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Anatomy & Physiology Of

Female Reproductive System

Learning Objectives
Define

the terms listed.


Identify the female external
reproductive organs.
Explain the structure of the bony
pelvis.
Explain the functions and structures
of pelvic floor.

Introduction

External Female Structures


Collectively, the

external
female reproductive
organs are called the
Vulva.

External Female Structures


Mons

Pubis.
Labia Majora
Labia Minora.
Clitoris.
Vestibule.
Perineum

Mons Pubis
Is rounded, soft fullness of
subcutaneous fatty tissue, prominence
over the symphysis pubis that forms
the anterior border of the external
reproductive organs.
It is covered with varying amounts
of pubic hair.

Labia Majora & Minora


The

labia Majora are two rounded,


fleshy folds of tissue that extended
from the mons pubis to the perineum.

It

is protect the labia minora, urinary


meatus and vaginal introitus.

Labia Minora
It

is located between the labia majora,


are narrow.
The lateral and anterior aspects are
usually pigmented.
The inner surfaces are similar to
vaginal mucosa, pink and mois.
Their rich vascularity.

Clitoris.
The

term clitoris comes from a


Greek word meaning key.
Erectile organ.
Its rich vascular, highly sensitive
to temperature, touch, and
pressure sensation

Vestibule.
Is

oval-shaped area formed


between the labia minora, clitoris,
and fourchette.
Vestibule contains the external
urethral meatus, vaginal introitus,
and Bartholins glands.

Perineum
Is

the most posterior part of the


external female reproductive organs.
It extends from fourchette anteriorly
to the anus posteriorly.
And is composed of fibrous and
muscular tissues that support pelvic
structures.

Internal Female Structures


Vagina
Uterus
Fallopian
Ovaries

tubes

Fallopian tubes
The

two tubes extended from the


cornu of the uterus to the ovary.
It runs in the upper free border of
the broad ligament.
Length 8 to 14 cm average 10 cm
Its divided into 4 parts.

1. Interstitial part
Which

runs into uterine cavity,


passes through the myometrium
between the fundus and body of
the uterus. About 1-2cm in
length.

2. Isthmus
Which

is the narrow part of


the tube adjacent to the
uterus.
Straight and cord like ,
about 2 3 cm in length.

3. Ampulla
Which

is the wider part about


5 cm in length.

Fertilization

ampulla.

occurs in the

4. Infundibulum
It

is funnel or trumpet shaped.


Fimbriae are fingerlike processes, one
of these is longer than the other and
adherent to the ovary.
The fimbriae become swollen almost
erectile at ovulation.

Functions
Gamete

transport (ovum pickup,


ovum transport, sperm transport).

Final

maturation of gamete post


ovulate oocyte maturation, sperm
capicitation.

Fluid

environment for early


embryonic development.

Transport

of fertilized and
unfertilized ovum to the uterus.

Ovaries
Oval

solid structure, 1.5 cm in thickness,


2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in length
respectively. Each weights about 48 gm.

Ovary

is located on each side of the


uterus, below and behind the uterine tubes

Structure of the ovaries


Cortex
Medulla
Hilum

Ovaries and Relationship


to Uterine Tube and Uterus

Figure 2814

Function of the ovary


Secrete

estrogen & progesterone.

Production

of ova

Uterus
The

uterus is a hollow, pear shaped


muscular organ.

The

uterus measures about 7.5 X 5


X 2.5 cm and weight about 50 60
gm.

Its

normal position is anteverted


(rotated forward and slightly
antiflexed (flexed forward)

The

uterus divided into three


parts

1. Body of the uterus


The

upper part is the corpus, or body


of the uterus
The fundus is the part of the body or
corpus above the area where the
fallopian tubes enter the uterus.
Length about 5 cm.

2. Isthmus
A narrower

transition zone.
Is between the corpus of the uterus
and cervix.
During late pregnancy, the isthmus
elongates and is known as the lower
uterine segment.

Cervix. 3
The

lowermost position of the


uterus neck.
The length of the cervix is about
2.5 t0 3 cm.

The

os, is the opening in the cervix


that runs between the uterus and
vagina.
The upper part of the cervix is marked
by internal os and the lower cervix is
marked by the external os.

Layers of the uterus


Perimetrium.
Myometrium.
Endometrium.

1. Perimetrium
Is

the outer peritoneal layer of


serous membrane that covers
most of the uterus.

Laterally,

the perimetrium is
continuous with the broad
ligaments on either side of the
uterus.

2. Myometrium
Is

the middle layer of thick


muscle.
Most of the muscle fibers are
concentrated in the upper uterus,
and their number diminishes
progressively toward the cervix.

The

myometrium
contains three types of
smooth muscle fiber

Longitudinal fibers (outer layer)


Which

are found mostly in the


fundus and are designed to expel
the fetus efficiently toward the
pelvic outlet during birth.

Middle layer figure-8 fibers


These

fiber contract after


birth to compress the blood
vessels that pass between
them to limit blood loss.

Inner layer circular fibers


Which

form constrictions where the


fallopian tubes enter the uterus and
surround the internal os
Circular fibers prevent reflux of
menstrual blood and tissue into the
fallopian tubes.

Promote

normal implantation of
the fertilized ovum by controlling
its entry into the uterus.
And retain the fetus until the
appropriate time of birth.

3. Endometrium
Is

the inner layer of the uterus.


It is responsive to the cyclic
variations of estrogen and
progesterone during the female
reproductive cycle every month.

The

two or three layers of the


endometrium are:
*Compact layer
*The basal layer
*The functional or Sponge layer this
layer is shed during each menstrual period
and after child birth in the lochia

The Function of the uterus


Menstruation

----the uterus
sloughs off the endometrium.

Pregnancy

---the uterus support


fetus and allows the fetus to grow.

Labor

and birth---the uterine


muscles contract and the cervix
dilates during labor to expel the
fetus

Vagina
It

is an elastic fibro-muscular tube


and membranous tissue about 8 to
10 cm long.
Lying between the bladder
anteriorly and the rectum
posteriorly.

The

vagina connects the uterus


above with the vestibule below.

The

upper end is blind and called


the vaginal vault.

The

vaginal lining has multiple


folds, or rugae and muscle layer.
These folds allow the vagina to
stretch considerably during
childbirth.

The

reaction of the vagina


is acidic, the pH is 4.5 that
protects the vagina against
infection.

Functions of the vagina


To allow

discharge of the
menstrual flow.
As the female organs of coitus.
To allow passage of the fetus from
the uterus.

Support structures
The

bony pelvis support


and protects the lower
abdominal and internal
reproductive organs.

Muscle,

Joints and ligaments


provide added support for
internal organs of the pelvis
against the downward force of
gravity and the increases in
intra-abdominal pressure

Bony Pelvis
Bony

Pelvis Is Composed of 4
bones:

1. Two hip bones.


2. Sacrum.
3. Coccyx.

1. Two hip bones.


Each

or hip bone is composed


of three bones:

*Ilium
*Ischium
*Pubis

Ilium*
It

is the flared out part.


The greater part of its inner
aspect is smooth and concave,
forming the iliac fossa.
The upper border of the ilium is
called iliac crest

Ischium*
It

is the thick lower part.


It has a large prominence
known as the ischial tuberosity
on which the body rests while
sitting.

Behind

and little above the


tuberosity is an inward
projection the ischial spine.

2. Sacrum
Is

a wedge shaped bone consisting of


five vertebrae.
The anterior surface of the sacrum is
concave
The upper border of the first sacral
vertebra known as the sacral
promontory

.Coccyx. 3
Consists of four
vertebrae forming a
small triangular bone.