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A range of different skills and qualifications

are required by industrial chemists.

Chemical engineers constantly supervise the

operation of the plant, solve production
problems, develop modifications to the existing
plant and assist in the design of new projects.
Analytical chemists are concerned with quality
control, providing analysis of raw materials,
products and emissions and problems, develop
modifications to the existing plant.
Research chemists undertake research on new
processes and new materials and develop new
analytical techniques

The extent of conversion of raw materials

to product is influenced by reaction
conditions such as temperature, pressure
and concentration.
To avoid waste and reduce costs,
conditions are carefully selected to
ensure that acceptable yields of product
are obtained.

Chemists therefore try to ensure that:

The reaction rate is fast
A high proportion of reactants is converted to
products at equilibrium

There is often a need to compromise

between rate and equilibrium

Is one of the two main ways that

reactions are controlled in industry.
It is the method used when fixed
amounts of reactants are mixed, giving
fixed amount of products.
It is used when there are low costs or
negligible delays in starting or stopping
productions, for one-off productions and
small quantities of product.

Reactants are mixed continuously,

providing a constant supply of product.
This technique uses smaller, less
expensive equipment than batch
Is the preferred method when there are
high costs or long delays in starting or
stopping production.
It allows greater control over reaction
conditions, especially temperature, than
batch processing.

Other factors that influence the final choice

of reaction conditions.
Catalyst a less expensive one may be
preferred to a more efficient one
Pressure high-pressure reaction vessels are
costly to build and operate
Temperature fuel costs rise rapidly as
operating temperatures increase
Choice of reactant to use in excess
Safety and waste minimisation and disposal.
The safest option is not always the cheapest
Energy costs

This is the area of employee safety.

Australia has laws that enforce a duty of
care by organisations that supply or use
Penalties for negligence that results in
someones death or serious injury can
include hefty fines or imprisonment.

Dangerous goods have the potential to

pose immediate danger to people,
property or the environment.
Examples of dangerous goods include
Pool chlorine
Ammonium nitrate fertiliser.

Hazardous substances are classified on

the basis of their short- and long-term
effects on the health or safety of people.
Some such as a asbestos may cause
illness or disease some time after
Warning signs about dangerous goods are
required at any site where they are used
or stored.

A risk assessment is a formal way of

identifying risks and assessing potential
harm from a hazardous chemical in a
particular situation.
Effective risk management reduces
exposure to hazardous chemicals to at
least acceptable levels.

Risk assessments should include

Identification of hazardous chemicals
(products as well as reactants)
Assessment of the risk
Control of the risk (how do we minimise the
risk and disposal)

Manufacturers have to supply MSDS for hazardous

An MSDS needs to provide:
Company name and contact details
Scientific and trade names
Major uses and applications
Physical data (appearance, colour, boiling point,
solubility etc)
Health effects
Safe handling
Date of publication

A waste is considered as an unwanted or

unvalued substance that is discarded or
Wastes occur as:

Contaminated soil and solids

Organic liquids of low volatility
Wastes containing high volatile liquids
Solid and semi-soli process materials
Aqueous wastes
Sludges, spillages
Products past their used-by date

Hazardous waste may be toxic, radioactive or

contaminated by disease-causing organisms

Industrial waste treatment technologies now

go beyond landfill and dumping at sea.
They include high-temperature incineration
and vitrification.
Other options still under development
Dispersion in controlled amounts in water or air
Removal of pollutants from waste gases and liquid
Storage in sealed drums in secure locations
Catalysed dechlorination
Ionic replacement of halogens in halogenated
organic compounds
High-temperature steam and water treatments

Chemical industries aim to deal with

wastes in the following strategic order of


What kinds of things would you need to

consider when deciding on a location for
a chemistry plant???