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Microwave Engineering with Pathloss IV

Imran Siddiqui
Email :m_imran_siddiqui@yahoo.com

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Microwave Communication
A communication system that utilizes the radio frequency band
spanning 2 to 60 GHz. As per IEEE, electromagnetic waves
between 30 and 300 GHz are called millimeter waves (MMW)
instead of microwaves as their wavelengths are about 1 to
10mm.
Small capacity systems generally employ the frequencies less
than 3 GHz while medium and large capacity systems utilize
frequencies ranging from 3 to 15 GHz. Frequencies > 15 GHz
are essentially used for short-haul transmission.
Microwave radio communication requires a clear line-of-sight
(LOS) condition.
Radio LOS takes into account the concept of Fresnel ellipsoids
and their clearance criteria.

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Available RF Spectrum
Band
2-4 GHz

Advantage
Best propagation - no power fading (decoupling,
ducting).
Effective space diversity.

6-8 GHz

Lowest outage in non-ducting areas. Best high


capacity, long-haul performance
Very effective space diversity.
Good discrimination to interference and longdelayed reflections.

10 GHz

Good longer path performance .


Effective space diversity.
Low rain outage in thunderstorm areas.

11 GHz

Wide spectrum (1000 MHz) available


Many high capacity channels available

13-18 GHz

Narrow and wideband channels available


Uncrowded bands (2000 MHz @ 18 GHz).

23-38 GHz

Few bandwidth constrictions .Uncrowded bands


(e.g. 2400 MHz wide band at 23 GHz)

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Disadvantage
Wideband links are vulnerable to dispersive fading.
Reduced fade margins due to lower antenna gains.
Higher interference levels. 2 GHz impacted by
UMTS, FWA. High clearance paths are vulnerable to
reflections. 4 GHz shared with satellites.
Longer paths are vulnerable to power fades due to
ducting and decoupling in an adverse climate,
requiring higher path clearances in some areas.
Bands are crowded in some areas.
Limited bandwidth (4-16 T1/E1) RF channels.
Rain outage is a major factor in some areas. Shared
with satellite services 10.9-12.75 GHz.
Outages are dominated by rain in thunderstorm
areas, so path lengths are limited.
Very rain sensitive - e.g. needs 12-16 dB more fade
margin (or 50% shorter paths) at 23 GHz than 18
GHz for equal outage in rain areas.

TDM and PCM


DS1 Frame = 24 x 8-bit Bytes + 1 Framing Pulse = 193 bits
193 bits x 8000 samples/sec = 1.544 Mbit/s
8-bit code of
DS0 Ch. 2

8-bit code of
DS0 Ch. 3

Energy

8-bit code of
DS0 Ch. 1

1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1* 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0* 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1*

*DS0 VF Supervisory Signals


on the
Least Significant Bit (LSB)
11111111 127
10100000 32
10010000 16
10001000
8
10000010
2
10000001
1
00000000
0
00000001
-1
00000010
-2
00001000
-8
00010000 -16
00100000 -32
01000000 -64
01111111 -127

10011000* (Amplitude = 24)

Amplitude

PCM Quantizing Code

-law (DS1)

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0
772 1544
3000 kHz
Note the negligible energy
below 10 kHz and above 1.544 MHz

*Bi-Polar Violation (Alarm)


*

The Bi-Polar PCM


Digital Signal
(50% duty cycle)

Ch. 2 Analog Signal (VF)

Microwave Link Design Methodology


Microwave Link Design is a methodical, systematic and
sometimes lengthy process that includes :
Loss/attenuation calculations.
Fading and fade margins calculations.
Frequency planning and interference calculations.
Quality and availability calculations.

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Microwave Link Design Process

The whole process is iterative and may go through many redesign


phases before the required quality and availability are achieved.

Interference
analysis

Frequency
Frequency
Planning
Planning

Propagation losses
Branching
losses
Other Losses

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Link
LinkBudget
Budget

Fading
Predictions

Quality
and
Availability
Micrwave Link Design
Calculations

Rain
attenuation
Diffractionrefraction
losses
Multipath
propagation
6

Radio Path Link Budget

Transmitter 1

waveguide

Transmitter 2

Splitter

Splitter

Receiver 1
Antenna
Gain

Propagation
Losses

Branching
Losses

Antenna
Gain

Output
Power (Tx)

Receiver 2

Branching
Losses

Received
Power (Rx)

Fade Margin
Receiver threshold Value
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Hierarchy in Multiple Access Networks


Analog FDM Hierarchy:
FDM Subgroup: 3 Channels, 4-16 kHz, 4 kHz per channel
Basic FDM Multiplex Group: 12 Channels, 12-60/60-108 kHz (2x48 kHz)
2-nd order Multiplex Group: 60 Channels, 2x240 kHz
3-rd order Multiplex Group: 300 Channels, 2x1.2 MHz
4-th order Multiplex Group: 960 Channels, 2x4 MHz

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy:


Europe-ETSI: E1 (2048 kb/s, 30-31 channels 64 kb/s each),
E2 (8448 kb/s, 4E1s, 120-124 channels)
E3 (34.368 Mb/s, 16E1s, 480-496 channels
E4 (139.264 Mb/s, 64E1s, 1920-1984 channels)
USA-FCC: DS1 (1544 kb/s, 24 channels),
DS2 (6312 kb/s, 4DS1, 96 channels)
DS3 (44.736 Mb/s, 28DS1, 672 channels)

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy:


STM-1 (155.520 Mb/s, 63 E1s or 1 E4)
STM-4 (622.08 Mb/s, 252 E1s)
STM-16 (2488.32 Mb/s, 1088 E1s)
STM-64 (9953.28 Mb/s, 4032 E1s)

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SDH Capacities
Line Rate
(Mbit/s)

SDH Signal

2.048

VC - 12

34.368

VC - 3

51.84

PDH Signal
Channel Transport
# E1 (2048 kbit/s)
Radio
1
30
or Fiber
16

480

Sub-STM-1*

21

630

139.264

VC - 4

64

1,920

155.52

STM - 1

63

1,890

622.08

STM - 4

252

7,560

2488.32

STM - 16

1,008

30,240

9953.28

STM - 64

4,032

120,960

1:N Radio
or Fiber

Fiber

Reference: ITU-R Rec. F.750-3 (1997)

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SDH Frame Structure

Frame Length: 125 sec


RSOH : Regenerator Section Overhead
MSOH: Multiplexer Section Overhead
Bit rate: 155.520 Mbps
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SDH Frame Overhead

X Bytes reserved for


national usage
M Bytes reserved for
media specific usage
(empty) Bytes reserved
for future standardization

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Typical Service Requirements

Bandwidth requirements for the applications listed are considered sufficient to provide adequate user
experience on a single workstation.
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Transmission Media
Copper or Fiberoptics Cable - Leased Services

Monthly feeoperator never owns the network

Often long repair times ... customers are out of service

Limited availability...e.g. ~99.8% (~17 hr/yr traffic loss)

Fiberoptics Cable - Purchase

High installing cost ($30k-300k per km) favors very high capacity (2.5-10 Gb/s, per
colour with WDM) data transport
Vulnerable to route damage with long service interruptions

Wireless Optical (Infrared, Laser, etc.) - Purchase

Very short range - affected by optical visibility (300 m 3 km)


Low to high capacity, now to ~10 Gbit/s (OC-192/STM-64)

Microwave Radio - Purchase

Low life cycle cost


Rapid deployment, responsive service implementation, and under full user control (sites
and routes are secure)

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Terrestrial Radio-relay links


Interference

Antenna

Antenna
Path
Feeder

Radio
Data
Multiplex

Terminal A

Tx

Feeder

Tx
Data

Rx

Rx

Radio
Multiplex

Terminal B

Radio meets superior reliability, higher security, and more demanding performance and
quality standards.
Radio user has total control over site access and restore time.
Radio grows with the network: Easily expandable and accommodates future relocation.
Radio has an operational life long after the leased-line payback has passed (~2 yrs).
Radio provides clear channel and protection capabilities.
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Advantages and Disadvantages


Advantages of MW wireless
solution
Low fixed costs
Fast implementation (days)
Focus deployment on best
opportunities
Winning cost profile in urban
and rural markets
Speed allows entry into new
markets
Unregulated at local levels
80% of cost is electronics
(not labor and structures)

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Disadvantages of MW wireless
solution
Line of sight (LOS) propagation
Weather affects availability
Aesthetics problems of customer
antenna, community base stations
and towers
MMW technology is relatively new
to commercial applications (55 GHz)

15

Radio Wave Propagation


GEO, MEO,
and LEO
Satellites

Ionosphere
Sky Wave
(HF only)

Troposphere
REFRACTED WAVE

Transmitting
Antenna

NON-REFRACTED (k=1) WAVE


MULTIPATH RAYS

RE

TE
C
E
FL

E
AV
W

Receiving
Antenna

Ground Wave
(LF/MF only)

True Earths Curvature

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MW versus Optic Fibre

Graph shows typical installation and


commissioning time vs. transmission capacity.
Microwave is favored for short installation times
and low-to-medium transport capacities.

Favors
Fiber
Turn-Up Time

Short

Lightwave is obviously favored for its high to


very high transport capacities.
Radio generally has a lower fixed cost/unit
capacity and thus is less expensive for medium
capacities.

