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VOLTA

ALUMINIUM
COMPANY
LIMITED

COACHING
AND
COUNSELING
SKILLS FOR
MANAGERS

COACHING

WHAT MANAGERS DO
TODAY
IN THE PAST
Managers were hired to manage
take care of the business
YESTERDAY
Managers were hired to be leaders
to provide vision and mission
TODAY
Managers are hired to Coach and Counsel
to recruit, train, inspire, motivate, correct
and empower

NEW ROLES FOR


MANAGERS
Managers are like
F1 mechanics!
You have to
diagnose, repair and
maintain highperformance people
so that they put you in pole-position.

SHIFTS IN MANAGERS BEHAVIOR


FROM

TO

Directing

Guiding

Dictating

Participating

Delegating

Empowering

Telling

Listening

Planning

Consulting

Competing

Cooperating

Nonrisk taking

Risk taking

Focusing on bottom line

Focusing on People

PHILOSOPHY
In
, their philosophy is known
as PSP (People, Service, Profit).
puts its people (employees)
first in everything it does, these
employees put the customer first in
everything they do.

GROWTH IN
Revenue growth from US$400 million to
US$22 billion
Growth in aircraft from 60 to 600 planes
Increase in employees from 7,000 to 200,000
Expansion from 1 country (US) to 215 countries

PERFORMANCE

provides each employee at


least 40 hours of training per year.

spends 15%
of its payroll costs on training.

COACHING
Coaching focuses on
future possibilities,
not past mistakes.

COACHING CONTINUUM
Extrinsic solution

Managing

Intrinsic solution

Mentoring
Teaching

Focus on performance

Counseling
Coaching

Meditation
Therapy

Focus on potential

WHAT IS COACHING
Coaching is the process by
which the manager creates
relationships with an employee
to make it easier for them to
learn.

WHY COACHING
Staff knowledge and skills frequently becoming
obsolete.
Technology changes so fast that many find
themselves incompetent.
Diversity and complexity increases daily in the
workplace.
Decline in competence level (knowledge, skills
and attitudes).

BENEFITS OF
COACHING
Helps to achieve performance improvement
and employee development.
Enhance operational efficiency.
Promotes loyalty and career progression.
Develops employee morale and motivation

BOSS IN THE MAKING


Our egos become invested in the roles we play.
We believe that, because we have paid our dues,
it is fair to expect others to do the same.
We fear change and letting go of control.
We fear failing in the eyes of the world.
We develop habits of behaving and thinking that
reinforce the Boss approach.

Give me the wisdom to


understand my boss.
Give me the love to
forgive him.
Give me the patience to
understand his actions.
But dear God, dont
present me strength.
Because if You give me
strength

I will break his skull !!

BOSS VS. COACH


THE BOSS

THE COACH

Pushes / Drives

Lifts / Supports

Tells / Directs / Lectures

Asks / Requests / Listens

Talks at people

Engages in dialogue with


people

Controls through
decisions

Facilitates by empowering

Knows the answer

Seeks the answer

Triggers insecurity using


fear to achieve
compliance

Stimulates creativity using


purpose to inspire
commitment

Points to errors

Celebrates learning

BOSS VS. COACH Cont


THE BOSS

THE COACH

Problem solver /
Decision maker

Collaborator / Facilitator

Delegates responsibility

Models accountability

Creates structure and


procedures

Creates vision and


flexibility

Does things right

Does the right things

Knowledge is power

Vulnerability creates power

Focused on the bottom


line

Focused on process that


creates the bottom-line
results

HIGHEST PAID BOSS - 2006


Steve Jobs, 52 years old,
CEO of Apple, is the
worlds highest paid CEO.
His salary was pegged at US$647
million (RM2.3 billion) for 2006.
Source: Forbes

THE COACHING
APPROACH
Understand the person and the problem
Unearth the symptoms and roots of the issues
Generate a solution
Deliver the solution
Make sure it works
Ensure it will be sustainable
Celebrate

TYPES OF COACHING
Business Coaching
(achieve greater balance in work and life)
Executive Coaching
(repackaging certain practices)
Performance Coaching
(performance enhancement rather than rectification)
Skills Coaching
(perform specific, well-defined tasks)
Personal Coaching
(life coaching)

STAGES IN COACHING
Observation
- the coach sees, in detail, the level of performance
and area for improvement.
Analysis
- the cause of poor performance is identified and
understood.
Modeling
- the coach demonstrates or explains correct
performance.
Practice and Review
- the new behavior is tried out under supervision.

