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# Karakteristik Fisik

A.

Tipe
Fast moving vehicle
ii. Slow moving vehicle
Dimensi penting untuk design geometrik jalan
i. Low speed turn kurang dari 16 km/jam
tergantung pada jejak roda dan sudut
perputaran.
ii. High speed turn tergantung pada
superelevasi dan side friction
i.

B.
C.

Gambar 1. Turning
Penumpang

Gambar 2. Turning

v
R
127 e f
R
v
e
f

## = radius of curve (m)

= speed of vehicle (km/jam)
= rate of superelevation
= coeficient of side friction
D. Desain
Desain kendaraan sehubungan dengan
kemampuan melihat pengemudi dan letak
penerangan jalan.

## Tabel 1. Vehicle Characteristic Affecting Road Features

Vehicle Characteristic
Width of Vehicle
Length of Vehicle

Height of Vehicle
Weight of Vehicle
Speed of Vehicle

Power of Vehicle
Acceleration characteristics
Braking characteristics

Affecting Elements
Lane width, width of shoulders, width of
parking lots.
Horizontal alignment, minimum turning
radius, extra widening on curves, passing
facilities.
Clearance to be provided under bridges,
subways, electric service lines, etc.
Pavement thicness, rolling and limiting
Parking manouvers, curves, intersection
design, channelisation driveways, etc.
Horizontal
and
vertical
alignment,
distance, lane capacity,
intersection
design, skid resistance.
Rolling and limiting gradient, speed of
vehicle in conjunction with various
resistance, braking resistance.
Time required to cross intersection,
passing a vehicle, gap acceptance.
Stopping
distance,
overtaking
sight
distance, traffic capacity.
Night operation, night accidents.

## Tabel 2. Typical Maximum Dimensions and Wights of Motor

Vehicles
No.

Particulars

Maximum limits

1.

Width

2.6 m

8.5 ft

2.

Height

4.1 m

13.5 ft

3.

Length :
Single unit truck
Bus
Truck tractor and semi trailer
Other combination

12.2 m
12.2 m
16.75 m
19.8 m

40 ft
40 ft
55 ft
65 ft

4.

Single
Tandem

9.1 m.t
15.4 m.t

10 t
17 t

5.

## Maximum gross weight :

2 axle truck
3 axle truck
3 axle combination
4 axle combination
5 axle combination
6 axle combination

13.6 m.t
13.4-20 m.t
19.0-22.7 m.t
22.7-31.8 m.t
32.4-38.1 m.t
37.6-40.8 m.t

15 t
17-22 t
21-25 t
25-35 t
35.8-42 t
41.5-45 t

0.305 m)
Wheel
Base

Front
Overhan
g

Rear
Overhan
g

Overall
Length

Widt
h

Height

11

19

SU

20

30

8.5

13.5

BUS

25

40

8.5

13.5

Semi Trailer
Combination
(Intermediate)

WB-40

40

50

8.5

13.5

Semi Trailer
Combination
(large)

WB-50

50

55

8.5

13.5

## Semi Trailer Full

Trailer
Combination

WB-60

60

65

8.5

13.5

Design Vehicle
Type
Passenger Car
Single Unit Truck
Single Unit Bus

Symbo
l

Type of AASHTO
Vehicle

24 ft

7.32 m

15.3 ft

4.67 m

SU

42 ft

12.8 m

28.4 ft

8.66 m

BUS

42 ft

12.8 m

20.3 ft

6.19 m

WB-40

40 ft

12.2 m

19.9 ft

6.06 m

WB-50

45 ft

13.72 m

19.8 ft

6.03 m

WB-60

45 ft

13.72 m

22.5 ft

6.86 m

A.

i.
ii.

## Inertia Force = mass x acceleration

Fi = mass x acceleration
Rolling Resistance (Rr)
Surface roughness of pavement
Friction in the moving path of vehicle
kecepatan konstan (100 km/jam).

