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L/O/G/O

AFFIRMATIVE & NEGATIVE


AGREEMENT,
NEGATION & COMMANDS
SARI WIJI UTAMI, SP.

POLITEKNIK NEGERI
BANYUWANGI

AFFIRMATIVE
AGREEMENT
When indicating that one person or thing
does something and then adding that
another does the same, use the word so
and too. To avoid needless repetition of
words from the affirmative statements,
use the conjunction and, followed by a
simple statement using so and too. The
order of this statement will depend on
whether so and too is used.

1) When a form of the verb be is used in the


main clause, the same tense of the verb be is
used in the simple statement that follows.
affirmative statement (be) + and + subject + verb (be) +
too
OR
affirmative statement (be) + and + so + verb (be) + subject

EXAMPLE :
I am happy, and you are too.
I am happy, and so are you.

2) When a compound verb (auxiliary + verb), for example, will go,


should do, has done, have written, must examine, etc., occurs
in the main clause, the auxiliary of the main verb is used in the
simple statement, and the subject and verb must agree.

affirmative statement (compound verb) + and + subject + auxiliary


only + too

OR
affirmative statement (compound verb) + so + auxiliary only + subject

EXAMPLE :
They will work in the lab tomorrow, and you will too.
They will work in the lab tomorrow, and so will you.

3) When any verb except be appears without any


auxiliaries in the main clause, the auxiliary do, does, or
did is used in the simple statement. The subject and
verb must agree and the tense must be the same.
affirmative statement (single verb except be) + and + subject + do, does,
or did + too

OR
affirmative statement (single verb except be) + and + so + do, does, or did
+ subject

EXAMPLE :
Jane goes to that school, and my sister does too.
Jane goes to that school, and so does my sister.

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES

John went to the market, and we did too.


John went to the market, and so did we.
I will be in New York in January, and they will too.
I will be in New York in January, and so will they.
He has seen her plays, and the girls have too.
He has seen her plays, and so have the girls.
We are going to the movies tonight, and Suzy is too.
We are going to the movies tonight, and so is Suzy.
Bobo was a famous painter, and Ruben was too.
Bobo was a famous painter, and so was Ruben.

EXERCISE 1
1.
2.
3.
4.

Rose likes to fly, and her brother _____ too.


They will leave at noon, and I _____ too.
He has an early appointment, and so _____ I.
She has already written her letter, and so _____ her
friends.
5. Their plane is arriving at 9 oclock, and so _____ mine.
6. I should go to the store this afternoon, and so _____ you.
7. We like to swim in the pool, and they _____ too.
8. Our English teacher loves to travel, and so _____ we.
9. He has lived in Mexico for five years, and you _____ too.
10.I must write them a letter, and she _____ too.

NEGATIVE AGREEMENT
Either and neither function in simple
statements much like so and too in
affirmative sentences. However, either
and neither are used to indicate negative
agreement. The same rules for auxiliaries,
be and do, does, or did apply.

negative statement + and + subject + negative auxiliary or be + either

OR
negative statement + and + neither + positive auxiliary or be +
subject

EXAMPLE :
I didnt see Mary this morning. John didnt see Mary this morning.
I didnt see Mary this morning, and John didnt either.
I didnt see Mary this morning, and neither did John.
John hasnt seen this movie yet. I havent seen this movie yet.
John hasnt seen this movie yet, and I havent either.
John hasnt seen this movie yet, and neither have I.

EXERCISE 2 (GROUP
1.
The children shouldnt take that toys, and _____ should
HOMEWORK)
she.
We dont plan to attend the concert, and _____ do they.
I dont like mango, and he doesnt _____.
She didnt see anyone she knew, and _____ did Tom.
The Yankees couldnt play due to the bad weather, and
_____ could The Angels.
6. We cant study in the library, and they _____ either.
7. I havent worked here before, and neither _____ you.
8. You didnt pay the rent, and he _____ either.
9. Jack shouldnt run so fast, and neither _____ you.
10.He didnt know the answer, and neither _____ I.
2.
3.
4.
5.

NEGATION
To make a sentence negative, add the negative
particle not after the auxiliary or verb be. If there
is no auxiliary or be, add the appropriate form of
do, does, or did and place the word not after that.
John is rich.
John is not rich.
Sandra is going to Hawaii.
Sandra is not going to
Hawaii.
Mark has seen Bill. Mark has not seen Bill.
Mary can leave now.
Mary can not leave now.

NEGATION
The following examples contain no
auxiliary, and thus use do, does, or did.
Marvin likes spinach.
Marvin does not like
spinach.
Isaac went to class. Isaac did not go to class.
They want to leave now. They do not want to
leave now.

NEGATION
Hardly, barely, rarely, seldom, etc.
Remember that in an English sentence it is
usually incorrect to have two negatives
together. This is called a double negative and
is not acceptable in standard English. The
following words have a negative meaning,
and thus must be used with a positive verb.

hardly
barely

almost
nothing
mea
n

scarce
EXAMPLES
ly

rarely
or

seldom

almost not at hardly


all
ever

mean almost
never

John rarely comes to class on time.


(John usually doesnt
come to class on time)
Jerry hardly studied last night. (Jerry studied very little last
night).
She scarcely remembers the accident. (She almost doesnt
remember the accident).
We seldom see photos of these animals. (We almost never see
photos of these animals).
Jane barely arrived on time. (Jane almost didnt arrive on time).
I hardly ever go to sleep before midnight. (I usually dont go to
sleep before midnight).

COMMANDS
A command is an imperative statement.
One person orders another to do
something. It can be preceded by please.
The understood subject is you. Use the
simple form of the verb.
Close the door. Leave the room.
Please turn off the light. Open your book.
Open the window.
Be quiet.

NEGATIVE COMMANDS
A negative command is formed by
adding the word dont before the verb.
Dont close the door.
Please dont turn off the light.
Dont open the window.

INDIRECT COMMANDS
Usually the verbs order, ask, tell, or say are
used to indicate an indirect command. They
are followed by the infinitive [to + verb].
John told Mary to close the door.
Jack asked Jill to turn off the light.
The teacher told Chris to open the window.
Please tell Jim to leave the room.
Jojo ordered Bill to open the book.
The policeman ordered the suspect to be
quiet.

NEGATIVE INDIRECT
COMMANDS
To make an indirect command negative,
add the particle not before the infinitive.
John told Mary not to close the door.
Jack asked Jill not to turn off the light.
The teacher told Chris not to open the
window.
Please tell Jim not to leave the room.
Jojo ordered Bill not to open the book.

L/O/G/O

Thank You

Ganbatte for Mid Test <(^o^)9