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DJJ3213 MATERIAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER 5 METAL ALLOYS

MOHD HAFIZ BIN ALI


JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL
POLITEKNIK KOTA KINABALU

ALLOY STEELS
Alloy steels are iron-carbon alloys, to which alloying
elements are added with a purpose to improve the
steels properties as compared to the carbon steels.
Contain more than 1.0% of other elements instead of
Fe and C.
Purpose of alloying
Increase hardenability
Improve strength at ordinary temperature
Improve mechanical properties at either high or low
temperatures
Improve toughness at any minimum hardness or strength
Increase wear resistance
Increase corrosion resistance
Improve magnetic properties

FERROUS AND NONFERROUS


ALLOYS

TYPES OF FERROUS ALLOYS


Classifi cation. Three types of ferrous alloys:
Iron: less than 0.008 wt % C in ferrite at room T
Steels: 0.008 - 2.14 wt % C (usually < 1 wt % ) -ferrite +
Fe3C at room T (Chapter 12)
Cast iron: 2.14 - 6.7 wt % (usually < 4.5 wt %)

CARBON STEELS
Carbon steels are group
by their percentage of
carbon content per
weight. The higher the
carbon content the
greater the hardness,
strength and wear
resistance after heat
treatment.
Low-carbon steel, also
called mild steels, has
less than 0.30% carbon.
Used in everyday
industrial products like
bolts, nuts, sheet, plate
and tubes.

High Carbon Steel


Nails

CARBON STEELS
Medium-carbon steel has 0.30% to 0.60% carbon.
Used for jobs requiring higher strength such as
machinery, automotive equipment parts, and
metalworking equipment.
High-carbon steel has more than 0.60% carbon.
Used parts that require the highest strength,
hardness, and wear resistance. Once manufactured
they are heat treated and tempered

STAINLESS STEELS

Stainless steels are


primarily know for
their corrosion
resistance, high
strength, and
ductility and
chromium content.

STAINLESS STEELS

The reason for the name stainless is due to


the fact that in the presence of oxygen, the
steel develops a thin, hard, adherent fi lm
of chromium.
Even if the surface is scratched, the protective
fi lm is rebuilt through passivation.
For passivation to occur there needs to be a minimum
chromium content of 10% to 12% by weight.

STAINLESS STEELS
Stainless steels tend to have lower carbon content
since increased carbon content lowers the corrosion
resistance of stainless steels.
Since the carbon reacts with chromium it decreases the
available chromium content which is needed for developing
the protective fi lm.

STAINLESS STEELS
Using stainless steels as reinforcing bars, has
become a new trend, in concrete structures
such as highways buildings and bridges.
It is more benefi cial than carbon steels because it is
resistant to corrosion from road salts and the
concrete itself.

Rebar
corrosion in
concrete

OVERVIEW OF CAST IRON


Iron with 1.7 to 4.5% carbon and 0.5 to 3%
silicon
Lower melting point and more fl uid than
steel (better castability)
Low cost material usually produced by sand
casting
A wide range of properties, depending on
composition & cooling rate
Strength
Hardness
Ductility
Thermal conductivity

IRON CARBON DIAGRAM

Liquid
+ L

L + Fe3C

Austenite
Carbon
910C Steel
723C

0%
12

+ Fe3C

Cast Iron

+ Fe3C
0.8%

~2%

~3%

TYPES OF CAST IRON


Grey cast iron - carbon as graphite
White cast iron - carbides, often alloyed
Ductile cast iron
nodular, spheroidal graphite

Malleable cast iron


Compacted graphite cast iron
CG or Vermicular Iron

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GREY CAST IRON


Flake graphite in a matrix of pearlite, ferrite or
martensite.
Wide range of application.
Properties: Machineability is excellent
Low ductility - elongation 0.6%

Formation when: Cooling is slow as in heavy section


High silicon carbon

Application:

Engine
Brake drum
Clutch plate
Furnace part

NODULAR(DUCTILE) IRON
Inoculation with Ce or Mg or both causes graphite to
form as spherulites, rather than fl akes
Also known as spheroidal graphite (SG), and nodular
graphite iron
Far better ductility than grey cast iron

15

MICROSTRUCTURE

Graphite spheres
surrounded by ferrite
Usually some pearlite
May be some
cementite
Can be hardened to
martensite by heat
treatment
16

PROPERTIES
Strength higher than grey cast iron
Ductility up to 6% as cast or 20% annealed
Low cost
Simple manufacturing process makes complex shapes