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Microwave or fiber

Favors
Microwave
Transport Choices
Required Transport Capacity

Favors: Radio Fiber


Availability/security

Payload (transport)
Cost effectiveness

Implementation time

Terrain considerations

17

MW Radio in Cellular Networks

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2.5G GSM Network


BTS

BSC
PSTN
Network

Um

MSC
Frame Relay
Network (New)

Leased lines
Fibre, Microwave

Server
Route
r

Serving GPRS
Support Node
(SGSN)

GPRS
backbone
network

Internet

LAN

Intranet

Server
Gateway GPRS
Support Node
(GGSN)

Router

Intranet

Options: IP over FR: IP over ATM over SDH : IP over DWDM: IP over FWA

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MW applied for Mobile, Broadcast and Backhauling


Microwave for
metro

2G
3G

Microwave
WiMAX
WAC

WiMAX
BTS
Microwave

3G LTE

WiFi

OMSN
BSC

Microwave for
backbone

Mobile 2G and 3G

xDSL

Microwave
Regional TV Studio

FTTN

TV Broadcasting

FTTU

GPON

Microwaves
Backhauling

Microwaves
Backbone

WiMAX

MW radio-relay point-to-point wireless transmission is applicable to all


communication networks.
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Broadband Services in TDM Transmission Solution

The Broadband effect:


Traffic
Cost
Voice Era

TDM Backhaul Model


Revenues
Data Era

TDM solution loose its effectiveness as data traffic becomes predominant,


since it is bursty in nature,
Improved versions of TDM platforms are available to mitigate this effect in its
early phase (Nodal Solutions; Higher spectral efficiency using SW configured
modulation schemes 16- QAM, 64-QAM, 128-QAM, 256-QAM; Super-PDH
platforms).
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Exercise

Task: Convert to logarithmic dB units:

Power
Amplification:
Twice
20 times
400 times
500 000 times

Power
Attenuation:
One half
1/20
1/400
1/500 000

Use calculator and round the values to integer number of deci-bells.

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Logarithmic Units
Power expressed in dBm:

P
P[dBm] 10 log

1mW
1pW
1nW
1W
1mW
1W = 1000 mW
2W = 2000 mW
4W = 4000 mW
10W
40W
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Voltage expressed in dBuV:

U
U [dBV ] 20 log
1V

= -90 dBm
= -60 dBm
= -30 dBm
= 0 dBm
= 30 dBm
= 33 dBm
= 36 dBm
= 40 dBm
= 46 dBm
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Synchronization
Slip Rate: f x frames/s x 86400 s/day

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Type of Service

Effect

Voice
Video

Clicks
Frozen frames or
missing lines

Modem
Encryption
Fax

Outage
Slow throughput
Missing lines

24

Antenna Center-line Determination


The antenna height should be chosen in such a way that
obstruction losses during adverse propagation conditions are
acceptable.
Also, designer must consider the increased risk for ground
reflections if too large a clearance is used.
Antenna heights for a path can be obtained:
Graphically from path profiles
By using mathematical formulae
Using Link planning software tools (e.g. Pathloss v.4.0,
Enterprise Connect, TEMS Link Planner, Ellipse, Harris
Magic)

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Path Calculations
k = 4/3
F = 0.6
500

1.9 GHz

Elevation, m AMSL

470

470

440

440

k=4/3

410

410

0.6F1
390

390

360

360

330

330

k=4/3

300

Site:
Lat.:
Long.:

Yates Center
37-51-02.N
095-43-53. W

10

15

20

Distance, km

25

__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__
0

__

____

300

270

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500

270

30

Marmaton
37-49-40. N
095-09-44. W

26

Frequency Spectrum Allocation


Radio signals have to be frequency-separated if neither antenna discrimination
nor topographical shielding provides the necessary suppression of interfering
signals.
Distinct segments of MW frequency spectrum exhibits different propagation
characteristics (mutli-path effects, rain attenuation, absorption).
Particular frequency bands differ by their spectral width hence can support
different link capacities (channel separations range between 1.75 to 56 MHz).
All frequencies used in a radio-relay network should normally be selected from
an established frequency plan, generated either by international or national
organization.

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Receiver Sensitivity
Receiver sensitivity of a digital radio, is a minimum signal level on the
receivers input terminals, that secures specified maximum allowable BER
behind receivers detector (typically 10-3 or 10-6 ), including FEC.

Receiver sensitivity is affected by:


Type of modulation method employed
Type of carrier and clock recovery
circuits
Noise figure of the receiver path
Phase noise level of the local oscillator
Type of FEC and soft-detection
employed

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Receiver Sensitivity and C/N


Sensitivity (minimum required Rx power) can be also expressed in
terms of minimum required Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (C/N).
Pmin N Th C / N

Where thermal noise:


N Th 10 log(kTB ) 30 NFdB

[dBm; dBm, dB]

[dBm; dBW, dB]

k Boltzmans constant = 1.38 x 10-23 J/K


T Absolute temperature of the receiver in K (0 oC = 273.15 K)
B Noise bandwidth in Hz
NF Noise Figure of the receiver in dB
E.g. for BPSK minimum required C/N= 6 dB, for QPSK minimum
Required C/N=10 dB, for 16-QAM minimum required C/N= 17 dB@10-3
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Receiver Thresholds
Three Digital Radio Thresholds: One for factory and field inservice testing, and two for outage calculations, performance
measurements, etc.

The 10-6 BER (or other BER<10-6) Static Threshold is for factory and inservice field verification of receiver noise and interference levels, measured
manually with attenuators

The 10-3 BER Dynamic Threshold is for outage calculations and hands-off
field measurements in a normal fading environment with BER network
management, following ITU-T G.821 performance definitions.

The BER-SES Dynamic Threshold is the same as the above dynamic


threshold, but is used for outage calculations following ITU-T G. 826
performance definitions. Usual range of BER-SES is 10-3 10-4.

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Comparison of Modulation Methods


Receiver sensitivities for BER = 10-6 (3.5, 10.5 GHz)

For the same input data rate, more crowded M-QAM constellations
use channel frequency band more effectively, but require higher C/I
Higher level M-QAM are susceptible to selective fading and other
types of linear distortion.
M-QAM schemes require linear RF power amplification.
Spectrum is expensive => Spectrum efficiency wins the battle
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Free Space Loss and Absorption


A free space equation simply assumes that radio waves are transmitted
equally in all directions. Hence the power density is equal in every point of a
sphere having transmitter in its center. Receiver captures only small part of
the power, which is proportional to the effective area of receiving antenna
isotropic radiator.

AFS
In decibels:

4D

AFSdB


20 log

4D

Where D distance between transmitter and receiver


wavelength

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Atmospheric Absorption Curves


Significant
Significantfor
forfrequency
frequencybands
bands
above
above15
15GHz.
GHz.
Absorption on water vapor H2O
Absorption on oxygen molecules O2
Absorption on other gasses:
smog, exhaustions, etc.

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Terrain Related Effects


Specular Reflection: For MW hops routed across large or medium sized bodies
of water (see, lakes, rivers), part of the energy radiated by the transmitter can be
almost totally reflected from the water level, then reach the receiver and add
destructively with a direct signal. This causes a power fade, the depth of which
changes nocturnally (K-variation).
Diffraction effects: MW energy reaching an obstacle, the longitudinal dimension
of which is comparable to the wavelength, is bent behind the obstacle. This
bending is called diffraction. The rays behind the obstacle, that are bent under
different angles, add up in a complex manner and cause cross-sectional variation
in power density. Common manifestation of such varying power density is an
attenuation on the direct path between Tx and Rx. This attenuation is subjected to
K-variation and is closely coupled to Fresnel zones clearance.

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Long High Hop


K=

0.543
Decoupling
Angle

0.25 Discrimination
to the
Reflection

2000

K = 4/3

500

ul

1150 ft
(350 m)

tip 5 n
at s
h
De
l

1000

ay

1500

0.249
Grazing Angle

Elevation AMSL, Ft

2400
(731m)

0
0

20

40

60

Distance,Mi

80

100
(161 km)

Short delays (up to 5 nsec) must be tolerable if radio DFM is high


enough (>50dB), since there is very little antenna discrimination
on long paths. Coupling of the reflected ray can be sometimes
controlled by up-tilting the antennae (0-0.5 deg.)
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Short High Hop


0.109O Decoupling
Angle

K=
1200
(365m)

1000

750

1150 ft (351m)

250

ul

tip 25
at n s
h
D
el
a

500

1.248O
Grazing Angle

Elevation AMSL, Ft

K = 4/3

1.25O Discrimination
to the
Reflection

0
0

12

16

20
(32 km)

Distance,Mi

For high grazing angles (1-5 deg.), vertical polarization


shall be preferred. Decoupling of the reflected ray is
difficult to control and delays can be high (up to 25 ns).
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Basic of Fresnel Zone


Fresnel Zone - Areas of constructive and destructive interference created
when electromagnetic wave propagation in free space is reflected (multipath)
or diffracted as the wave intersects obstacles. Fresnel zones are specified
employing ordinal numbers that correspond to the number of half wavelength
multiples that represent the difference in radio wave propagation path from
the direct path.
The Fresnel Zone must be clear of all obstructions.
Typically the first Fresnel zone (N=1) is used to determine obstruction loss.
The direct path between the transmitter and the receiver needs a clearance
above ground of at least 60% of the radius of the first Fresnel zone to achieve
free space propagation conditions.
Earth-radius factor k compensates the refraction in the atmosphere.
Clearance is described as any criterion to ensure sufficient antenna heights
so that, in the worst case of refraction the receiver antenna is not placed in
the diffraction region.

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Fresnel Zones Concept


Electromagnetic energy directed by the transmitting antenna
needs 3D unobstructed space to travel to the particular receiver.
More then 90% of the energy radiated in particular direction is
concentrated in so called 1-st Fresnel zone. 1-st Fresnel zone
must remain unobstructed to avoid diffraction losses. Even
Fresnel zone are important to judge upon reflection points.
Radius of the n-th Fresnel zone:

r n

d1d 2
d1 d 2

Where wavelength

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Fade Margin
16QAM

8PSK

4PSK
4QAM
QPSK

9QPR 25QPR

49QPR

64QAM

225QPR
128QAM256QAM
32PSK
512QAM

Excludes
FEC Coding
Gains

Fade Margin is a difference between


median received signal level, calculated
from Power Budget equation, and
BER=10-3 threshold of the receiver system.
This difference has to account for
stochastic propagation phenomena, that
can compromise system reliability.

These phenomena are:


Attenuation due to rain.
Intersystem interference.
Multipath fading.
K-factor variation.
Ducting.

