Sunteți pe pagina 1din 16

ADVANCED SIGNAL

PROCESSING
Solomon Nunoo
Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Eng.
University of Mines and Technology
Tarkwa, Ghana
snunoo@umat.edu.gh /
agyasolo@yahoo.com

INTRODUCTION
Many signals have a stochastic structure or at least some

stochastic component.
Many signals of interest are also stochastic or modelled as
such.
Compression theory rests on a probabilistic model for
every compressed signal.
Measurements of physical phenomena, like earthquakes,
are stochastic.
Statistical signal processing algorithms work to extract the
good despite the efforts of the bad.

WHAT IS SIGNAL PROCESSING?

Signal processing is the analysis,

interpretation, and manipulation of signals


like sound, images time-varying
measurement values and sensor data etc.
For example biological data such as
electrocardiograms, control system signals,
telecommunication transmission signals
such as radio signals, and many others.

NEED OF SIGNAL PROCESSING


When a signal is transmitted from one point to another
there is every possibility of contamination /deformation of
the signal by external noise. So to retrieve the original
signal at the receiver suitable filters are to be used. i.e.
the signal is processed to obtain the pure signal.

CATEGORIES OF SIGNAL PROCESSING


Analog signal processing for signals that have not been digitized,

as in classical radio, telephone, radar, and television systems.

This involves linear electronic circuits such as passive filters,

active filters, additive mixers, integrators and delay lines.

It also involves non-linear circuits such as compandors,

multiplicators (frequency mixers and voltage-controlled amplifiers),


voltage-controlled filters, voltage-controlled oscillators and
phase-locked loops.

CATEGORIES OF SIGNAL PROCESSING


Digital signal processing for signals that have been

digitized, processing is done by general-purpose


computers or by digital circuits such as ASICs,
field-programmable gate arrays or specialized
digital signal processors (DSP chips).

So the processing of the signal helps to estimate

characteristic parameters of the signal and also to


transform the signal in to the desired form.

ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING


The analog signal processing is basically, filtering of the
signal . It can be denoted by the following diagram.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING-BLOCK DIAGRAM


The digital signal processor consists of anti-aliasing filter,

analog to digital converter (ADC), a digital filter


represented by the transfer function H(z), a digital to
analog converter and a reconstruction filter.

ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL OVER ANALOG SIGNAL


PROCESSING
Accuracy: The analog circuits are prone to temperature and

external effects, but the digital filters have no such problems.


Flexibility: Reconfiguration of analog filters is very complex
whereas the digital filters can be reconfigured easily by
changing the program coefficients.
Digital signals can be easily stored on any magnetic media or optical

media are using semiconductor chips.


Easy operation: Even complex mathematical operations can be
performed easily using computers, which is not the case with analog
processing.

LIMITATIONS
There are also certain limitations in DSP.
Bandwidth restrictions
Speed limitations
Finite word length problems.

STUDY GOALS
At the end of the module, you will have acquired insight in

how signal processing mathematics is really applied in


concrete engineering examples. You will know how to do a
time-frequency analysis, how to apply the FFT in real
engineering examples, and how to estimate, separate and
filter signals.

PREREQUISITE
The prerequisite for this course is undergraduate-level

course in linear continuous-time and discrete-time


systems. In the absence of this foundation, the student is
expected to do some background reading. A key feature of
this module is the extensive use of MATLAB-based
examples that illustrate the programs powerful capability
to solve signal processing problems. Practical examples
and applications bring the theory to life.

COURSE CONTENT
Scalar, random variables, and stochastic processes
Linear systems models
Principles of estimation theory
Signal modelling and parametric spectral estimation
Discrete-time signals and systems
Autocorrelation and cross-correlation
MA and AR processes, predictions
DTFT, DFS, DFT, FFT, filter specifications
Filter structures and design
C/D and D/C conversions
Multi-rate practical digital signal processing and applications

MODE OF DELIVERY
Lecture
Tutorials
Mini projects
Assignments

MODE OF ASSESSMENT
Class participation - 10 %
Home work
- 40 %
In-class quizzes
- 20 %
Project work

- 30 %

REFERENCE
Prandoni, P. and Vetterli, M. (2008), Signal Processing for

Communications, EPFL Press, Lausanne, Switzerland, 371 pp.


Tan, L. and Jiang, J. (2013), Digital Signal Processing: Fundamentals

and Applications, Second Edition, Elsevier Inc., Massachusetts, USA,


876 pp.