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SACKS SENTENCE

COMPLETION TEST

History
Herman Ebbinghausis generally credited with developing
the first sentence completion test in 1879.Ebbinghauss
sentence completion test was used as part of an
intelligence test. He used is test to study his interest in
the development intellectual capacity and reasoning
ability in children.
Carl Jung was the first to look at if sentence completion
could be used for personality assessment. He thought the
personal meanings of word associations could be used. He
popularized the idea that inner notions could be analyzed
through peoples associations of different words.
In his methods, he would say a list of words to the person
being tested and with each word, the client would be
asked to say the first thing that came to their
mind(Hersen, 2003). Jungs test used mother, father, sex,
and work.

History

History
The

beginning of using the formal sentence


completion method for personality assessment
was in 1928 with Arthur Payne.Payne used the
tests for guidance purposes in asylums and
institutions and to assess career-related personal
traits(Schafer, Rotter, Rafferty, 1953).

Alexander

Tendler used the method to study


emotional reactions. With his tests, all his
sentences began with I and revealed something
about annoyances, fears, aversions, like,
interests, and attachments. It has never been
validated that these tests can be used in
emotional contexts (Schafer et al, 1953).

History
As

opposed to Tendler and Payne, Amanda Rhode


decided not to focus on specific aspects of personality,
but use the measure to develop a general personality
test.She developed the first validated personality
measure of this kind and discussed abroad range of
personal issues and experiences(Rhode, 1957). The
purpose of the measure was to reveal latent needs,
sentiments, feelings, and attitudes which subjects
would be unable or unwilling to recognize or to
express in direct communication (Weiner & Greene,
2008). Most sentence completion methods today were
developed from the basis of Amanda Rhodes test and
theories.

History

One of the most popular of these tests is the RISB, or


Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. The original
version of the test was developed in 1950 by Rotter
and Rafferty. The main objective of the test was to
create a version of the sentence completion method
that could be administered and scored easily to
permit a widespread use. They also wanted to
provide specific diagnostic criteria so the results of
the exam could be obtained more quickly. However,
the test was not intended to give a full view of
personality, but more of a starting point for clinicians
to take direction from. The current version of this
test has three forms at different levels including High
School, College, and Adult. The test is scored on a
seven point scale with answers being tagged from a
conflict (pessimism, hostility, hopelessness) to

USES or NATURE
The

uses of sentences completion


test include personality analysis,
clinical application, attitude
assessment, achievement motivation
and measurement of other
constructs. They are used in several
disciplines, including psychology,
management, education, and
marketing.

Nature of the Test


Dr. Joseph M. Sacks and other
psychologist of the New York
Veterans Administrative Mental
Hygiene Service developed a
sentence completion test designed to
obtain significant clinical material in
four representative areas of
adjustment namely:
Sentence completion tests typically
provide respondents with beginnings
of sentences, referred to as stems,

Nature of the Test


SCALE

FAMILY: The family area


included three sets of attitudes
namely: a) those towards
mother, b) father, and c) family
unit. It is hoped that even when
the subject becomes evasive or
cautious, at least one of the four
items in each area will reveal
significant response.

Nature of the Test


SEX:

The sex area includes


attitudes towards woman and
heterosexual relationship. The 8
items in this area allows the
subject to express himself with
regards to woman, towards
marriage, and with respect to
sexual relationship.

Nature of the Test


INTERPERSONAL

RELATIONSHIP:
The area of interpersonal
relationship includes attitudes
towards friends and
acquaintances, colleagues at
work or school, superior at work
or school, and people
supervised. The 16 items in this
area affords the subject to
express his feelings towards

Nature of the Test


SELF-CONCEPT:

The area of selfconcept includes fear, guilt


feelings, goals and attitudes
towards ones own ability,
concept of himself as he is, he
was and as he hopes to be.
There are 24 items included in
this area.

Validity and Reliability


Usually,

sentence completion tests can be


interpreted in two different ways: subjectiveintuitive analysis of the underlying
motivations projected in the subject's
responses, or objective analysis by means of
scores assigned to each completed
sentence.Multiple themes can occur in a
short test, which gives the examinee
multiple opportunities to reveal underlying
motivations about each topic during data
analysis. Of course, most sentence
completion tests are much longer-anywhere
from 40 to 100 stems-and contain more
themes-anywhere from 4 to 15 topics.

Validity and Reliability


Sentence

completion tests usually


include some formal coding
procedure or manual. The validity of
each sentence completion test must
be determined independently and
this depends on the instructions laid
out in the scoring manual.
Compared to positivist instruments,
such as Likert-type scales, sentence
completion tests tend to have high

EXAMPLE
Attitude towards Father items: 1. I feel that my
father seldom works. 16. If my father would do
better. 31. I wish that my father is dead. 46. I feel
that my father is no good.
Those four responses are considered together
and interpretative summary is made that
crystallizes the clinicians impression of the
subjects attitude towards in this area. In this
case, the summary stated: Extreme hostility
and contempt or overt death wishes.