BER

10-2
10-3
(OUTAGE) -10-4
10-5
-6
10
(STATIC) -10-7
-8
10
10-9
-10
10

- BPSK
10-11
-12
10

32QAM

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

C/N or C/I Ratio, dB


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Table of Contents Pathloss v.4.0


Introduction to Pathloss v.4.0
Hop Definition
Terrain Profiling & Clearance Criteria
Microwave Worksheet
Applying Diversity and Protection
Diffraction Module Overview
Reflection Analysis
Multipath Operation
Network Description
Intra-system Interference
Design with Passive Repeater
Map Grid Module
Radio and Antenna Data Files
Case Studies
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Pathloss v.4.0 is Developed by

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Pathloss Web Sites


Pathloss Forum (Questions and Answers about the planning
with Pathloss v.4.0)
Regular Maintenance Updates
Radio and Antenna Description files for new products on the
market
Documentation on new Pathloss v.4.0 features (e.g. on GIS
formats) and appendix to the User Manual
Ordering Information and Part Number List

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Introduction of Pathloss
The Pathloss program is a comprehensive path design tool for
radio links operating in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 100
GHz.
The program is organized into eight path design modules, an
area signal coverage module and a network module which
integrates the radio paths.
Coverage module and a network module which integrates the
radio paths and area coverage analysis. Switching between
modules is accomplished by selecting the module from the
menu bar.

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Cont Introduction of Pathloss


Pathloss 4.0 (PL4B)
Basic Pathloss program. Contains all of the necessary tools to
carry out point to point radio system design.
Pathloss 4.0 (PL4C)
As above, but with the additional power of a full featured radio
coverage prediction module.
Pathloss 4.0 (PL4I)
Basic Pathloss program with complete Microwave network
interference capabilities.
Pathloss 4.0 (PL4CI)
Basic Pathloss program with both the coverage prediction and
the Microwave interference modules.
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Prerequisites
Following prerequisites imply successful participation in the
Pathloss course:
Knowledge of basic principles of MW Transmission Engineering
and Link planning
Laptop/desktop computer with installation of Pathloss v.4.0
planning software :
For your country or region of interest:
NED (SRTM 3) Data http://srtm.usgs.gov/geodata/
Void Killer SW allows to correct raw STRM 3 with GTOPO 30
Or any other DTM compatible with Pathloss v.4.0.

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ContIntroduction of Pathloss

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Planning Concept
Pathloss v.4.0 is an advanced planning software for design of microwave radio-relay
links and networks. It allows a qualified user to perform step by step analysis of all
important propagation related phenomena, needed to generate a planning report
containing all the data necessary for correct and reliable implementation of MW radiorelay hop.
Planning modules contained in Pathloss:
Summary Module
Terrain Data Generation
Antenna Height Calculation
Worksheet Module (Reliability Calculation)
Diffraction Module
Reflection Module
Multipath Module
Network Module (Frequency Planning)
Map Grid
Coverage Module (only for PtMP systems)

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Pathloss Basic Parameters


Antenna Configuration:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Adjusting the display options available


In Configure Selection:

TR-Transmit/Receive Antenna
Tx-Transmitting Antenna
Rx-Receiving Antenna
DR-Diversity Receiving Antenna
TH- Transmitting/Hybrid Diversity

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Coordinate Systems
The user can choose most suitable local
geodetic datum (e.g. in Nigeria it is Minna
Nigeria), Singapore use South Asia datum
and Ellipsoid is Modified Fischer 1960.For
East Malaysia use Timbalai 1948 datum and
Everest (Sabah Sarawak) Ellipsoid and
Pakistan use WGS84 datum and WGS84
Ellipsoid.
Typical choice for world-wide datum is WGS
84 (World Geographic System 1984)
If special maps have to be handled,
ellipsoid can be defined independently
from datum
(e.g. GRS80)
Note: WGS 84datum uses WGS84 ellipsoid.
Grid coordinate system can be chosen to
define planar projection from geodetic
systems defined on ellipsoid
Most common: UTM-Universal Transverse
Mercator.

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Summary Module

Data entered into Summary Module, Option in Module-Summary


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Radio Lookup Tables

Defining look-up table from Equipment option with Radio Code Index table and
Module-Worksheet-Double click on Antenna-Lookup.
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Radio Specifications
Radio parameters:
This table is not editable
Radio specification has
defined via converting a
radio data file.
only few of the entries in
the table are mandatory.
Pathloss can use rough
calculation of certain
missing parameters like
Rx-selectivity curve or T/I
curves.
There are minimum 5
parameters to define a
radio .
Option is on ModuleSummary-Double click on
Code-View.
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52

Antenna Lookup Tables

Defining look-up table from Antenna Code Index table


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53

Antenna Radiation Pattern

Co-polar and Cross-polar patterns


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54

Active & Passive Antenna


Antenna types

Pasive

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Active

55

Polarization
Polarization
The electric and magnetic fields of electromagnetic wave are
perpendicular to each other. Their intensities rise and fall
together, reaching their maximums 90 degrees apart (Fig. 5-1).
The direction of waves polarization is determined by electric
field i.e. in a vertically polarized wave, the electric lines of force
lie in a vertical direction and in a horizontally polarized wave, the
electric lines of force lie in a horizontal direction. When a singlewire antenna is used to extract energy from a passing radio
wave, maximum pickup will result when the antenna is oriented
in the same direction as the electric field. Hence, a vertical
antenna is used for the efficient reception of vertically polarized
waves, and a horizontal antenna is used for the reception of
horizontally polarized waves.
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56

Antenna Beamwidth
Antenna beam width
In a radiation patter due to antenna directivity the points, in
which power comparing to the maximum power is decreased by
3 dB may be noticed. The angle between these points is called
a beam width. In other words the beam width is an opening
angle between the points where the radiated power is 3 dB lower
than in the main direction

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57

Beam width definition

Graphical Representation of Antenna Beam width

Antenna lobe

3 dB

Beam width

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Page X

Figure 5-2

Main direction

GSM Cell Planning

58

Types of Antenna in MW
The most common type of antenna used on MW links is a
parabolic dish. For higher frequency bands (15-38 GHz)
parabolic dish can be substituted by microstrip patch-array
antennae (flat antennae).
The antenna parameters are very important for the system
performance.
The most important antenna parameters from propagation
point of view are:
Antenna Gain
Side lobe levels and front-to-back ratio
Beam width
Voltage Standing-wave Ratio (VSWR)
Cross-polarization discrimination
Mechanical stability
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VSWR, Cross-polarization Discrimination


Voltage Standing-wave Ration (VSWR) is important
parameter for high Speed communication systems with
stringent linearity objectives. To avoid inter-modulation
distortion, VSWR should be minimized by proper antenna
selection and cable length adjustment. Standard antennae in
MW bands have VSWR within a range of 1.06 1.15 typically.
Another important parameter for MW frequency planning is a
discrimination between co-polar and cross-polar signal by
the antenna. A good cross-polarization discrimination enables
full utilization of the frequency band in both the vertical and
horizontal polarization planes. Typical values are within range of
2030 dB for standard antennae. Cross-polarization
discrimination reaches its largest value in direction of the main
lobe.
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Beam-width & Radiation Pattern


The half power beam width of antenna is
defines as the angular width of the main beam
at the 3 dB point, relative to the bore-sight.
For parabolic antennae:

3dB

35
D

[degrees]

where D diameter of antenna [m]


Side and back-lobe levels are important
parameters in frequency planning and
interference calculations. Low side lobes
allow for more efficient use of the frequency spectrum. A front-to-back ratio
indicates the levels for angles within a
Range of 90-180 degrees.

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angle in horizontal or vertical plane

61

Antenna Alignment
Attain free-space or optimum Received Signal Levels
Discriminate against ground reflections which cause fading
and may reduce link Dispersive Fade Margins,
Accommodate, by size and/or up-tilt, K-factor angle-of-arrival
variations which may cause antenna decoupling and severe
fading.
0dB

Desired Path

0dB
-10 to -20dB
(First Side Lobe)

0 dB

A. Poor Alignment (One Antenna


Peaked on a Side Lobe)

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High
Antenna

Reflected Path

-1dB

-10dB
Low
Antenna

B. Optimum Antenna Alignment


(Best compromise between path
and propagation)

62

Antenna Gain
Antenna gain evaluates antennas capability to focus electromagnetic energy
to preferred direction (bore-sight). For parabolic antennae used on MW
bands,
gain can be expressed as :

4
A S 2

[dBi]

Where S aperture area


wavelength
aperture efficiency
(0.55-0.70)

f
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c = 3x10 8

63

Exercise

Task: Calculate the theoretical gain and beam-width for the following types
of parabolic antenna:
1. Antenna 1.2 m in diameter (0.75) for 15 GHz band
2. Antenna 0.3 m in diameter (0.7) for 38 GHz band
3. Antenna 0.6 m in diameter (0.7) for 38 GHz band
4. Antenna 3.0 m in diameter (0.8) for 7 GHz band
Hint: Figures in parenthesis indicate the aperture efficiency.

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64

Typical antenna characteristics (standard, X-polar)

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65

Antenna Mounting Full Indoor & Split Systems


Full Indoor System

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Split System

66

Frequency Planning Rules


Radio signals have to be frequency-separated if neither antenna discrimination
nor topographical shielding provides the necessary suppression of interfering
signals.
The degree of separation depends on the transmitted bandwidth - the spectrum
bandwidth in MHz. Raster: 1.75;3.5;7;14;28;56 MHz.
This separation called adjacent-channel separation - should be as small as
possible to give a frequency economic solution. This requires some kind of
standardization, a frequency plan.
Certain basic rules should be followed setting up the frequency plan. All
frequencies used in a radio-relay network should normally be selected from an
established frequency plan, approved either by an international or national
standardization body.