SUCCESSFUL COACH
To be successful, a Coach requires
knowledge and understanding of
process and a variety of styles,
skills and techniques.

COACH
C

Collaborate

Own

Acknowledge

Communicate

Help

COACH
Collaborate

C
O
A
C
H

The coaching relationship is a


collaborative one.
Work with the employee to identify the
performance problem, set standards
and performance objectives, and
develop a performance-improvement
plan.

COACH
Own

C
O
A
C
H

Examine your own behavior and accept


some ownership for the problem.
Along with the employee, ask yourself:
Did I make my expectations clear?
Did I provide the proper training?
Does the employee have the
appropriate tools to do the job?

COACH
Acknowledge

C
O
A
C
H

Acknowledge employee achievements as


well as problems, feelings and concerns.
Acknowledging problems and concerns
is not the same as overlooking them or
excusing unacceptable behavior or
performance.

COACH
Communicate

C
O
A
C
H

This is probably the most important behavior


and the one many managers seem to find the
most difficult.
Communication skills, including listening,
questioning and giving and receiving
feedback are critical for success.
Coaches need to practice two-way
communication on a daily basis and clarify
expectations regularly.

COACH
C
O
A
C
H

Help
As a manager you are not only a coach
but also an advisor, serving as a
resource person and a guide to other
resources, both inside and outside the
organization.

HUMAN SKILLS IN
COACHING
Coaching is essentially a conversation.
Coaching is about learning.
Coaching is about asking the
right questions rather than providing
answers.

WORK SITUATIONS THAT MAY


REQUIRE COACHING
Orientation of new employees
Teaching of a new job skill
When employees are not meeting commitments
Employees having interpersonal problems
with peers
Employee needs reinforcement for good
performance

PEOPLE FIRST
Merck & Co., Inc.
a global pharmaceutical
company has built a US$8 million
child-care center in New Jersey for its
employees.
The center was build for retention,
recruitment and productivity.

PEOPLE FIRST
worldwide sales for 2005
was US$22 billion
Mission Statement:
We try never to forget that
medicine is for the people. It is
not for profits. The profits follow.George Merck
Tagline:
Where patients come first at

TRAINING VS. COACHING


TRAINING
Usually a one time event
with little or no follow up

COACHING
On going over time, allows for
follow up and accountability

One trainer to many trainees One to one


Designed to appeal to many
people

Tailored specifically to the


individual

Mainly one way: trainer to


trainee

Two way: a partnership, an


interactive discussion

Trainer talks more than


trainees

Employee usually talks more


than the coach, the coach
listens

Delivery of information
regarding skills

Discovery of the employees


unique situation and
challenges and specific
solutions for him/her

FEEDBACK
When giving corrective feedback, coaches must
focus on specific observable behaviors, describe
what was witnessed, rather than judging it.
Identifying the negative behavior is not enough,
give recommendations or suggestions.
Coaches must tailor the feedback to the skill and
knowledge level of employees receiving it and
must be careful not to overload them with too
much negative feedback.

FEEDBACK
Reinforcement is the most effective
form of feedback.
Criticism is the most ineffective form of
feedback.
The difference between criticism and
advice is a difference in timing. Most
criticism can be given as advice.

FEEDBACK Cont
When feedback is mixed, the impact is
diluted. The employee becomes
confused and doesnt know what to do.
Criticism overpowers all other feedback
(sandwich).
Silent not always golden. It can be
interpreted in a variety of ways.

HOW IS COACHING DONE


Put the employee at ease by being warm and
friendly.
Define the reason for the discussion.
Express your concern about the area of
performance you feel needs to be improved.
Describe the performance problem or area that
needs improvement and define its impact on you,
the employee, the department and the
organization.

HOW IS COACHING DONE


Cont

Acknowledge and listen to employees feelings.


Seek the employees opinion on ways to improve
performance.
Ask open-ended questions to encourage analysis
and draw out specific suggestions.
Let the employee know that you respect his/her
ability to solve problems and develop solutions.