Machineability better than steel

17

APPLICATIONS
Automotive industry 55% of ductile iron in USA
Crankshafts, front wheel spindle supports, steering
knuckles, disc brake callipers

Pipe and pipe fi ttings (joined by welding) see AS2280

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MALLEABLE CAST IRON


Graphite in nodular form
Produced by heat treatment of white cast iron
Graphite nodules are irregular clusters
Similar properties to ductile iron

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MICROSTRUCTURE

Uniformly dispersed graphite


Ferrite, pearlite or tempered martensite
matrix
Ferritic castings require 2 stage anneal.
Pearlitic castings - 1st stage only
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PROPERTIES
Similar to ductile iron
Good shock resistance
Good ductility
Good machineability

21

APPLICATIONS
Similar applications to ductile iron
Malleable iron is better for thinner castings
Ductile iron better for thicker castings
>40mm
Vehicle components
Power trains, frames, suspensions and wheels
Steering components, transmission and diff erential
parts, connecting rods

Railway components
Pipe fi ttings AS3673

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WHITE CAST IRON


White fracture surface
No graphite because carbon form or more complex
carbide
Abbrasion resistant
If carbon increase
Increase hardness
Increase brittleness
Promote graphite during solidifi cation

If increase silicon

Lower carbon content


Negative eff ect of hardenability
Can improve resistance to scaling at high temperature
Application : brake pump shoes,pump impellers and abrasion
resistant part

CHARACTERISTICS AND
APPLICATION OF NONFERROUS
ALLOY MATERIALS

TITANIUM
Low density (S.G. of 4.5, as compared to steel at
approx 8)
Similar strengths to steels
Highly corrosion resistant
Melts at 1670C
Use restricted to <400 C

TITANIUM
Used in
Aerospace parts
Racing cars, motorcycles and bicycles
Pipework and heat exchangers in chemical plants and
oil installations.

Titanium heatexchangers

WHAT IS CORROSION?
Corrosion is the oxidation of a metal due to an
ELECTROCHEMICAL reaction. The oxidizing agent is
most often O2 (atmospheric corrosion) or H+ (chemical
corrosion) or both.

Why is it a problem?
Financial - $350 Billion Dollar Annual Problem in U.S.
(4.25% of GNP) Department of Defense spends $6
8 Billion

RECIPE FOR
CORROSION
Active metal

Electrolyte

Water
Oxygen
(atmospheric
corrosion)
Acid
(chemical
corrosion)
Salt

High
temperature

Corrosion
Triangle

Metal

Oxidize

Electrochemical Corrosion
Electrochemical corrosion - Corrosion produced by the
development of a current in an electrochemical cell that
removes ions from the material.
Electrochemical cell - A cell in which electrons and ions
can flow by separate paths between two materials,
producing a current which, in turn, leads to corrosion or
plating.
Oxidation reaction - The anode reaction by which
electrons are given up to the electrochemical cell.
Reduction reaction - The cathode reaction by which
electrons are accepted from the electrochemical cell.

34

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure 22.3 The components in an electrochemical cell: (a) a


simple electrochemical cell and (b) a corrosion cell between a
steel water pipe and a copper fitting.

35

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure 22.4 The anode and cathode reactions in typical


electrolytic corrosion cells: (a) the hydrogen electrode, (b) the
oxygen electrode, and (c) the water electrode.
36

TYPES OF CORROSION
:
Corrosion is the primary means by
which metals deteriorate. Most metals
corrode on contact with water (and
moisture in the air), acids, bases, salts,
aggressive metal polishes, and other
solid and liquid chemicals. Metals will
also corrode when exposed to gaseous
materials like acid vapors,
formaldehyde gas, ammonia gas, and
sulfur containing gases.

Corrosion Mechanism :
Corrosion Mechanism is the destructive
attack, or deterioration, of a metal by
chemical or electrochemical reaction with its
environment. Corrosive attack of metals is an
electrochemical process. In a galvanic cell,
two dissimilar metals (e.g., iron and copper)
are placed in electrical contact in the
presence of oxygen and moisture. Separate
chemical reactions take place at the surfaces
of the two metals, creating a fl ow of electrons
through the connecting wire.

Uniform Corrosion

UNIFORM CORROSION
This type of corrosion includes the commonly
recognized rusting of iron and other metals.