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Frequency Planning
The objective of frequency planning is to assign frequencies to a
network using as few frequencies as possible and in a manner such
that the quality and availability of the radio link path is minimally affected
by interference. The following aspects are the basic considerations
involved in the assignment of radio frequencies.
Determining a frequency band that is suitable for the specific link
(path length, site location, terrain topography and atmospheric effects)
Prevention of mutual interference such as interference among radio
frequency channels in the actual path, interference to and from other
radio paths, interference to and from satellite communication systems
Correct selection of a frequency band allows the required transmission
capacity while efficiently utilizing the available radio frequency spectrum

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68

Frequency Planning
Assignment of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel
is the authorization given by an administration for a radio
station to use a radio frequency or radio frequency channel
under specified conditions. It is created in accordance with
the Series-F recommendations given by the ITU-R.
Frequency Channel Arrangements
The available frequency band is subdivided into two halves,
a lower (go) and an upper (return) duplex half. The duplex
spacing is always sufficiently large so that the radio
equipment can operate interference free under duplex
operation. The width of each channel depends on the
capacity of the radio link and the type of modulation used

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69

Frequency Planning
The most important goal of frequency planning is to allocate
available channels to the different links in the network without
exceeding the quality and availability objectives of the
individual links because of radio interference.
Frequency planning of a few paths can be carried out
manually but, for larger networks, it is highly recommended to
employ a software transmission design tool. One such vendor
independent tool is Pathloss 4.0. This tool is probably one of
the best tools for complex microwave design. It includes North
American and ITU standards, different diversity schemes,
diffraction and reflection (multipath) analysis, rain effects,
interference analysis etc.

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70

Frequency Planning for Different Network Topologies

Chain/cascade configuration is used for horizontal and vertical


Polarization

f1 HP

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f1 VP

f1 HP

71

Ring Configuration
If the ring consisted of an odd number of sites there
would be a conflict of duplex halves and changing the
frequency band would be a reliable alternative.

f1 HP
UU

f1 VP

UU

f1 VP

f1 HP

UU
f1 VP

f1 VP

L
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72

Star Configuration
The link carrying the traffic out of the hub should use a
frequency band other than the one employed inside the
cluster.

UU

f2 VP

f1 HP
L

UU
f1 HP

UU

f2 VP
UU
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f1 HP

UU
73

Frequency Channel Tables

Frequency channels are chosen from


predefined raster which follows ITU-R
Recs. or local regulations,
Polarization is defined independently.
Option available in SummaryEquipment-TX - Channel-Lookup.
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74

Map Study and Path Profile Preparation


Preliminary map studies help in determining the actual
topography of the terrain, the height, and obstacles along
the desired path.
Soon after, tentative antenna sites have been selected, and
the relative elevations of the terrain between these sites has
been determined, preparation of path profiles can begin.

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75

Field Survey and Site Determination


Confirmation of LOS
Check-up of suspected reflection points, vegetation, water, buildings and
other man-made obstacles
Determination of height of, and distance to critical obstacles
Determination and confirmation of the path profile
Determination of site co-ordinates and altitudes
Site survey

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76

Purpose of Terrain Profiling


Location of the reflection zone (dish heights).
Calculating dish discriminations to the reflection (dish sizes)
Determining Fresnel clearance at the reflection (diversity,
spacing).
Calculating Path inclination angle.
Calculating Reflection grazing angle (V- or H-pol assignment)
Finding Ray height at the reflection or obstruction area
Calculating Reflected ray time delay (nsec).
Choosing Optimum diversity dish separations to specular
reflections.
Calculating Arrival angle with K-factor variations.
Calculating diffraction Obstruction loss vs. terrain type.
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Representation of Terrain Data

Generated Profile in Terrain Data Module


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78

Types of Digital Terrain Models (DTM)

Window for choosing source

directory with GTOPO 30 DTM data


Window for choosing type of DTM
(Digital Terrain Model) to be used for
planning and LOS analysis.
Option is in Configure-Terrain
Database.
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Window with adjustable parameters


for UTM DTM data.
UTM zone used by the data file
Index file describing the UTM data
79

UTM Database

Index File for UTM Data


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SRTM Database

Importing BIL, HDR, BLW files from USGS DVD


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81

Clutter Insertion

Clutter inserted in Terrain Data module, Double click on Structure option.


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82

Propagation Losses
Obstacle Loss also called Diffraction Loss or Diffraction
Attenuation. One method of calculation is based on Knife edge
approximation.
Having an obstacle free 60% of the Fresnel zone gives 0 dB loss.

First Fresnel Zone

0 dB
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0 dB

6dB

16dB

20dB

83

Earth Radius Factor K - Values Variations

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84

Radio Refractivity
k = -1

Duct Entrapment
k=

k = 4/3rds Average Refractivity


in Temperate Areas

Ray day-to-night
arrival angle
change could
approach 1o on
long paths
traversing humid
areas

(follows Earths curvature)

Superrefractive - Ducting

k = 1 (Dry, Elevated)
Subrefractive - Earth Bulge

k = 0.5
k = 0.33

Obstruction
Earths Bulge
Obstruction

Sea Level

True Earth
Radius (6378 km)
K = Effective Earths Radius
6378 km

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85

Earth Curvature
Parabolic transformation of Earths bulge:
h=

d1 d 2
2x6.378 K

Where:
h represents Earth bulge height relative to he terminal stations [m]
d1 and d2 are distances from terminal stations [km]
The K factor in the above equation is a constant whose value depends upon the
actual propagation conditions of the microwave energy along the path (gradient of
refractive index).
Various values of the K are used to describe radio ray trajectories that differ from a
straight line.

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86

Bending in the Atmosphere


Snell's law indicates that the rays bend towards the denser of the two media. In the atmosphere
the index of refraction is varying continuously with gradient of dN/dh= 40 ppm/km. Normal
n=1.000320 Consequently no distinctive boundary will be found as in figure below.
Ray bending in the atmosphere may be considered as a large number of boundaries with a small
variation n.

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Bending cont.
During normal conditions, temperature, humidity and pressure in the lower
atmosphere decrease almost linearly with increased altitude.
The above corresponds to a linear decrease in the refractive index of the
atmosphere and the velocity of microwaves traveling through the
atmosphere increases as the refractive index decreases
As the wave front passes through a normal atmosphere, the increased
phase velocities at the top of the wave front cause microwave to bend
slightly downward in relatively uniform curve.

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Gradient of Refraction
N is gradient of refractive index ni
h expressed in N units (std. 40

c
vi
ni

K 1

h
157

N/km)
ni is atmospheric refractive index
(standard value 1.000320 near sea level)

p is atmospheric pressure (std. value 1013 hPa)

T is atmospheric temperature (std. value 288 K)

N (ni 1).10 6
p
5 eH
N 77.6 3.73 10 2
T
T

e is saturation pressure due to the water vapor


(10 hPa)

H is relative atmospheric humidity (std. value 5


c is velocity of light (299 798 km/s)
h represents height in kilometers

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89

Refractive Ray Bending


G = 80 K = 2/3 Slightly Sub refractive
G = 157 K = Moderately Sub refractive
G = > 0, K = 2/3

G = 220 K = 5/12
Humidity Inversion: Extreme Earths
Bulge: Diffraction Fade

SUBREFRACTIVE
G = 0, K = 1 (No refraction)
STANDARD

G = - 40 , K =4/3 ( Mean)

G = - 79 , K =2
SUPERREFRACTIVE

G = - 314 K = -1
DUCTING

Steep Gradient: Possible Blackout


G = - 470 K = -0.5

G = - 157 K approaches infinity

Extreme Gradient: Blackout

G < - 157, K < 0

Moderate Negative Gradient: Flat


Earth

EARTH

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90

Gradient of Refractive Index

Also the negative values are more extreme than the positive values,

NOTE: Positive gradient cause diffraction loss (substandard bending) or


sub-refraction,

NOTE: When the gradient becomes more negative than dN/dh = -100
N Units/km (super-refractive) and leads to multipath fading,

When the gradient becomes more negative than dN/dh = - 157, ducting
conditions occur resulting in severe mutipath fading, beam spreading
and even blackout conditions,

ITU in recommendation P.453 provides a series of curves that give the


percentage of time, dN/dh is less than 100 N-unit/km. This gives the
probability of multipath being a problem. It is the PL chart.

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91

K-factor Fading
e
er
ph
os ate
m
At e R
rd p s
da La
an ty
St nsi
De

Refractivity Terms
N =
N0 =
Ns =

Denver: NS = 301 - (1.6km x 40 ppm/km) = 239

Top of Layer
)
1/2

dN/dh

0 (k =1)

)
=2
/3

+7
5

3)
4/

Subrefractive
1-5% of the time
(Wave refracted
upwards)

N-units
(Radio Refractive Index
at Sea Level)

(k

NS = 239

-5
8

-10
(k
=

N0 = 301

= -314

-157
(k

0
-4

/dh
dN

15
=+

-u
7N

m
s/k
nit

(k=

(k

h, km

Atmospheric density (refractive index)


N at sea level
N at ground surface level

0(
k=

1.
6)

N-uni
ts/k

m (k=

-1)

3)

370

469

548

Inland
Coastal
Median
Normal Propagation
90-95%
(Wave refracted
downwards)

Super
Refractive
1-5 %
Ducting
(Horizon
extended)

Super
Refractive
Trapping
0-1%
(severe
ducting or
blackout)

Density profiles in Subrefractive, Standard, and Superrefractive Atmospheric Boundary Layers (ABL)

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Ducting and Blackout Fade


Ducting: The atmosphere has a very dense layer at the
ground (or at certain height above) with a thin layer on the
top of it. For such layer configuration, there will be almost
total reflection present on this layer boundary.
Effect of ducting results in considerable higher signal levels
then those calculated from standard propagation models.
Danger: Interference from remote sources!
Difficult to predict quantitatively.

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Super-refraction (black out)


Anomalous propagation occurs outside the normal range of K from 1 to infinity.
This catastrophic phenomenon is known as Blackout fading.

