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Cells & Enzymes

Made of protein

Present in
all living cells

Converts substrates
into products

Enzymes

Biological
catalysts
Increase the rate of
chemical reactions

Remain unchanged
by chemical reaction

Chemical Reactions
A chemical reaction takes place when one or
substances is chemically changed into one or more
different substances.
Chemical reactions take place in cells all the time.
Catalyst
Product

Substrate
Enzyme

Hydrogen
peroxide

Manganese
dioxide
Water + oxygen
Catalase

Catalysts
A catalyst is a substance which speeds up a chemical
reaction, without itself being changed by the
reaction.
1. When a catalyst is present, less energy is needed
to get the chemical reaction started.
2. When a catalyst is present, the speed of the
chemical reaction is faster.
3. Although a catalyst helps a chemical reaction to
happen, it is unchanged at the end of the reaction.

Biological Catalysts
The biological catalyst present in the cytoplasm of
plant and animal cells that speeds up the breakdown
of hydrogen peroxide is called CATALASE.

Hydrogen
peroxide

catalase

Oxygen + water

2.2 Nature of Enzymes


The biological catalyst present in the cytoplasm of
plant and animal cells that speeds up the breakdown
of hydrogen peroxide is called CATALASE.
Hydrogen
peroxide

Catalase
Water + oxygen

Catalase cannot speed up any other reaction. It is


SPECIFIC to this reaction.

One Enzyme One Reaction


There are thousands of different enzymes in your
body.
Why are there so many different enzymes?
Each enzyme has its own unique protein structure
and shape, which is designed to match or
COMPLEMENT its substrate.

Lock & Key Hypothesis


An enzyme only acts on one type of substance, or substrate.
Therefore, the enzyme is said to be SPECIFIC to its one substrate.
The shape of the active site (binding site) of the enzyme, matches the
shape of the substrate. Allowing the two molecules to bind during the
chemical reaction.
This theory of enzyme action is called the lock-and-key hypothesis.

MOVIE

Different enzymes for different jobs


Enzymes involved in breakdown reactions
Enzyme and substrate separate
Enzyme-substrate complex
Enzyme and products separate
Enzymes involved in synthesis reactions
Enzyme and substrates separate
Enzyme-substrates complex
Enzyme and product separate

2.3 Using a Control


Why is it necessary to include a control experiment
in an investigation?
A control is an experiment that allows a
comparison within an investigation in order to
ensure that the conclusions drawn from the results
are valid.

2.3 Using a Control


Only one variable should be altered in an
investigation, this is said to be the altered variable.
What was the altered variable in the last
investigation you carried out?
It is important to ensure that all other potential
variables are kept the same in the investigation,
these are called the controlled variables.
What were the controlled variables in the last
investigation you carried out?

Enzymes involved in breakdown reactions


Hydrogen peroxide
Starch
Fat
Protein

Catalase
Amylase
Lipase
Pepsin

Water + Oxygen
Maltose
Fatty acids + Glycerol
Amino acids

2.4 Synthesis reactions


Leaves make glucose.
Glucose is used by
leaves as energy
source or transported
to root for storage.
Roots convert glucose
into G-1-P.
Phosphorylase
converts G-1-P into
starch.

2.4 Synthesis reactions


What is phosphorylase?
Phosphorylase is an enzyme that synthesises starch.
What is substrate of phosphorylase?
Glucose-1-phosphate
What is the product?
Starch
phosphorylase

glucose-1-phosphate

starch

2.4 Synthesis reactions


Amylase catalyses the breakdown of starch to
produce maltose.
How is starch produced?

phosphorylase

glucose-1-phosphate

starch

2.5 Effect of High Temperature

Optimum conditions are the conditions


at which an enzymes works best
Rate of reactions may be affected by
temperature and pH

Notes on Denaturation

Notes on Optimum temp

2.5 Effect of High Temperature


What happens to the activity of an enzyme at high
temperatures?

Notes on Denaturation

Notes on
Optimum temp

Effect of pH on enzymes

When the pH changes outwith optimal conditions, the shape


of the active site of the enzyme alters and the enzyme is
Movie
denatured.

Effect of pH on enzyme activity


Most enzymes work best at a pH close to neutral (pH7), but
there are some exceptions. Pepsin, an enzyme found in the
stomach, has an optimum pH of 2.

Enzyme Summary
Enzyme

Substrate Product(s) Degradation


or synthesis?

Amylase

Starch

Maltose

Degradation

Catalase

Hydrogen
peroxide

Oxygen and
water

Degradation

Pepsin

Protein

Amino acids

Degradation

Phosphorylase

Glucose-1phosphate

Starch

Synthesis

Lipase

Fat

Amino acids

Degradation