Type of surface

## Rolling resistance (lb/ton)

Cement concrete
Bituminous concrete
Untreated gravel
Loose gravel
Soft wet ground

## iii. Air Resistance (Ra)

Density of air
Speed of vehicle
Frontal area of vehicle
Direction of wind

19
20
27
50
120

Rumus :
Ra
K
A
v

Ra K A v

= air resistance
= konstanta = 0.0017
= frontal area of vehicle
= velocity of vehicle

Gaya gravitasi sebanding dengan kemiringan jalan
dan berat kendaraan.
Diekspresikan : 20 lbs/ton berat kendaraan per %

Power Requirement
Penting untuk peningkatan kecepatan dan di daerah
tanjakan.
Total horse power req = HP Rr + HP Ra + HP Rg
Total HP

## Rr W 1.47V ) (0.0017 AV 2 1.47V W 20 G 1.47V

HP
550

VW Rr 20G 0.0017 AV 3
HP
375

W
V
Rr
A
G

## = berat vehicle (tonnes)

= speed (mph)
= rolling resistance (lbs/tonne)
= frontal area (sq ft)

B.

Breaking Ability
Jarak yang dibutuhkan untuk berhentinya

Berat Kendaraan
Tingkat Pengereman

V2
Db
2 g f tan
Db
g
f
v
tan

= breaking distance
= koefisien friksi
= speed
= slope of gradien (G) + .. , ..

C.

Karakteristik Percepatan
Data percepatan digunakan untuk
situasi :

Melintasi persimpangan
Jarak yang dibutuhkan untuk menyiap
Jarak aman, dan sebagainya

## Ada 2 (dua) type percepatan :

a) Uniform Acceleration Theory
V VO at
1
S VO t
at 2
2
2
V 2 VO
S
2a

V
VO
a
t
S

= final speed
= initial speed
= acceleration
= time
= distance travelled

dV
V
dt
V
X
t

dV
dt

1 e t VO e t

VO

t
t

t
1

e
2

V
1

log

VO

, = konstan

## 1. Hitung HP yang dibutuhkan untuk mengatasi

rolling, air dan grade resistance untuk suatu
kendaraan dengan berat 3000 lbs dengan
kecepatan 50 mph. Frontal area = 25 sq ft,
kemiringan jalan 1:50.
Penyelesaian :

HP (rolling) =

Rr W 1.47V
Rr 20 bit.con.
550

## 3000 1.47 x50

20 x
x
3.58
2240
550

HP (air)

0
.
0017
AV
xVx
1
.
47
=
550
1.47 x50
14.2
=0.0017 x 25 x50 x
550
2

HP

50 x1.47
20 G Wx
G 2%
550

3000 50 x1.47
x
7.16
= 20 x 2 x
2240
550
Total HP = 3.58 + 14.2 + 7.16 = 24.94

## Suatu kendaraan bergerak dengan

kecepatan 50 km/jam di belakang kendaraan
lain,
memutuskan
untuk
mendahului.
Karakteristik percepatan dari kendaraan
tersebut digambarkan sebagai :
2.

dv
1.22 0.015 V v m / sec
dt
t sec

3.

## Kendaraan bergerak dengan kecepatan 80 km/jam

membutuhkan kurang dari 8.5 m untuk berhenti pada daerah
tanjakan, kemudian bergerak turun pada kemiringan yang
sama.
Jika koef. Friksi = 0.55, tentukan :

a.

dV
0 1.22 0.015V
dt
1.22
V
81.33m/sec (292km/hr)
0.015

## b. Akselerasi maks jika speed=0

dV
1.22m/sec
1.22 0.015 * 0
dt
4.39km/hr/sec
c.

dV
V0 e t
dt

Vo 50km/jam

50 *1000
13.89m/sec
3600

dV
1.22 0.015 *13.89 e 0.015*3 0.967m/sec 2 3.48km/hr/sec
dt
d. V=120km/hr=120/3.6=33.33m/sec
1
V
t log

V0