K becomes negative
K = - 1/2

When an extreme drop in atmospheric density with height (a negative refractive index)
occurs, or when the gradient is positive, climatic conditions are conducive to anomalous
propagation.
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94

Concept of Clearance
FRESNEL ZONE NUMBERS

GRAZING

CLEARANCE OR
INTERFERENCE ZONE
(Reflective path)

1
0.6

E
ot h
o
Sm

GRAZING PATH
(6-20 dB LOSS)
0.6F1@k=1 PATH

3
54
CROSS-SECTION A-A
A

Ray

Average
Terrain

Ed
g

fe

54

K
ni

OBSTRUCTION ZONE
(Obstructed path)

RSL, dB FROM FREE SPACE


+10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40

arth

0.6
1

Fresnel Zone Boundaries


0.6

0.6F1 PATH
CLEARANCE
= FREE SPACE
(NO LOSS)

F1 = 56m DIAMETER

Site A
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64km path, k=1 (on true earths radius profile)

Site B
95

Choosing Clearance Criteria

Clearance criteria are chosen separately for Main and Diversity Antenna,
Two values of K-factor are involved (K for normal conditions [median value
K=4/3] and minimum K [0.60-0.80]),
Fixed provision for vegetation growth can be entered as well.
Option available in Configure - Antenna height - Operation Set
Clearance Criteria.
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Typical antenna characteristics (standard, X-polar)

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97

Towers and Masts


Poles for rooftop installations
Self-supported Lattice towers (20 150 m)
Tube towers (10 40 m)
Guyed Masts (10 100 m) up to 300 m for TV transmitters
Accessories: Leaders, Platforms, Mounting Brackets,
Obstruction Lights, Aircraft Warning Lights
Soil bearing shall be measured during comprehensive site survey and test
drilling shall be performed to determine optimum size of the tower base.

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Microwave Installation Ground Based Tower

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Microwave Installation Rooftop Structures

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100

Shelters and Containers


Bricked technology houses expensive but provides most suitable environment for
technology
Shelters cost-effective, less esthetic, requires air-conditioning
Containers - for sites with limited technology requirements (e.g. remote BTS)
Chosen technology housing shall reflect the radio type, requirements for expansion
and power back-up times.

Accessories:

Heating and Air-conditioning


Cable trays and inlets
Burglary Alarm
Mains Power Board
Grounding system

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Shelter for Full Indoor Equipment

Grounding Kit

Clamps

Cable / Waveguide Bridge

Wall/Roof Feed-Thru or Plate/Boot

Pressure Windows

Grounding Bar

Branching Connection

Waveguide
Dehydrator

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Waveguide Connector

102

Outdoor Container for Split System


Standard Shelter

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BS Integration

103

Auxiliary Equipment
Dehydrator

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104

Antenna Center-line Calculation

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Option in Module Antenna Height

105

Path Calculations
k = 4/3
F = 0.6
500

1.9 GHz

Elevation, m AMSL

470

500

470

440

440

k=4/3

410

410

0.6F1
390

390

360

360

330

330

k=4/3

300

Site:
Lat.:
Long.:

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Yates Center
37-51-02.N
095-43-53. W

10

15

20

Distance, km

25

270
__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__

__

____

__

__

__

270

__

____

300

30

Marmaton
37-49-40. N
095-09-44. W

106

Path Clearance Criteria


HEAVY ROUTE
About 6 GHz and above in
moderate to heavy fade areas

MAIN PATH
(Top Dishes)

DIVERSITY PATH
(Top-To-Bottom Dishes)

0.6 F1 @ K = 2/3 (Kmin)


and
F1 @ K = 4/3
0.6 F1 @ K = 4/3
+3m Close-In
For tree growth, etc.
typically 10-12m
below main dish

LIGHT ROUTE
About 2 GHz and below in all areas, and
all paths in good to average fade areas

0.6 F1 @ K = 4/3
0.3 F1 @ K = 4/3
or grazing @ K = 4/3,
typically 10-20m
below main dish

DUCTING
Main path clearance with
known surface duct
entrapment (paths 30
kilometers)

Over a 50m
Surface Ducting Layer,
grazing @ K = 1/2

No Special Allowance

See the next page for minimum K (Kmin) concept.

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107

Survey Equipment
List of Survey Equipment:
Maps in scale 1:50 000 or better
Digital camera
Binocular
Compass
Barometric altimeters (pair)
Signaling mirrors, He-filled balloon
Flash light
Tape measure
Hand-held radio or Cell phone
Hand-held GPS receiver
DGPS set (2 receivers)
Theodolite with tripod
Laptop with DTM and planning SW
Spectrum analyzer with accessories
Test antennae
Test transmitter

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The Survey Report contains


System Description
Site Description and Layout
Antenna and Tower Heights
Path Profile
Fresnel Zone Drawing and Diffraction
Calculation
Photographs of the site
Panorama photographs

108

Site Selection Considerations


System Related:
Distance to the customer (BTS search ring)
LOS to the existing and possible future neighbors
Local climatic conditions
Vegetation, clutter (buildings, chimneys) in the vicinity
Currently installed technology in the vicinity

Construction Related:
Site accessibility (distance to the roads)
Available electric power source (PUC, Sunny Days)
Soil bearing
Underground water level

Other:
Type of land ownership
Security (guard needed)
Military area considerations
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Map Study
The purpose of the preliminary map study is to familiarize with the overall
system layout and to assemble information including, but not limited to, the
best available topographic mapping for the area under consideration, site
addresses, site names or designations, site coordinates and elevations.
Establishing of site coordinates
Generation of Path profile
Identification of Reflective surfaces
Identification of Critical points

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110

Digitized Maps

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111

Generating Profile Report

Print Profile Report in Module option for LOS Verification


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112

Microwave Worksheet
Net Pathloss Components
Free Space Loss and Absorption
Multipath Propagation Reliability Prediction Models
Vigants-Barnet Model
K.Q Factor
ITU-R P.530-6
ITU-R P.530-7
ITU-R P.530-9/10
Rain Attenuation Models
Crane Model
ITU-R P.530-7
Rain and Co-channel Operation
Section Performance Calculation
Loss / Attenuation Calculation.
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113

Net Path Loss Components

Calculated net path loss components in Module option Microwave worksheet


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114

Loss / Attenuation Calculations


The loss/attenuation calculations are composed of three main
contributions :
Propagation losses
(Due to Earths atmosphere and terrain).
Branching losses
(Comes from the hardware used to deliver the transmitter/receiver
output to/from the antenna).
Miscellaneous (other) losses
(unpredictable and sporadic in character like fog, moving objects
crossing the path, poor equipment installation and less than perfect
antenna alignment etc).
This contribution is not calculated but is considered in the planning
process as an additional loss.

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115

Link Budget Calculation


Path-loss
Path-lossequation
equationused
usedfor
forMW
MW(3
(3--38
38GHz)
GHz)
A 92.45dB 20 log f 20 log D aD
Where

f RF frequency in GHz
D Propagation distance in km
a Attenuation due to the air and water vapor in
dB/km (Typically 0.1 0.4)

ATot A ATLRx ATLTx GTx GRx AMisc


Where

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ATL Transmission line losses and branching circuit losses on Rx and Tx side
G Antenna gain on Rx and Tx side
AMisc Miscellaneous losses (e.g. antenna misalignment, Tx power variations)

116

Fade Margin
16QAM

8PSK

4PSK
4QAM
QPSK

9QPR 25QPR

49QPR

64QAM

225QPR
128QAM256QAM
32PSK
512QAM

Excludes
FEC Coding
Gains

Fade Margin is a difference between


median received signal level, calculated
from Power Budget equation, and
BER=10-3 threshold of the receiver system.
This difference has to account for
stochastic propagation phenomena, that
can compromise system reliability.

These phenomena are:


Attenuation due to rain.
Intersystem interference.
Multipath fading.
K-factor variation.
Ducting.

BER

10-2
10-3
(OUTAGE) -10-4
10-5
-6
10
(STATIC) -10-7
-8
10
10-9
-10
10

- BPSK
10-11
-12
10

32QAM

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

C/N or C/I Ratio, dB


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117

Fading and Fade Margins


Rain Fading
Rain attenuates the signal caused by the scattering and
absorption of electromagnetic waves by rain drops.
It is significant for long paths (>10Km)
It starts increasing at about 10GHz and for frequencies
above 15 GHz, rain fading is the dominant fading
mechanism.
Rain outage increases dramatically with frequency and
then with path length.
The specific attenuation of rain is dependent on many
parameters such as the form and size of distribution of
the raindrops, polarization, rain intensity and frequency.

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Recommendation for Rain Fading


Microwave path lengths must be reduced in areas where
rain outages are severe.
The available rainfall data is usually in the form of a
statistical description of the amount of rain that falls at a
given measurement point over a period of time. The total
annual rainfall in an area has little relation to the rain
attenuation for the area.
Hence a margin is included to compensate for the effects of
rain at a given level of availability. Increased fade margin
(margins as high as 45 to 60dB) is of some help in rainfall
attenuation fading.

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How Reducing the Effects of Rain


Multipath fading is at its minimum during periods of heavy
rainfall with well aligned dishes, so entire path fade margin is
available to combat the rain attenuation (wet-radome loss
effects are minimum with shrouded antennas)
Route diversity with paths separated by more than about 8 Km
can be used successfully.
Radios with Automatic Transmitter Power Control have been
used in some highly vulnerable links.
Vertical polarization is far less susceptible to rainfall
attenuation (40 to 60%) than are horizontal polarization
frequencies.

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120

Refraction Diffraction Fading


Also known as K-type fading
For low k values, the Earths surface becomes curved
and terrain irregularities, man-made structures and other
objects may intercept the Fresnel Zone.
For high k values, the Earths surface gets close to a
plane surface and better LOS (lower antenna height) is
obtained.
The probability of refraction-diffraction fading is therefore
indirectly connected to obstruction attenuation for a given
value of Earth radius factor.
Since the Earth-radius factor is not constant, the
probability of refraction-diffraction fading is calculated
based on cumulative distributions of the Earth-radius
factor.
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Ground Reflection
Reflection on the Earths surface may give rise to multipath
propagation.
The direct ray at the receiver may interfered with by the
ground-reflected ray and the reflection loss can be significant.
Since the refraction properties of the atmosphere are
constantly changing the reflection loss varies.
The loss due to reflection on the ground is dependent on the
total reflection coefficient of the ground and the phase shift.
The highest value of signal strength is obtained for a phase
angle of 0o and the lowest value is for a phase angle of 180o.

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Ground Reflection
The reflection coefficient is dependent on the frequency,
grazing angle (angle between the ray beam and the horizontal
plane), polarization and ground properties.
The grazing angle of radio-relay paths is very small usually
less than 1o
It is recommended to avoid ground reflection by shielding the
path against the indirect ray.
The contribution resulting from reflection loss is not
automatically included in the link budget. When reflection
cannot be avoided, the fade margin may be adjusted by
including this contribution as additional loss in the link
budget.