HOW IS COACHING DONE


Cont

Offer suggestions when appropriate, but build


on employees ideas when possible.
Agree upon appropriate actions.
Schedule a follow-up meeting to ensure
accountability and provide feedback on progress
(within ten days).

DOs AND DONTs


DOs

DONTs

Careful preparation so that


coaching is based on facts.

Heated discussions caused


by vague/inaccurate
information.

Take action early so the


situation can be rescued.

Waiting until the situation is


at its worse.

Focus on past and future


work, relating the two.

Focusing solely on past


work.

Be direct about your view of


the situation.

Being evasive/indirect about


the problem situation.

Involve staff in making


suggestions, decisions
about solutions.

Making one-sided decisions


about solutions.

DOs AND DONTs


DOs

Cont

DONTs

Supply useful information /


suggestions for improving.

Taking responsibility for the


staffs poor level of work.

Show courtesy, patience,


attention, sincerity.

Showing condescension,
impatience, inattention,
insincerity.

Hold discussion in privacy,


avoid interruptions.

Allowing interruptions.

Attempt to define problem by Assuming or making own


asking appropriate
interpretations.
questions.
Focus on gaining agreement
and understanding.

Forcing own ideas, plans on


staff.

PITFALLS IN COACHING
Confusion on what coaching is.
Everyone wants to become a coach.
Failure to articulate clearly how coaching
differs from consulting and therapy.
Failure to understand that relationships
are confidential and facilitative rather
than directive.

PITFALLS IN COACHING Cont


Failure to understand that the process
encourages a commitment to measurable
actions that have clear organizational /
personal benefits.
The next big thing comes along and
takes over

HINDRANCE TO SUCCESSFUL
COACHING

Negative attitude to change


Organizational structures
Cultural
Impatience

COACHING
Coaching is about helping people to help
themselves.
This is not a case of coach doing it for
the employee.
COACHING is a collaborative partnership
whereby both are engaged on a
shared journey.

COUNSELING

WHAT IS COUNSELING
The application of mental health,
psychological or human development
principles through cognitive, affective,
behavioral or systemic intervention
strategies that address wellness,
personal growth or career development
as well as pathology.

WORKPLACE COUNSELING
A supportive process conducted
by a manager to help an employee
define and work through personal
problems or organizational
changes that affect job
performance.

COUNSELING
Counseling is the process of helping
someone to surface issues and some
of their root causes.
It is about giving appropriate challenge
and support in order that the person
comes to terms with, or solves, their
own issue or problem.

WHEN TO COUNSEL
If performance problems do not
improve after feedback and
coaching, you may need to
proceed to counseling.

BENEFITS OF COUNSELING
Improves productivity of the organization
since employees feel listened to and
supported.
Reduces turnover when employees feel
they can vent their thoughts and feelings
and deal with problems openly and
constructively.

BENEFITS OF COUNSELING Cont


Increases efficiency of your business when
you understand the motives and needs of
each employee and how they will react to
organizational events.
Reduces conflict and preserves self-esteem
when parties are really listened to.

BENEFITS OF COUNSELING Cont


Helps solve problems before they occur.
Improves your career opportunities when
you are known as a manager who can
motivate employees.
Improves your self confidence.

WORLDS MOST ADMIRED COMPANIES 2007

Source: Fortune Global

WORLDS MOST ADMIRED COMPANIES 2007


Key attributes of reputation:
Innovation

People Management

Social Responsibility Use of Corporate Assets


Financial Soundness Quality of Management
Long-term Investment
Quality of Products/Services

COUNSELING
Do You Know?
Problems, which go unresolved by the
individual, could manifest themselves at work
through a number of symptoms.
More accidents, more mistakes, mood changes,
nervous energy, increased absenteeism and
working unnecessary overtime are just a few.

COUNSELING SKILLS
Effective use of counseling skills can help an
individual:
Make a decision
Help themselves
Adapt to change
Solve problem or resolve an issue
Come to terms with an event or situation
Regain their self esteem

COUNSELING SKILLS Cont


Effective use of counseling skills can help an
individual:
Identify problems or concerns.
Face difficulty or crisis.
Understand their feelings or emotions.
Draw on their own resources to find the
right
solution for themselves.
Think through an issue or concern.

COUNSELING SKILLS
They are invaluable when:
Individuals need to make important decisions
about their career.
Major restructuring occur within the organization.
A personal problem impacts upon the work
environment.
An individual needs to identify what is causing them
stress and find coping mechanisms.