Pitting

PITTING CORROSION
This is a localized type of attack, with the rate of
corrosion being greater at some areas than at others.
If appreciable attack is confi ned to a relatively small,
fi xed area of metal, acting as anode, the resultant
pits are described as deep. If the area of attack is
relatively larger and not so deep, the pits are called
shallow. Depth of pitting is sometimes expressed by
the pitting factor , the ratio of deepest metal
penetration
to
average
metal
penetration
as
determined by the weight loss of the specimen. A
pitting factor of unity represents uniform attack.
Iron buried in the soil corrodes with formation of
shallow pits, whereas stainless steels immersed in
seawater characteristically corrode with formation of
deep pits.

Erosion-Corrosion

EROSION CORROSION
when subjected to high - velocity liquids, undergo a
pitting type of corrosion called impingement attack ,
or erosion corrosion .
Copper and brass condenser tubes, for example, are
subject to this type of
attack.

Fretting Corrosion

Fretting corrosion , which results from slight relative


motion (as in vibration) of two substances in contact,
one or both being metals, usually leads to a series of
pits at the metal interface. Metal - oxide debris
usually fi lls the pits so that only after the corrosion
products are removed do the pits become visible

Cavitation Erosion

Cavitation erosion is the loss of material caused by


exposure to cavitation, which is the formation and
collapse of vapor bubbles at a dynamic metal liquid
interface for example, in rotors of pumps or on
trailing faces of propellers. This type of corrosion
causes a sequence of pits

Selective Corrosion

Dealloying is the selective removal of an


element from an alloy by corrosion. One form
of dealloying, dezincifi cation, is a type of
attack occurring with zinc alloys (e.g., yellow
brass) in which zinc corrodes preferentially,
leaving a porous residue of copper and
corrosion products. The alloy so corroded
often retains its original shape, but its tensile
strength and ductility are seriously reduced.
Dezincifi ed brass pipe may retain suffi cient
strength to resist internal water pressures
until an attempt is made to uncouple the
pipe, or a water hammer occurs, causing the
pipe to split open.

Parting is similar to dezincifi cation in that one or


more reactive components of the alloy corrode
preferentially, leaving a porous residue that may
retain the original shape of the alloy. Parting is
usually restricted to such noble metal alloys as gold
copper or gold silver and is used in gold refi ning.
For example, an alloy of Au Ag containing more than
65% gold resists concentrated nitric acid as well as
does gold itself. However, on addition of silver to
form an alloy of approximately 25% Au 75% Ag,
reaction with concentrated HNO 3 forms silver nitrate
and a porous residue or powder of pure gold.
Copper - base alloys that contain aluminum are
subject
to
a
form
of
corrosion
resembling
dezincifi cation,
with
aluminum
corroding
preferentially.

Intergranular Corrosion

This is a localized type of attack at the grain


boundaries of a metal, resulting in loss of strength
and ductility. Grain boundary material of limited
area, acting as anode, is in contact with large areas
of grain acting as cathode. The attack is often rapid,
penetrating deeply into the metal and sometimes
causing catastrophic failures. Improperly heat treated 18 - 8 stainless steels or alloys (4% Cu Al)
are among the alloys subject to intergranular
corrosion. At elevated temperatures, intergranular
corrosion can occur because, under some conditions,
phases of low melting point form and penetrate
along grain boundaries; for example, when nickel base alloys are exposed to sulfur - bearing gaseous
environments catastrophic failures can take place.
This type of attack is usually called sulfi dation

Corrosion Fatigue

If a metal cracks when subjected to


repeated or alternate tensile stresses in a
corrosive environment, it is said to fail by
corrosion fatigue . In the absence of a
corrosive environment, the metal stressed
similarly, but at values below a critical
stress, called the fatigue limit or endurance
limit , will not fail by fatigue even after a
very large, or infi nite, number of cycles. A
true endurance limit does not commonly
exist in a corrosive environment: The metal
fails after a prescribed number of stress
cycles no matter how low the stress.

Galvanic Corrosion

Galvanic corrosion (also called dissimilar metal


corrosion) refers to corrosion damage induced when
two dissimilar materials are coupled in a corrosive
electrolyte. In a bimetallic couple, the less noble
material becomes the anode and tends to corrode at
an accelerated rate, compared with the uncoupled
condition and the more noble material will act as the
cathode in the corrosion cell.

Crevice Corrosion

Crevice corrosion, corrosion take place in crevices bcz


solutions retained at this place and takes longer time
to dry out. When this occurs, the severity of attack is
more severe at crevices. Crevices are formed bcz of
the metal contact with another piece of the same or
other metal or with a nonmetallic material. Corrosion
in crevice is due to defi ciency of O2, Acidity changes,

SELECTIVE CORROSION
Selective corrosion can be found in alloys and
resulting from the fact that the components of the
alloy corrode at diff erent rates.