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Fade Margin vs Unavailability

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Causes of Unavailability
Predictable rain outage in local-grade links above about 10-12 GHz,
especially in tropical equatorial areas and costal regions,
Dual equipment failure within the MTTR period,
Maintenance error or manual intervention (e.g. failure of a locked-on
module or path and error in switching the module),
Infrastructure failure (e.g. antenna, batteries),
Low fade margin in non-diversity links,
Power fade (long-term loss of fade margin) in lower clearance paths above
about 6 GHz in some difficult areas, or with antenna misalignment,
Ducting (subrefractive, superrefractive) and black-out fading.

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Multipath Propagation Reliability Prediction Models


Multipath fading algorithm embedded in
Pathloss:
Vigants-Barnet
ITU-R P.530-6 Recs.
ITU-R P.530-7 Rec. (Normally used) .
ITU-R P.530-9 Recs.
K.Q Factor.
K.Q Factor with Terrain Roughness.

Results presentation:
Total annual time bellow level
SESR, Availability as per G.821 definition
(Bit Error Rate)
SESR, Availability as per G.826 definition
(Block Error Rate)

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Multipath Fading Mechanism


Unfortunately, normal atmospheric conditions do not always prevail.
Irregularities in the atmosphere cause energy components of a microwave beam to be
reflected or refracted upwards or downwards instead of following normal slightly curved
path to the receiving antenna.
As a result, two or more separate wave components may travel to the receiver over
slightly different paths.
These components will be somewhat out of phase with each other because of the
difference in the length of path each has traveled.
Also at each point of reflection approximately 180 degree phase shift normally occurs.
If two signal components travel paths are different by a wavelength, one signal component
has been reflected, they will arrive 180 deg out of phase at the receiver and their vector
sum will be zero.

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Vector Sums

Destructive sum:

Constructive sum:

Signal envelope variations:

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Availability and Performance Recs


Performance Recommendations derived from ITU-T G.821:
ITU-R F. 594
ITU-R F. 634
ITU-R F. 696
ITU-R F. 697

(Parameters and definitions)


(Application to High Grade portion below PRI rate)
(Application to Medium Grade portion below PRI rate)
(Application to Local Grade portion below PRI rate)

Performance Recommendations derived from ITU-T G.826/828:


ITUR F.1092
Quality Rec. for the International Reference circuit - obsolete
ITUR F.1189
ITUR F.1397
ITUR F.1491
ITU-R F. 1668

Quality Rec. for the National Reference circuit - obsolete


Quality Rec. for the International Reference circuit real hop.
Quality Rec. for the National Reference circuit real hop.
Quality Objectives for real digital fixed wireless links

Availability Recommendations:
ITU-R F.557
ITU-R F.695

Availability Objective for Radio Relay Systems


Availability Objective for Real Radio Relay Systems

Availability Recommendations derived from ITU-T G.827:


ITUR F. 1492 Application of G 827 to the international portion
ITUR F. 1493
ITU-R F.1703
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Application of G 827 to thenational portion


Availability Objectives for real digital fixed wireless links
129

Vigants-Barnet Model
In Vigants-Barnet model the fading occurrence factor P0 is a function of the
Path length and location, the terrain roughness and frequency band used.

f d
P0 0.3 x b

4 50

Where:
x =a - climatic factor.
f frequency [GHz]
d path length [km]
b Roughness factor
CFM- Composite Fade Margin

Annual
Annual outage
outage probability:
probability:

15.2

P Po .10

CFM
10

1 .3

S is the standard deviation (RMS) of the terrain elevations, measured


with 1 km step along the path, excluding the radio sites. The value is
limited within 6 m < S < 42 m.
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V-B Climatic Regions

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Example Vigants Barnett


PND = SESR = 6x10-7 c f D3 10-CFM/10
= 0.0001042
Where:
PND
c
x
S
f
D
CFM

c
-

Non-diversity probability of outage (SESR)


NA climate-terrain factor
1 (from c map bellow), or x(S/15.2)-1.3
NA climate factor, 1 (from x map bellow)
Terrain roughness, 15.2 m (from profile)
frequency 6.7 GHz
Path length, 40 km
Composite Fade Margin, 34 dB

For Terrain Roughness Module-Worksheet-Operation-Reliability


Select Vigants Barnett or KQ Factor.

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NA Climate Terrain Factor c

Hawaii, c = 4
Alaska coast, c = 0.25
Alaska interior, c = 1
Caribbean, c = 4

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NA Climate Factor x
Alaska,
x = 1 (inland)
x=0.5 (coastal)

Hawaii,
x=2

southern Yukon,
British Columbia,
x = 0.5

Other Canadian Provinces, x = 1

Caribbean,
x=2
*Flat terrain (w = 20', c =6)
in this climate area.

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K.Q Factor
PND = KQ f D3 10-CFM/10
= 0.0001042
Where (similar to NA path):
PND
KQ
KQ
x

Non-diversity probability of outage (SESR)


ITU-R climate-terrain factor
= x(S)-1.3
Climate factor, 2.1x10-5 (see table in Pathloss manualWorksheet)
S
Terrain roughness, 15.2 m (from profile)
f
6.7 GHz
D
Path length, 40 km
CFM Composite Fade Margin, 34 dB

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ITU-R P.530-6
The ITU-R P.530-6 model is applicable from fmin = 15/d [GHz].
The fading occurrence factor P0 is a function of Geo-climatic factor K (i.e.
path location), path length and inclination, grazing angle as well as
frequency band used.
Worst
Worstmonth
monthoutage
outageprobability:
probability:

P0 K d

3.3

0.93

1.2

P Po .10

1 E

CFM
10

1.1

Where:
K a geo-climatic factor (Worksheet-Path profile-Geoclim)
h1 h2
f frequency [GHz]
E p 1000 arctg
d path length [km]
1000d
Ep path inclination [m rad]
theta - average grazing angle corresponding to K=4/3 [mrad]
h1, h2 antenna heights above mean sea level [m]

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ITU-R P.530-7
The ITU-R P.530-7 model is applicable from fmin = 15/d [GHz].
The fading occurrence factor P0 is a function of Geo-climatic factor K (i.e.
path location), path length and inclination, as well as frequency band used.

Worst month outage probability:

P0 K d

3.6

0.89

P Po .10

1 E

CFM
10

1.4

Where:
h1 h2
E p 1000 arctg
K a geo-climatic factor from tables below
1000d
f frequency [GHz]
d path length [km]
Ep path inclination [mrad]
h1, h2 antenna heights above mean sea level [m]

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Geo-climatic Factor ITU-R P.530-7


0.1 C C C
7
1.5
KK 55.10
.10 710
10 0.1 C0 0 CLatLat CLonLon PPLL1.5

PL is the percentage of time for which the average refractivity gradient in the lowest
100 m of the atmosphere is lower than 100 N-units/km.

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ContGeo-climatic Factor

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139

ITU-R P.530-9/10
For detailed link design using ITU-R P.530-9, fading occurrence factor P0:

K 3. 2
P0
d (1 | p | ) 0.97 10 0.032 f 0.00085 hL
100
Calculate a transition (deep to shallow fading distribution) depth:

At 25 1.2 log P 0
Then
Thenthe
theoutage
outageprobability:
probability:

[dB]

P Po .10

At
10

ITU-R P.530-9 terrain factor K:

K sa0.42 10 3.90.003dN1
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ITU-R P.530-9 New Parameters


Where
dN1 - the point refractivity gradient in the lowest 65 m of the atmosphere not
exceeded for 1% of an average year,
Sa - the area terrain roughness.
d1N is provided on a 1.5 grid in latitude and longitude in Recommendation
ITU-R P.453. The correct value for the latitude and longitude at path centre
should be obtained from the values for the four closest grid points by bilinear
interpolation.
Sa is defined as the standard deviation of terrain heights (m) within a
110 km x 110 km area with a 30 resolution (e.g. the Globe GTOPO 30 data).
The area should be aligned with the longitude, such that the two equal halves of
the area are on each side of the longitude that goes through the path center.

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Rain Attenuation Models

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Crane Model
CRANE NORTH AMERICAN RAIN REGION

% of Time
Rain Rate

D1

D2

D3

0.1

6.5

6.8

7.2

11.0

15.0

22.0

35.0

5.5

0.05

8.0

9.5

11.0

16.0

22.0

31.0

52.0

8.0

0.01

15.0

19.0

28.0

37.0

49.0

63.0

98.0

23.0

0.005

19.0

26.0

41.0

50.0

64.0

81.0

117.0

34.0

0.001

28.0

54.0

80.0

90.0

102.0

127.0

164.0

66.0

Exceeded

e bd 1 g b .e cbd g b e cbD
A p aR

.
b
c
.
b
c.b

b
p

Where:
bD
Rp is rain rate (mm/hr)
1
b e

A p aR p
calculate by Crane table
.b

ln g .e cd

d
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g 2.3R p0.17

for d <= D <= 22.5 km


for d > D

c 0.026 0.03 ln R p

d 3.8 0.6 ln R p
143

Rain Rate Values


Drizzle = 0.25 mm/hour
Light rain = 1.0 mm/hour
Moderate rain = 4.0 mm/hour
Heavy rain = 16.0 mm/hour
Thunderstorm = 35.0 mm/hour
Intense thunderstorm = 100.0 mm/hour
Region B = Polar taiga (moderate)
Region C = Moderate maritime
Region D1 = Moderate continental (dry)
Region D2 = Moderate continental (mid)
Region D3 = Moderate continental (wet)
Region E = Sub-tropical (wet)
Region F = Sub-tropical (arid)

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ContCrane Model
C (Alaska, Pacific Coast)

E (Hawaii)

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E (Caribbean)

145

Rain Attenuation ITU-R P.530-7


A0.01%=aR0.01%b D [1/(1 + D/d)]
Where:

[dB]

