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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.

Contribution of chemicalbased industries towards the development of our country.


Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Chapter 1
Introduction to chemistry

What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

- Concept map -

3/2006

kht.smk luar bandar sibu.

What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

What chemistry is?

Chemistry is the scientific study of the


properties, composition and structure
of substances found around us, as well
as the changes which occur when these
substances interact with one another.

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kht.smk luar bandar sibu.

What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Origin of the word


The term chemistry originated from the
Arabian word --- al-kimi-ya, which
means black soil from the Nile
2. The English derived the word alchemy
from al-kimi-ya.
3. Then, the term alchemy was modified to
chemistry.
1.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Robert Boyle
4. Robert Boyle (1627-1691), an English
scientist, was believed to be the founder
of modern chemistry when published a
book The Sceptical Chemist (1661)
which describes the properties of
elements, compound, and mixtures
clearly.

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kht.smk luar bandar sibu.

What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Uses
1.

2.

3.

The world around us is made up of matter,


which is made up of elements,
compounds, and mixtures.
For examples, the human body, food, air,
medicines, and clothes are all made up of
chemical substances.
Some examples of chemical substances:
sulphuric acid, nitric acid, sodium
hydroxide, sodium chloride, acetic acid,
soap, urea, PVC etc.
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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Chemical substances

Use

Nitric acid

To make fertilizers

Soaps and detergents

As cleaning agents

Urea

As nitrogenous fertilizers

PVC (polyvinyl
chloride)

To make pipes, plastic bags, and children


toys.

Ethanol

To manufacture alcoholic drinks,


cosmetic.

Paints

To protect surfaces

Formaldehyde

To preserve specimens in the laboratory

Sodium hydroxide

To make soap

Sodium chloride

To preserve food

Acetic acid

To add flavor to food


3/2006

kht.smk luar bandar sibu.

What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

The Importance of Chemistry


1.

Occupations which
need the knowledge
of chemistry:
chemist
doctor
pharmacist
forensic scientist
dentist
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geologist
laboratory

technologist
agriculturist
chemical engineer
biochemist
genetic engineer
polymer scientist

kht.smk luar bandar sibu.

What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Chemical industries in Malaysia


Petroleum and natural gas industrysupplies fuel for homes, vehicles and
factory.
Plastics industry- produces equipment.
Agricultural chemical industryproduces fertilizer and pesticides.
Pharmaceutical industry- produces both
modern and traditional medicines.

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kht.smk luar bandar sibu.

What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Oleochemical

industry- produces various


products from palm oil, including soaps
and detergents.
Recycling- recycle paper, aluminum cans
and others into reusable products.
Iron and steel industries
Food production- food stabilizers,
preservatives, flavours, sweeteners etc.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Contribution of chemical-based industries


towards the development of our
country:
Improved

our nations economy through the


export of chemical-based products, such as
chemicals, soaps, detergents, electronic
components, fertilizers, pesticides, rubber,
petroleum, nature gas and oil palm products.
Reduced imports and saved foreign
exchanges.
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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Scientific Method?
1.

Scientific methods are a series of


systematic steps which scientists
practice when conducting a study or an
investigation.

2.

Scientific investigation is done through a


series of systematic steps called
scientific methods.
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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

A scientific investigation includes


the following steps:
controlling the
variables
planning procedures

1.

Observation

2.

making an inference7.

3.

8. collecting data
identifying the
problem
9. Interpreting data
Forming a
hypothesis
10. drawing a conclusion
identifying variables
11. writing a report

4.
5.

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6.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

5.

An inference is the initial conclusion that


is made, based on the observation at the
beginning of the investigation.

6.

A hypothesis is a general statement that


states the correlation between the
responding variable and the
manipulated variable.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Variables
Variables are factors or conditions which
influence other factors in an
investigation.
2. 3 types of variables:
The variable that is manipulatedvariable that is deliberately
altered/changed to see how such
changes affect the factor.
1.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

The

variable that responds- the factor


which changes as a result of the variable
that is manipulated.

The

variable that is kept constant- the


factor that remains unchanged
throughout the investigation.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

A complete report should contain:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The statement of the problem/ aim


Hypothesis
Variables- all three
Apparatus used
Materials used

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Procedure- correct sequences, passive


voice, and diagram of the set-up of
apparatus
7. Results- data in form of tables, graphs,
calculations etc
8. Discussion of the data
9. Conclusion
6.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Manipulative skills
The manipulative skills learnt during a scientific
investigation are:
Using

and handling science apparatus and


materials correctly and safely.
Drawing apparatus and laboratory substances
accurately.
Cleaning science apparatus correctly, and
Storing science apparatus and materials
correctly and safely.
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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Scientific attitudes and Values


During the process of conducting an
experiment, students should practice the
following scientific attitudes and noble
values:
Having an interest and curiosity towards
the environment.
Being honest and accurate when
recording and validating data.
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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Being

diligent, persevering, flexible, openminded, objective, cooperative, fair and just,


confident and independent.
Appreciating the contribution of science and
technology.
Realizing that science is a means to
understand nature.
Being responsible about the safety of
oneself, others and the environment.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
Contribution of chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and
Values.

Being

systematic and orderly when


conducting experiments.
Always ensure the cleanliness of the
apparatus and laboratory and keeping
apparatus and materials in their correct
places.
Using apparatus and materials correctly,
safely and without wastage.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia.
based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

Contribution of chemical-

Scientific attitudes and noble


values are necessary to:
Prevent

accidents from occurring.


Ensure a clean and calm atmosphere in
the laboratory.
Inculcate positive values.

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What chemistry is? Origin of the word. Uses. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemical industries in Malaysia. Contribution of
chemical-based industries towards the development of our country.
Scientific Method?
Scientific attitudes and Values.

3/2006

kht.smk luar bandar sibu.

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