Methods to Control Corrosion


There are five methods to control corrosion:
material selection
coatings
changing the environment
changing the potential
design

HOW TO AVOID (OR


CONTROL) CORROSION?
Material Selection! Remember environment key.
Look at potential pH diagrams!!!
Eliminate any one of the 4 reqments for corrosion!
Galvanic - Avoid using dissimilar metals.
Or close together as possible
Or electrically isolate one from the other
Or MAKE ANODE BIG!!!

HOW TO AVOID (OR


CONTROL) CORROSION?
Pitting/Crevice: Watch for stagnate water/ electrolyte.
Use gaskets
Use good welding practices

Intergranular watch grain size, environment,


temperature, etc.. Careful with Stainless Steels and
AL.

HOW TO AVOID (OR


CONTROL) CORROSION?
Consider organic coating (paint,
ceramic, chrome, etc.) DANGER IF IT
GETS SCRACTHED!!
OR BETTER YET, consider cathodic
protection:
such as zinc (or galvanized) plating on steel
Mg sacrificial anode on steel boat hull
Impressed current, etc..

CORROSION CONTROL:

Anodic Protection Zinc coating of steel. KNOW HOW THIS WORKS!!

DESIGN for Corrosion

DESIGN for Corrosion

Bracket easier
to replace than
pipe!

SURFACE TREATMENT (COATINGS)


Organic paints
Chromating and phosphating:
The Process - chromating and phosphating are surface-coating processes that
enhance the corrosion resistance of metals. Both involve soaking the component in a
heated bath based on chromic or phosphoric acids. The acid reacts with the surface,
dissolving some of the surface metal and depositing a thin protective layer of
complex chromium or phosphorous compounds

Anodizing (aluminum, titanium)


The Process - Aluminum is a reactive metal, yet in everyday objects it does not
corrode or discolor. That is because of a thin oxide fi lm - Al2O3 - that forms
spontaneously on its surface, and this fi lm, though invisible, is highly protective. The
fi lm can be thickened and its structure controlled by the process of anodizing. The
process is electrolytic; the electrolyte, typically, is dilute (15%) sulfuric acid.
Anodizing is most generally applied to aluminum, but magnesium, titanium, zirconium
and zinc can all be treated in this way. The oxide formed by anodizing is hard,
abrasion resistant and resists corrosion well. The fi lm-surface is micro-porous,
allowing it to absorb dyes, giving metallic refl ectivity with an attractive gold, viridian,
azure or rose-colored sheen; and it can be patterned. The process is cheap, an
imparts both corrosion and wear resistance to the surface.

SURFACE TREATMENT (COATINGS)


Electro-plating
T h e Pro c e s s - M e t a l c o a t in g p ro c e s s w h e re in a t h in m e t a l li c c o a t i s d e p o s i t e d o n t h e w o r k p ie c e b y
m e a n s o f a n io n i z e d e le c t ro ly t ic s o lu t i o n . T h e w o r k p i e c e ( ca t h o d e ) a n d t h e m e t a ll i z i n g s o u rc e
m a t e r i a l ( a n o d e ) a re s u b m e rg e d in t h e s o lu t i o n w h e re a d i re c t e le c t r i c a l c u rre n t ca u s e s t h e
m e t a ll ic i o n s t o m i g r a t e f ro m t h e s o u rc e m a t e r i a l t o t h e w o r k p i e c e . T h e w o r k p i e c e a n d s o u rc e
m e t a l a re s u s p e n d e d in t h e io n iz e d e le c t ro ly t ic s o l u t i o n b y i n s u la t e d ro d s . T h o ro u g h s u r f a c e
c l e a n in g p re c e d e s t h e p la t in g o p e r a t i o n . P l a t i n g i s c a rr i e d o u t f o r m a n y re a s o n s : c o rro s io n
re s is t a n c e , i m p ro v e d a p p e a r a n c e , w e a r re s i s t a n c e , h ig h e r e l e c t r ic a l c o n d u c t iv it y , b e t t e r e l e c t r ic a l
c o n t a c t , g re a t e r s u r f a c e s m o o t h n e s s an d b e t t e r l ig h t re fl e c t a n c e .