A0.01% - Rain attenuation exceeded <0.01% of the time, dB


R0.01% - Rain rate <0.01% of the time, mm/hr, from table
a - Multiplier, f (frequency/polarization), from table bellow
b - Exponent, f (frequency/polarization), from table bellow
D - Path length, km
d - Effective path length, km
d = 35 exp (-0.015R0.01%)

Rain Outage:

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Coefficients for Estimating Attenuation due to the Rain

h subscript stands for horizontal polarization


v subscript stands for vertical polarization
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Rain Availability Example


A0.01% = aR0.01%b D [1/(1 + D/d)], dB
- Rain attenuation exceeded <0.01% of the time, dB
- Required path fade margin, dB
R0.01% - Rain rate exceeded <0.01% of the time (145 mm/hr, P region)
Pakistan in K-Region (42 mm/hr).
D - Path length, 5 km [mi x 1.6093]
a - Multiplier, f (18 GHz & V-polarization, from table: av= 0.058)
b - Exponent, f (18 GHz & V-polarization, from table: bv = 1.090)
d = 35 exp (-0.015R0.01%) = 3.98 km
A0.01% = 0.058 (145)1.09 5 [1/(1 + 5/3.98)]
= 29 dB (36 dB if horizontally-polarized, a = 0.060 , b = 1.127)

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Probability Scaling Examples


For Required Availabilities other than 99.99%:
Ap =
where:

A0.01% 0.12 p-(0.546 + 0.043 log p)


Ap
A0.01%
p

= Rain attenuation exceeded p% of the time, dB


= Rain attenuation exceeded 0.01% of the time,dB
= probability of outage, % = 100 - availability, %

For 99.995% availability, p = 0.005% (26 min/yr outage), same path


A0.005% = A0.01% 0.12 (0.005-(0.546 + 0.043 log 0.005) )
=

A0.01% 0.12 (0.005-0.45) = A0.01% x 1.28

32 x 1.28 = 41 dB (51 dB if H-pol) required fade margin

Multiplier Table (replaces the above multiplier computation)


p
=
1%
0.1% 0.05%
0.01%
0.005% 0.001%
Availability = 99% 99.9% 99.95% 99.99% 99.995% 99.999%
Multiplier = 0.12
0.39
0.52
1.00
1.28
2.14
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Rain Rate in ITU-R Rain Regions

% of Time

ITU-R RAIN REGION

Rain Rate
Exceeded

0.1

12

10

20

12

15

22

35

65

0.03

13

12

15

20

18

28

23

33

40

65

0.01

12

15

19

22

28

30

32

35

42

60

63

95

145

0.003

14

21

26

29

41

54

45

55

45

70

105

95

140

200

0.001

22

32

42

42

70

78

65

83

55

100

150

120

180

250

If reliable local rain rate data are available, they shall be preferred to the
world averaged data from ITU-R.
Pakistan in K - Region.
By Worst Month Availability Pakistan in Region 3 and Class B
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Classification of Countries by Worst Month

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Excess Path Attenuation for Rainfall intensity exceeded


ITU-T rain regions (Table 1)

dB aR b
Where: dB is the unit excess path attenuation with respect
to free-space loss exceeded for the percentage of time [dB/km]
a, b are regression coefficients for given polarization ( Table 2)
R is rain rate exceeded for specified percentage of time (Table 1)

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Coefficients for estimating attenuation due to the rain

(Table 2)

h subscript stands for horizontal polarization


v subscript stands for vertical polarization
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Rain Attenuation Curves


20

H POL

Attenuation, dB/km

V POL

Rain
RainRate
Rate
(mm/hr)
(mm/hr)

15

200
150
100

10
75
50
25
5

10

10

20

30

40

Frequency, GHz

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154

ITU-R Rain Regions Maps

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155

Map of Average Temperature


-20
-10

0
20
30
40

10

F
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0

-40 -50
-30

50
60
C
-46
-40
-34
-29
-23
-18
-12
-7
-1
4
10
16
21
27
0

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70
80
70
70
60

80

70

50

156

7.5 GHz Case

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Rain and Co-channel Operation

For co-channel operation, rain can also affect Cross-polar


discrimination (XPD) and degrade XPD threshold.
Severity of such degradation depends on system parameters like:
Antenna XPD and XPIF (Cross-polar Improvement Factor) of XPIC
(Cross-polar Interference Canceller).
This option is available in Worksheet-Operation-Co-channel XPD
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158

Table with Results Full Report

Text Report with Reliability Calculation, Option in Module- Worksheet - report


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Diversity Options
Frequency diversity: a single model
available in Pathloss v.4.0,
Space Diversity: Baseband Switching,

- Method Nortel,

- Method Alcatel-Richardson,

- Method Harris Farinon

Space Diversity: IF Combining,


Methods are used to combine the
improvement factors for flat and selective
fading, respectively,
Angle diversity: Derived from SD under
assumption of fixed antenna separation s=
9.1m. Improvement factor limited to I=20.
Option is available in Worksheet
Operation - Diversity Calculation

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Frequency Diversity
I fd

80
f .d

10CMF /10

Where:
f :
frequency separation [GHz]
f:
carrier frequency [GHz],
CMF:
composite fade margin [dB].
This equation applies only for the following ranges of parameters:
2 f 11 GH
30 d 70 km
f / f 5%
Boundary value shall be used if boundary limit is exceeded.
Ifd is limited to 5.

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Space Diversity
Baseband Switching:
A

I sd 1.2 10

v 10

f 2 2 10
.s .v .10
d

v[ dB ]
20

IF Combining:
A

I sd 1.2 10

c
f 2 16.v 2
.s .
.10 10
4
d
1 v

1 v

Ac At 2.6 20. log

Where: s Rx antenna separation [m]


f frequency [GHz]
d path length [km]
vdB difference between main and diversity antenna gains [dB]
Ac combined thermal fade margin [dB]
At greater of the main and diversity thermal fade margins [dB]
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SD Calculation Example
Space Diversity Improvement Factor:
Outage Time: TSD=TND/ISD
NA Calculation:

ISD=7x10-5 f s2 10CFM/10/D
=
42 (SD dish separation s = 30 ft / 9.1 meter)
Tnd = U(0.0001042) x SESR (8 x 10e6) x Avg. Temp
= 834 SES /yr
TSD
= 834/42 = 20 SES/yr
ITU-R Calculation: ISD=1.2x10-3 f s2 10CFM/10/D
=
Tnd =
TSD =

42 (s = 9.1 m), same as NA above


U(0.000142) x SESR(2.59 x 10e6) = 270
270/42 = 7 SES/any month

Where: Frequency f= 6.7 GHz, Composite fade margin CFM=34


dB and distance D= 40 km.
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Frequency Selective Fading


Selective fading or frequency selective fading is a radio
propagation anomaly caused by partial cancellation of a radio
signal by itself the signal arrives at the receiver by two
different paths and at least one of the paths is changing
(lengthening or shortening). The two paths can both be from
skyway or one be ground wave.
The Effect can be counteracted by applying some diversity
scheme, for example OFDMA or by using two receivers with
separate antennas spaced a quarter-wavelength apart, or a
specially-designed diversity receivers with two antennas. Such
a receiver continuously compares the signals arriving at the two
antennas and presents the better signal.

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Multipath , Upfade and Downfade


Multipath Fading is the dominant fading mechanism for
frequencies lower than 10GHz. A reflected wave causes a
multipath, i.e. when a reflected wave reaches the receiver as
the direct wave that travels in a straight line from the
transmitter
If the two signals reach in phase then the signal amplifies.
this is called upfade.
Upfade max=10 log d 0.03d (dB) : d is path length in
Km
If the two waves reach the receiver out of phase they weaken
the overall signal. A location where a signal is canceled out
by multipath is called null or downfade.
As a thumb rule, multipath fading, for radio links having
bandwidths less than 40MHz and path lengths less than
30Km is described as flat instead of frequency selective.

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Flat Fading
A fade where all frequencies in the channel are equally affected.
There is barely noticeable variation of the amplitude of the
signal across the channel bandwidth .
Recommendation for Flat Fading are flat fade margin of a link
can be improved by using larger antennas, a higher-power
microwave transmitter, lower loss feed line and splitting a
longer path into two shorter hops.
On water paths at frequencies above 3 GHz, it is advantageous
to choose vertical polarization.

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Calculating Frequency Selective Fading


Probability of outage due to the selective fading (ITU-R Rep. 784-3):

Psel 0.43 sf
Where fading activity factor:

P
1 exp 0.2 o

100

0
And typical echo delay:

d
m 0.7

50

3/ 4

m2

3/ 2

In case the signature area sf is not available (more conservative result):

Psel 2.15 WM 10

BM
20

BNM
2

m2

m
20
WNM 10

o
o

BM, BNM minimum and non-minimum phase signature depth [dB]


WM, WNM - minimum and non-minimum phase signature width [GHz]
d path length [km]
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Interference Fade Margin


For each interfering transmitter, the receive power level in
dBm is compared to the maximum power level to determine
whether the interference is acceptable.
Composite Fade Margin (CFM) is the fade margin applied to
multipath fade outage equations for a digital microwave radio.
CFM = TFM + DFM + IFM + AIFM
CFM = -10 log (10-TFM/10 + 10 DFM/10 + 10-IFM/10 +
10-AIFM/10 ).
Dispersive fade margin is provided by radio's manufacturer,
and is determined by the type of modulation, effectiveness of
any equalization in the receive path, and the multipath signal's
time delay. Dispersive fade margin characterizes the radio's
robustness to dispersive (spectrum-distortion) fades.
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ContInterference Fade Margin


Where
TFM = Flat fade margin (the difference between
the normal (unfaded) RSL and the BER=1 x10-3 digital
signal loss-of frame point)
DFM = Dispersive fade margin (contribution to outage that
accounts for in-band distortion that can at times cause a
digital system to fail when the flat fade is less than that
required to reach the thermal noise threshold ).
IFM = Interference fade margin .
AIFM =Adjacent-channel interference fade margin
(contribution to system outage resulting from the broad
transmit spectra of digital systems that have sufficient energy
that spills over into adjacent channel digital receivers).

