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Faculty of Business and

Information Technology

Perception
-- How we make sense of things

http://illusioncontest.neuralcorrelate.com/2007/the-leaning-tower-illusion-2/

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Agenda

Overview of the Perceptual Process


Five sensory systems
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensation & Perception


Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Sensation: immediate response of our


sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth,
skin) to basic sensory stimuli (light, color,
sound, etc).
Perception: the process by which these
sensations are selected, organized, and
interpreted.
Add meanings to raw sensations
Make sense of things
e.g., Coke vs. Pepsi

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

The Perceptual Process


The extent to which
processing activity is devoted
to a particular stimulus
Sensory
Stimuli

Sensory
Receptors

Sights

Eyes

Sounds

Ears

Smells

Nose

Tastes

Mouth

Textures

Skin

The degree to which


consumers notice a
stimuli that is noticeable

Exposure

The meanings that


consumers assign to
sensory stimuli

Attention

Experiences
Expectations
Needs

Interpretation

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Hedonic Consumption & Design


Hedonic vs. Utilitarian Consumption
Overview

Hedonic: multisensory, fantasy, emotional

Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Utilitarian: functional
Sensory marketing
Use sensations to influence produce experience

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Sight


Vision elements in the marketplace
Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Color, size, style, brightness, etc.

Color & emotion


Red vs. blue

Color & symbolic meanings, cultural values


Red
White
black

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Sight


Consumer reactions to color
Overview
Sensory Sys.

Color & attention


Women are more sensitive than men
Older people prefer white or other bright tones

Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Color in package design


Product association
A segmentation tool
Trade dress

Blue: excitement about the future/


innovative and high-tech

Red: danger, warning, angry/


celebrating, special, happy, lucky

White: sad, sorrow, unwanted, surrender/


goodness, purity, virginity, faith

Yellow: hope, support, remembrance/


cheap, discount, coward

Red Line: power tools

Blue Line: cleaning products

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Sight


Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Background color of a webpage

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Sight


Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Background color of a webpage


Hue: pigment of color, e.g., blue, yellow, red
Blue is a more relaxing color than yellow or red
Chroma: saturation in the color
Lower chroma colors are more relaxing than
high chroma colors
Value: whiteness or blackness of the color
Higher value colors are more relaxing than low
value colors
Color associates with meanings and feelings
Any other applications?

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Sight


Package Size & Product Volume
Overview

What determines product volume in a bottle?

Sensory Sys.
Exposure

Which dimension is considered more?

Attention
Interpretation
Application

What if the packaging is irregular?

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Sight


Package Size & Consumption Quantity
Overview

Food container size

Sensory Sys.
Exposure

Glass shape

Attention
Interpretation
Application

Small package
Food variety

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Smell


Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Odors can stir emotions or create a calming


effect
Examples
Lemon: Boosts energy level, feel happy & rejuvenated
Lavender: Relaxing, calming, homey & comfortable feel

Consumer reactions to smell can be influenced by


their cultural background, gender
Research from Gillette found there is a difference in
how people want to smell

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Smell


Scented marketing
Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Put scents into products, e.g., detergents, magazine


http://www.downy.com/en-US/scents.jspx
Scent & memory
Recall of brand names
Pleasant ambient scents increase attention to both familiar
and unfamiliar brands
Consumers spend more time viewing the product
Congruence of scent and product is not important

Recall of verbal information


Scent & picture has an additive effect on recall
Especially after a long delay (e.g., 2 days after 5 minutes)

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Hearing


Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Advertising jingles create and maintain brand


awareness
Travelers Insurance - Prized Possession (Dog
Commercial)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNY82N8sxQA

Background music influences consumers


mood, emotions, and even behavior
Music influences behavior
Relaxing, stimulated...

Brand name sounding


e.g., Jelly Belly

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Touch


It feels like cashmere
Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Touch


Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Sensation on skin can relax or stimulate


consumers mood
Consumers associated the texture of fabrics or
other products with product quality

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Touch


One important touch factor: Need for Touch
Overview
Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Individual differences in use of touch senses


NFT may influence consumers confidence in
product judgment
NFT may influence consumers attitude toward a
product
NFT may influence which shopping environment to
choose

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Touch


Product Contagion
Overview

Which products are disgusting?

Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Do they influence buyer behavior?


What to do?

Faculty of Business and


Information Technology

Sensory Systems Taste


Overview

Taste influence our experiences of many


products

Sensory Sys.
Exposure
Attention
Interpretation
Application

Consumers have strong preferences for


certain flavors
Color perceived taste
Ad refer to more senses more positive taste
perception