Bluing
B l u i n g i s a p a ss iv a t io n p ro c e s s i n w h ic h s t e e l i s p a r t ia l ly p ro t e c t e d a g a i n s t r u st, a n d is n a m e d
a ft e r t h e b l u e - b la c k a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e re s u lt in g p ro t e c t i v e fi n i s h . Tr u e g u n b lu in g is a n
e l e c t ro c h e m ic a l c o n v e r si o n c o a t in g re s u lt in g f ro m a n ox i d i z in g c h e m ic a l re a c t i o n w i t h i ro n o n t h e
s u r f a c e s e l e c t iv e l y f o rm i n g m a g n e t i t e ( Fe 3 O 4 ) , t h e b l a c k ox i d e o f i ro n, w h ic h o c c u p ie s t h e s a m e
v o l u m e a s n o rm a l iro n. D o n e f o r b o lt s c a ll e d b l a c ke n i n g

Hot-dip Coating (i.e. galvanizing)


H o t d i p p i n g i s a p ro c e s s f o r c o a t i n g a m e t a l , m a i n l y f e rro u s m e t a l s , w i t h l o w m e l t i n g p o i n t m e t a l s u s u a l l y z i n c a n d
i t s a l l o y s . T h e c o m p o n e n t i s fi r s t d e g re a s e d i n a c a u s t i c b a t h , t h e n p i c k l e d ( t o re m o v e r u s t a n d s c a l e ) i n a s u l f u r i c
a c i d b a t h , i m m e r s e d ( d i p p e d ) i n t h e l i q u i d m e t a l a n d , a f t e r l i ft i n g o u t , i t i s c o o l e d i n a c o l d a i r s t re a m . T h e m o l t e n
m e t a l a l l o y s w i t h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e c o m p o n e n t , f o rm i n g a c o n t i n u o u s t h i n c o a t i n g . W h e n t h e c o a t i n g i s z i n c a n d
the component is steel, the process is known as galvanizing.
T h e p ro c e s s i s v e r y v e r s a t i l e a n d c a n b e a p p l i e d t o c o m p o n e n t s o f a n y s h a p e , a n d s i z e s u p t o 3 0 m x 2 m x 4 m .
T h e c o s t i s c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h a t o f p a i n t i n g , b u t t h e p ro t e c t i o n o ff e re d b y g a l v a n i z i n g i s m u c h g re a t e r , b e c a u s e i f
t h e c o a t i n g i s s c r a t c h e d i t i s t h e z i n c n o t t h e u n d e r l y i n g s t e e l t h a t c o rr o d e s ( " g a l v a n i c p ro t e c t i o n " ) . Pro p e r l y
galvaniz ed steel will survive outdoors for 30-40 years without further treatment.

Discuss and show Bolts!!!

MATERIAL SELECTION:
Importance of Oxide fi lms
The fundamental resistance of stainless steel to
corrosion occurs because of its ability to form an
oxide protective coating on its surface. This thin
coating is invisible, but generally protects the
steel in oxidizing environments (air and nitric
acid). However, this fi lm loses its protectiveness
in environments such as hydrochloric acid and
chlorides. In stainless steels, lack of oxygen also
ruins the corrosion protective oxide fi lm,
therefore these debris ridden or stagnant
regions are susceptible to corrosion.

CATHODIC PROTECTION (CP)


Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique to control the
corrosion of a metal surface by making it work a s a ca thode of
an electrochemical cell. This is achieved by placing in contact
with the metal to be protected another more ea sily corroded
metal to act as the anode of the electrochemical cell. Cathodic
protection systems are m ost commonly used to protect steel,
water or fuel pipelines and stor age tanks, steel pier piles, ships,
off shore oil platforms and onshore oil well casings.

Types of CP:
sacrifi cial anodes zinc, magnesium or aluminum. The sacrifi cial
anodes are more active (more negative potential) than the metal
of the structure theyre designed to protect. The anode pushes
the potential of the steel structure more negative and therefore
the driving force for corrosion halts. The anode continues to
corrode until it requires replacement,
Impressed current CP done for large structures (pipes, off shore
platforms, etc) where a galvanic (or sacrifi cial) anode can not
economically deliver enough current.
Galvanized steel again, steel is coated with zinc and if the zinc
coating is scratched and steel exposed, the surrounding areas of
zinc coating form a galvanic cell with the exposed steel and
protects in from corroding. The zinc coating acts as a sacrifi cial
anode.

See Exxon Mobil example

Aluminium anodes mounted on a steel


jacket structure using galvanic corrosion
for corrosion control! Called cathodic
protection (aka sacrificial anode)

TQ