv below xy.

VP
a

VP
a

a
HP

HP

HP

Projection of lines, planes,


solids
Line consists of 2 points
Plane consists of 3 or more points
Solid consists of more than 3 points
Therefore in order to project lines,
planes and solids, we need to project
their corresponding points and join
them
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PROJECTIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES.


AIM:- TO DRAW ITS PROJECTIONS - FV & TV.
INFORMATION REGARDING A
LINE:
ITS LENGTH,
POSITION OF ITS ENDS WITH HP
& VP
ITS INCLINATIONS WITH HP & VP
SIMPLE CASES OF THE LINE

1. A VERTICAL LINE ( LINE PERPENDICULAR TO HP & // TO VP)


2. LINE PARALLEL TO BOTH HP & VP.
3. LINE INCLINED TO HP & PARALLEL TO VP.
4. LINE INCLINED TO VP & PARALLEL TO HP.
5. LINE INCLINED TO BOTH HP & VP.
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(Pictorial Presentation)

Orthographic Pattern

For Tv

Note:
Fv is a vertical line
Showing True Length
&
Tv is a point.

.
V.P

1.

A Line
perpendicular
to Hp
&
X
// to Vp

A
FV
b

a
Fv
b

Fo
rF
v

V.P.

TV a b

Tv a b

H.P.
Orthographic Pattern
(Pictorial Presentation)
2.

.
V.P

A Line
// to Hp
&
// to Vp

.
F.V

V.P.

Note:
Fv & Tv both are
// to xy
&
both show T. L.

For Tv

b
B

Fv

a
A

Y
Fo
rF
v

b
X
a

Y
a

V.
T.

Tv

H.P.
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True
Length
A Line inclined to Hp
and
parallel to Vp

.
V.P

b
.
F.V

F.
V.

3.

V.P.

Fv inclined to xy
Tv parallel to xy.

(Pictorial presentation)

.
T.V

Y
a

T.V.

H.P.
Orthographic Projections

4.

A Line inclined to Vp
and
parallel to Hp

.
V.P
a

V.P.

Tv inclined to xy
Fv parallel to xy.
F.V.

(Pictorial presentation)

T.V.

Tv

True
Length

X
a

Fv

H.P.

b
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For Tv

For Tv
5.

.
V.P

On removal of object
For
Fv i.e. Line AB
Fv as a image on Vp.
Tv as a image on Hp,

a
A
a

F.V
.

F.V
.

B
Y

For
Fv

A
X

T.V.

.
V.P

(Pictorial presentation)

A Line inclined to both


Hp and Vp

T.V.

V.P.
b

and are
NOT the true angles
(inclinations) of the
line with the planes

FV
a

Orthographic Projections
Fv is seen on Vp clearly.

To see Tv clearly, HP
is rotated 900
downwards,
Hence it comes below xy.

TV

H.P.

Note These Facts:Both Fv & Tv are inclined to


xy.
(No view is parallel to xy)
Both Fv & Tv are reduced
lengths.
(No view shows True Length)
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PROJECTIONS OF PLANES
A plane is a two-dimensional geometrical entity
It has length and width but no thickness
For practical purposes, a flat face of an object may be
treated as a plane
A plane which has limited extent (has fixed shape) is
termed as a lamina
Information usually given:
1. Shape of the plane
2. Inclination of its surface with one of the reference
planes
3. Inclination of one of its edges with the other reference
plane will be given
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CASE OF A RECTANGLE OBSERVE AND NOTE ALL STEPS.


SURFACE INCLINED TO HP

SURFACE PARALLEL TO HP

For Tv

For T.V.

For

d
c

VP

d
c

VP

Fo
r

ORTHOGRAPHIC
FV- Apparent Shape
TV-Previous Shape

ORTHOGRAPHIC
FV- Inclined to XY
TV- Reduced Shape

VP

HP

For
Fv

F.V
.

ORTHOGRAPHIC
TV-True Shape
FV- Line // to xy

a
b

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION
For T.V.

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION

ONE SMALL SIDE INCLINED TO V

a1

a
b

a1

d1

b1

c1

HP

b1
d1

c1

d1

c1
a1

HP

b1

C
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F.V
.

Center lines
Drawn to indicate the axis of cylindrical, conical or
spherical objects or details.
Thin long chains composed of alternately long and
short dashes.
Longer dashes are approximately 6 to 8 times the
short dashes in length.
Center of a circular curve is indicated by a cross
made up of centerline chains.
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FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FO
R
FO

.
S.V

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

F.V
.

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN


DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

TOP VIEW

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3 . Angle projection
rd

Top view

Front view

Right Side view

FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FRONT VIEW

R
FO

.
S.V

FO
R

F.V
.

L.H.SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN


DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

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