SCALE
2 - SEVERELY DISTURBED Appears to require the
therapeutic aid in handling
emotional conflicts in this area.
1 MILDLY DISTURBED Has
emotional conflict in this area
but appears able to handle them
without therapeutic aid. 0 No
Significant disturbance rated in
this area X Unknown,

Interpretation Guide

Attitude towards Mother (14, 29, 44, 59) 2 = Completely rejects and
depreciates mother whom he considers over demanding. 1 = Sees
mothers fault but accepts and tolerates differences. 0 = express only
positive feelings towards the mother.
Attitude

towards Father (1, 16, 31, 46) 2 = feels extreme hostility and
contempt with overt death wishes. 1 = admires father but wishes that
their relationship were closer. 0 = expresses complete satisfaction with
fathers personality.

Attitude

towards Family Unit (2, 27, 42, 57) 2 = feels rejected by the
family which lacks solidarity and which has constantly contended with
difficulties. 1 = aware that the family does not recognize him as a
mature person but has no difficulty in relating with them. 0 = instability
of the family domicile has had little effect on his favorable feeling
towards them.

Interpretation Guide
Attitude

towards Women ( 10, 25, 40, 55) 2 =


extremely suspicious, possible homosexual
tendency 1 = high ideas but ambivalent feelings.
0 = only minor or superficial criticisms

Attitude

towards Heterosexual Relationship


(11,26,41,56) 2 = appears to have given up
achieving good sexual adjustment 1 = deserved
sexual experiences but reservation about his
ability to maintain marital relationship. 0 =
indicates satisfaction towards this area

Interpretation Guide
Attitude

towards Friends and Acquaintances (8,23,38,53) 2 = suspicious


and apparently seclusive 1= seems to wait approval of others before
committing himself emotionally 0 = express mutual relationship with
friends and self

Attitude

towards People Supervised (4,19,34,58) 2 = feels he can


handle or control hostility in handling others 1 = feels capable of doing
good supervisory but has misgivings about assuming an authoritarian
role. 0 = feels controllable and well accepted by subordinates.

Attitude

towards Supervisors at work or School (6,21,36,51) 2 = resents


or fear authority 1 = mild difficulty in accepting difficulty 0 =

Attitude

towards Colleague at work/school (13,28,43,58) 2 = feels


rejected by colleagues, and condemns them 1 = has some difficulty at
work and depends on colleagues 0 = expresses good mutual feelings

Interpretation Guide
Fear

(7,22,37,52) 2 = disturbed by the apparent fear of loving,


possibility to control his feelings 1 = fear of self-assertion
which is fairly common and not pervasive. 0 = lack of fear

Guilt

Feelings (15,30,45,60) 2 = concerned with spiritual


feeling and physical sex drives 1 = has regret over past and
seems mildly disturbed by his failure to control his trouble. 0
= does not seem to be aware of guilt feelings

Attitude

towards Own Ability (2,7,32,47) 2 = feels completely


incompetent and hopeless 1 = feels he has a specific ability
but tends to fear difficulty 0 = confident on his ability to
overcome obstacles

Interpretation Guide
Attitude

towards Past (9,24,39,54) 2 = feels rejected


and isolated 1 = 0 = feels well adjusted, no
significant disturbance in the past

Attitude

towards the Future (5, 20, 35, 50) 2 =


pessimistic, no hope in his own resources for
happiness and success 1 = unsure of himself but tries
to be optimistic 0 = seems confident in achieving his
goals

Goals

(3, 18,53,49) 2 = lack of motivation for


achievement 1 = desires material things for family as
well as for himself 0 =

References
http://www.edb.utexas.edu/faculty/sherry/download/PDFs/SentenceCompletionTes

ts.pdf

http://www.edb.utexas.edu/faculty/sherry/download/PDFs/SentenceCompletionTes

ts.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentence_completion_tests
http://allpsych.com/forums/students/_students/00000828.htm
http://legendarycon.blogspot.com/2010/07/sacks-sentence-completion-test-natur

e.html

http://www.studymode.com/essays/Sacks-Sentence-Completion-Test-1077111.htm

http://anglesinasphere.wordpress.com/tag/sacks-sentence-completion-test/

Hersen, M. (2003).Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment


volume 2: personality assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Holaday, M, Smith, D, & Sherry, A. (2000). Sentence completion tests: a review of
the literature and a results of a survey of members of the society for personality
assessment.Journal of personality assessment,74(3), 371-383.
Rhode, A. (1957).The sentence completion method: its diagnostic and clinical
application to mental disorders. New York, NY: The Ronald Press Company.
Schafer, R, Rotter, J, & Rafferty, J. (1953). Test of personality: word techniques. In
R Schafer (Ed.),Contributions toward medical psychology(pp. 577-598). New
York, NY: Ronald press company.
Weiner, I, & Greene, R. (2008).Handbook of personality assessment. Hoboken,

THANK YOU AND


GODBLESS
PRESENTED BY:

ANSANO, MIGLENE
AGOSTO,RODELIO
AVISADO ANDREW
JAMES

HE

WAS GENERALLY CREDITED WITH


DEVELOPING THE 1ST SENTENCE
COMPLETION TEST
THE BEGINNING OF USING THE
FORMAL SENTENCE COMPLETION
TEST METHOD FOR PERSONALITY
ASSESSMENT
ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR TEST
USES OR NATURE OF SCT (4-8)

AREAS

THAT ARE MEASURED IN SSCT