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Mooring Operations

PRINCIPLES OF MOORING
Forces acting on a moored vessel
Wind and current
Interaction with passing ships
Tidal rise and fall and change of draft or trim due to cargo operations
Waves

INTERACTION WITH PASSING SHIPS:


When a ship passes close to a ship moored fore and aft,the interaction
between the vessels will often cause the moored vessel to range on
her moorings. Hence the moorings need to be kept taut.

Surge astern

Stern
repelled

Surge ahead

http://www.youtube.c
om/watch?v=RptiNLQM3
Ww

http://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=9jwb0-r0haw

TIDAL RISE AND FALL/ CHANGE OF DRAFT OR TRIM DUE


TO CARGO OPERATIONS

Breast lines provide the maximum transverse restraint and spring lines
provide maximum longitudinal restraints.
The Classification society will specify the minimum number of mooring
line and minimum size which the particular ship should have.

The vertical dip of a Mooring Line


dip

WIND AND CURRENT:


The forces acting on the vessel depend upon :
Wind speed and direction
Under keel clearance and vessels draft
Construction of the berth, as piles and underwater obstructions can
slow the flow, with a build up of pressure at the face of berth.This
force will tend to move the vessel away from the berth.

POSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF LINES


Mooring lines should be arranged as symmetric as possible
about the midship point.
Breast should be positioned as perpendicular as possible to
the longitudinal centre line of the ship.
Spring lines should be as parallel as possible to the longitudinal
centre line of the vessel.
The vertical dip of the mooring line should be as low as possible.
All mooring lines should preferably be of the same size and of
the same material if leading to the same bitt.
Short lengths should be avoided.

IDENTIFICATION OF MOORING LINES

Head Line

Forward spring
Breast Line

Aft Spring
Stern Line

Roller
fairlead

Pedestal
fairlead

Bitts

Synthetic rope
tail

Drum
end

Brake

Mooring
winch

DECK MOORING FITTINGS


1. Panama Leads

2. Roller fairlead

3. Pedestal fairlead

4. Multi-Angled Fairleads

5. Bollards and Mooring Bits

Name the parts

Quick Release Hooks

Hooks can be released


manually or automatically
by push button from a
remote location

Avoids exposing
personnel to mooring
lines under tension

Connecting a tug to a safety Bit

Disconnecting a tug using a safety Bit

Offshore towing operations using Shark


Jaws and towing pins

MOORING MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

Winches/ Capstans
Warping winch
Mooring winch
Undivided drum
Divided drum winch
Self tension winches

Hydraulic Tugger Winch


Product Description
Vessel Winch specifications:
1) Drive: Electric / hydraulic
2) Configuration: Single or double drum with / without warping end
3) Wire drum: Steel wire rope drum
4) Rated pull (1st layer): 3 to 30MT
5) Brake: Holding 1.5 times the rated pull (static, first layer)
6) Wire speed: Up to 20 m/min

Warping Drum
Capstan

MOORING OPERATIONS
Preparations:
Prepare heaving lines, messenger lines,fenders,stoppers.
Unlash mooring lines from stowed position and keep ready
adjacent to their work area.
A mooring line which has to be sent out quickly should be faked
out on deck.
Try out winches and windlass and lubricate if necessary.
Grease all roller fairleads. Make sure working space is clear.
Test all means of communications with bridge.

BERTHING / UNBERTHING

Use of a mooring boat or if close enough, use heaving line.


Securing of mooring line on board.
Use of stoppers, to transfer mooring line on to bits/bollards.
Do not use nylon stoppers, due to excessive stretch.
On wire ropes, use chain stoppers with rope tail .
Use of rat guards once all lines are made fast.

SAFETY IN MOORING OPERATIONS


Use of PPE (gloves,helmet,safety shoes)
Avoid wearing loose clothing ,jewellery .. Could snag.
Keep working area free from oil or grease.
Do not stand in a coil, loop or bight of rope.
Stand clear of lines under tension. Ref . Diag.
Do only one job at a time .
Do not stand too close to a winch drum or bits when holding on
to lines under tension.
Never leave winches or windlass running without an operator in
attendance at all times.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
NR=1&v=Ms0XcxHHgEs&feature=endscre
en

SNAP BACK DANGER ZONE

Point of break
Point of restraint

Point of break
Fairlead
Point of
restraint

Danger zone

Danger zone

http://www.youtube.com/
watch?
v=AIa7WhN60Bk&featu
re=related

Mooring stoppers

Stopper line

Dangers of mooring operations


Risk assessment of mooring stations
A risk assessment should be made of all mooring areas on board;
looking at the space with a view of purposely searching for hazards
that may cause injury. Mooring areas naturally contain many trip
hazards, and highlighting these is a good starting point.

http://www.youtube.com/
watch?
v=xUxgKW3AJLw

END

ATSB Report after Foot Severed During Mooring


On 28 June 2014, the 327 m long bulk carrier Julia N entered the
port of Port Hedland, Western Australia, and was manoeuvred
alongside Anderson Point number two berth by the pilot with the
assistance of four tugs.
At 3:21 in the afternoon, when it had been confirmed that the ship
was in position, the pilot called the master of the tug at the stern of
the ship to come in and retrieve its tow line. When the tug was in
position, the pilot asked Julia Ns master to instruct the aft mooring
team (second mate and two seamen) to let go the tugs tow line.
As the tow line was retrieved, a seamans right leg somehow became
entangled in the messenger line. He was then dragged about 4
metres across the deck and into the rollers of the fairlead. When his
legs entered the fairlead the messenger line came under tension and
it severed the seamans right foot.
At 1644, the helicopter departed with the injured seaman. He was
taken to the Port Hedland Hospital, where he was provided with
medical treatment.

ANCHORS AND EQUIPMENT

They perform well in a variety of conditions with goo

Plough

STOCKLESS ANCHOR
Anchor shackle

Shank
Bill
Fluke
Arm
Tripping palm

Head
Crown

KENTER LINK

ANCHOR CABLE

MARKINGS ON THE ANCHOR CABLE

NO 1
SHACKLE

NO 2
SHACKLE

BITTER END

BITER END

PREVENTERS AND STOPPERS

ANCHOR LASHING

WINDLASS

ARRANGEMENT FROM ANCHOR TO CHAIN LOCKER

Brake
Cable

Gypsy
stopper
Spurling Pipe

Hawse Pipe

ANCHOR
PREPARATIONS

Hawse Pipe

Controls

Mooring styles
Single Anchor
Running Mooring
Open Mooring
Mooring Buoy

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Keep working area free of oil and grease
Sufficient lighting, hand torch
Wear PPE
Do not stand in direct line of the anchor cable
Do not operate machinery if unsure with controls
Operate only if instructed to do so
Communicate with the bridge
Look over the side before letting go the anchor

Offshore towing operations using Shark


Jaws and towing pins

END