PERSONAL QUALITIES OF AN
EFFECTIVE COUNSELOR
Curiosity and inquisitiveness a natural interest in
people.
Ability to listen the ability to find listening stimulating.
Comfort with conversation enjoyment of verbal
exchanges.
Empathy and understanding the ability to put oneself
in anothers place even if that person is a different
gender or from a different culture.
Emotional insightfulness comfort dealing with a wide
range of feelings, from anger to joy.

PERSONAL QUALITIES OF AN
EFFECTIVE COUNSELOR Cont
Introspection the ability to see or feel from within.
Capacity for self-denial the ability to set aside personal
needs to listen and take care of others needs first.
Tolerance
of intimacy the ability to sustain emotional
closeness.
Comfort with power the acceptance of power with a
certain degree of detachment.
Ability to laugh the capacity of seeing the bittersweet
quality of life events and the humor in them.

WORLDS BIGGEST EMPLOYERS


2005 No. of Employees

1,800,000

1,090,232
China National Petroleum

844,031
Source: Fortune Global

EMOTIONS AT WORKPLACE
People bring their emotion to
workplace.
Individuals must practice emotional
labor in the workplace: They must
show appropriate behaviors and
emotions.

EMOTIONAL HIJACKING

When the emotional brain


steals information from our
thinking brain.

EXPLICIT BEHAVIORS
Readily observable, but hard to interpret.
VALUES and BELIEFS
Not directly observable, but can be
distilled from how people explain
and justify what they do.

UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS
The foundation of culture which
is so widely shared that people
are largely unaware of them.

EMOTIONAL QUOTIENT (EQ)

EQ is the learned
ability to understand
and express our
feelings accurately.
To control our emotions
so that they work for
us not against us.

EQ
Knowing how you and others feel and
what to do about it.
Knowing what feels good and what feels
bad. How to get from bad to good.
Emotional awareness, sensitivity and the
management skills that will help us to
maximize our long-term happiness and
survival.

ATTRIBUTES OF EQ
SELF-AWARENESS
Being aware of what youre doing
SELF-MANAGEMENT
The ability to manage ones own emotions
and impulses
SELF-MOTIVATION
The ability to persist in the face of setbacks
and failures

ATTRIBUTES OF EQ Cont
EMPATHY
The ability to sense how others are feeling

SOCIAL SKILLS
The ability to handle the emotions of others

WORLD MOST PROFITABLE COMPANIES 2006

US$36 billion
US$24 billion
US$16.5 billion
US$16.4 billion

US$14 billion
Source: Fortune Global

STRESS

STRESS
Any external stimulus that
causes wear and tear on ones
psychological or physical
well-being.

HOW STRESS WORKS

Stress is harmful to the body as


well as the mind.
Stress comes in two forms,
each with its own biochemistry.

HOW STRESS WORKS


ACUTE STRESS
A response to imminent danger, it turbocharges
the system with powerful hormones that can
damage the cardiovascular system.
CHRONIC STRESS
Caused by constant emotional pressure the
victim cant control, it produces hormones that
can weaken the immune system and damage
bones.

MAJOR CAUSES OF
STRESS
Life events
Personal psychological makeup
Organizational and work-related factors
NOTE: Result of organizational and
work-related factors is BURNOUT.

BURNOUT
Burnout is the state of becoming
emotionally or physically drained to
the point that one cannot perform
functions meaningfully.

COPING WITH
STRESS
Engaging in physical exercise
Practicing relaxation techniques
Gain a sense of control
Developing and maintaining good
interpersonal relationships

Total Number of Days a Manager Works in a Year


Total Number of Days in a Year

365 days

If you sleep 8 hours a day

122 days

Number of days left

243 days

If you rest 8 hours a day

122 days

Number of days left

121days

If you dont work on Sundays

52 days

Number of days left

69 days

If you work half day on Saturdays

26 days

Number of days left

43 days

If you take 11/2 hours for lunch

28 days

Number of days left

15 days

If you take 2 weeks (14 days) annual leave

14 days

Number of days left

1day

Unfortunately National Day is also an off day

1day

As such, total number of days you work

0 day

Dr. Edwin Varo


Tel: 013-3602509
Email: evaro@tm.net.my

Thank
you !