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72 dB

55 dB
6.3nsec
(Rummlers
Model)

50

50 dB = Minimum link DFM for no ES


degradation due to dispersion

30

30 dB

Radio-only DFM

10
0

6(2)

25nsec

70
2nsec

Dispersive Fade Margin @10-3 BER, dB

Dispersive Fade Margin

12(4)
18(6)
24(8) 30(10)
= Multipath Delay, nsec/feet (m)

Required antenna
discrimination
(A1+A2)

sf

158
.
4

DFS 17.6 10. log

36(12)

Psel Po .10

DFS
10

Link DFM = Radio DFM + Antenna Discriminations to the Multipath Ray


= 50 dB min. for Good Error Performance
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Microwave Link Multipath Outage Models


A major concern for microwave system users is how often and
for how long a system might be out of service. An outage in a
digital microwave link occurs with a loss of Digital Signal
frame sync for more than 10 sec. Digital signal frame loss
typically occurs when the BER increases beyond 1 x 10-3.

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Outage Availability and Unavailability


Outage (Unavailability) (%) = (SES / t) x 100
Where :
t = time period (expressed in seconds)
SES = severely errored second (Error not exceed 10-3 more
then 0.2% of second in any month)
Availability is expressed as a percentage as : A = 100 - Outage (Unavailability).
A digital link is unavailable for service or performance
prediction/verification after a ten consecutive BER> 1 x 10-3
SES outage period.
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SD Effect on Selective Fading


The SD improvement factor, for the dispersive (frequency selective) component of
the fade margin, is independent of the vertical antenna separation for values
greater then 3m. As the antenna separation is reduced bellow 3m, the
improvement factor decreases rapidly:
Combining Method Nortel:

FM
10

10

PSDtotal ~

RD

10

DFM
10

sD

sD=8.5m

Combining Method Alcatel-Richardson:

PSDtotal

I SD _ sel

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P
I SD

Psel
I SD _ sel

f
0.09 10
d

DFM
10

Where: ISD SD improvement factor for flat fading


(all previous formulae)
P probability of flat fading (also PND)
FM thermal + interference fade margin
DFM dispersive fade margin
RD correlation coefficient
173

Variable Parameters

Parameters controlling space diversity:


Diversity antenna diameter and gain
Diversity antenna height (AGL)
Loss of the transmission line and branching circuitry for diversity antenna
Option available in Microwave Worksheet then double click on antenna.
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Diffraction Algorithms Overview


Diffraction loss represents the deficiency, with respect to free space loss, in
electromagnetic energy of the radio beam that was diffracted (bent) behind the
obstacle entering the area around the line of interconnection (line of sight)
between receiver and transmitter.
There are two limiting cases that can be easily handled mathematically:
Knife-edge like obstacle
Earth bulge (ellipsoid like) obstacle
Practical case are somewhat in between the above two cases and have to be
solved numerically:
Pathloss contains following numerical diffraction algorithms:
Knife Edge, Isolated Obstacle, Longley and Rice, Pathloss (automatic selection
of the calculation algorithm), NSMA, Average, Height Gain, Two ray optics,
TIREM.

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Diffraction
A wave-front reaching an obstacle, which is comparable in size to the wave-length, is bended
around the obstacle in a phenomenon called diffraction. According to Huygens theory, each
point of original wave-front is a source of elementary spherical wave, which all together form
a new wave-front behind the obstacle. This theory was later formulated mathematically by
Fresnel, resulting in integral theory of diffraction. However analytical solution are available for
simple cases only (knife-edge, ellipsoid, sphere).

More complex diffraction algorithms use


multiple knife-edges to better fit the shape of
terrain and clutter:
Bullington model
Epstein Peterson model
Deygout model
Giovanelli model

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Diffraction Losses Knife-edge Obstacle


Signal level can be obtained by solving
Fresnel integral. Approximate solution:

Where:

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vh

2(d1 d 2 )
d1d 2

177

Bullington Model

Bullingtons model replaces two knife edges with a single equivalent edge to reduce
the number of calculations.
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Multiple Knife-Edges Methods


Model Epstein-Peterson, Deygout

This model is used in most planning tools, including Pathloss algorithms. It


resembles reality closely enough, but has a limited accuracy. E.g. oval shaped
hills are not well modeled by multiple knife edges. Deygout method is limited
to two knife-edges.
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Diffraction Loss Concept

Diffraction loss over knife-edge like obstacle, option available on Module - Diffraction - Average
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Diffraction Parameters
Diffraction loss can also be calculated as
a function of frequency, K-factor and
antenna height.

All parameters used in these variable


calculations are local, except polarization.
Option is available in Module-ReflectionVariables.
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Refractive Ray Bending


K = 2/3 Slightly Sub refractive
K = Moderately Sub refractive
K = 5/12
Humidity Inversion: Extreme Earths
Bulge: Diffraction Fade

K = 2/3
SUBREFRACTIVE
K = 1 (No refraction)
STANDARD

K =4/3 ( Mean)

K =2
SUPERREFRACTIVE

K = -1
DUCTING

Steep Gradient: Possible


Blackout

K approaches infinity

K = -0.5
K<0

Extreme Gradient: Blackout

Moderate Negative
Gradient: Flat Earth

EARTH

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Antenna Height Variation

Choosing antenna heights 4 degrees of freedom. Option is available in Module-Reflection


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K variation in Pathloss

Option available in Module-Reflection-Variable-Earth Radius Factor


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Two Ray Optics


Reflection analysis is based on two-ray optics and is limited to a single specular
reflection. The received signal is a vector addition of the direct signal and the
reflected signal. The amplitude of the reflected signal depends on:
Theoretical reflection coefficient
Terrain roughness
ray divergence
ground cover over reflection surface
antenna discrimination
additional loss due to the lack of clearance
Received signal amplitude:

2r

A 10 log 1 R 2 2 R cos
v ,h

Where:
R reflection coefficient amplitude (R=0 to R= -0.1)
l - wavelength [m]
r difference in path-length between the direct and reflected signal path [m]
v,h phase shift which occurs on reflection (close to 180 deg.), polarization dependant

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Dispersion Analysis

During dispersion analysis, Pathloss user can calculate:


Location of the reflection point on the path,
Delay of the reflected ray relative to direct ray,
Reflection loss relative to the FSL of a direct ray.
Option available Module-Reflection-Dispersion
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Modifying Reflection Parameters

Terrain roughness with reduce theoretical reflection coefficient. The higher the
roughness, the lower the magnitude of reflection coefficient,
Any ground cover will contribute by additional loss to the specular reflection
(water, desert: 0-1 dB; fields with grass: 1-3 dB; sage brush and high
grass: 3-6 dB; trees and forests: 8-15 dB),
Antenna discrimination (which depends on the main-lobe beamwidth) helps to
discriminate the reflected signal.
Ray divergence takes into account the scattering effects cause by Earth curvature.
Option available Module-Reflection-Modify-Parameters.
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Constant Gradient Trace

Rays are straight.

Constant gradient ray trace used to determine reflective characteristics. Angle


between rays determined by program. Option is available in Module-Multipath

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Variable Gradient Trace

Atmospheric Duct
Rays are curved.

Variable gradient ray trace used to determine ducting & atmospheric anomalies. Angle between
rays determined by program. Option is available in Module-Multipath
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Network Overview

Option available in Module-Network


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Network Background

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Background is generated from the DTM installed, option available ModuleNetwork-Site Data-Show background

191

Site List

Can be printed out as a special report, option available Module-Network-Site Data-Site List
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Link List

Review of the incorporated xxx.pl4, option available Module-Network-Site Data-Site List


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Importing Sites into Pathloss


Sites can be imported into site list:
by importing xxx.pl4 files
by importing xxx.txt file
by importing xxx.csv file
transformed into text file
by importing Mapinfo xxx.mif files
Links can be imported into site list:
by importing xxx.txt file
by importing xxx.csv file
transformed into text file
by importing Mapinfo xxx.mif files
Pathloss v.4.0 exports into xxx.csv file
which can be converted into MS Excel
xxx.xls file.

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Option available in Module-Map gridSite data- Site List-Import-Site Text


File & Link file

194

Interference Calculation Procedure


Interference analysis calculates
threshold degradations of all the
receivers in a specified network, using
frequency plan defined by the Pathloss
user,
Digital Interference Objective is
maximum allowable Rx threshold
degradation,
Coordination Distance specifies the
maximum length of interfering path,
Maximum Frequency Separation
excludes all the interferers that fall
outside of it,
Default Minimum Interference Level is
used if T/I data are not available for
the Radio in its radio data file,
Calculation Margin sets the limit for
reported interference cases.
Option in Module-NetworkInterference-Calc Intra
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Interference Reports

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Shows threshold degradation for each interferer-victim pair. Option is on


Module-Network-Interference-Reports.

196

Repeated Analysis Method


Error log indicating missing data in hop description file xxxx.pl4, which prevented a
successful calculation of Rx threshold degradation during interference analysis.
Option is on Module-Network-Interference-View Error Log.

A Transmission Planner repeatedly uses interference analysis to calculate


threshold degradations, and manually modifies the frequency plan to ensure, the
threshold degradations fall bellow tolerable level (1 dB intrasystem, 3 dB
intersystem).
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Cross-reference Report

Highlighted case show the threshold degradation exceeding


preset tolerable value. Option is on Module-NetworkInterference-Reports.

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Passive Repeaters
WHY TO USE THEM:
When a microwave hop is required in a place which has some
unavoidable physical obstacles.
Where a mountain peak has to be surmounted which may be so
inaccessible that power cannot be provided for a usual active repeater.

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Configuration of Passive Link

View from terminal site


View from reflector site

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Double Plane Repeater

Bird-view

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Plane Reflector Passive Repeater

Option is available in Module-Worksheet-Operations-Create Passive Repeater


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Passive Repeater Data Plane Reflector

Option is available in Module-Worksheet-Report- Passive


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Back-to-back Antenna Passive Repeater

Option is available in Module-Worksheet-Operations-Create Passive Repeater


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Passive Repeater Data Back-to-back

Option is available in Module-Worksheet-Report- Passive


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Network Snapshot

Possibility of backdrop file insertion, option in module-network


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Backdrop Image in Pathloss v.4.0

Option is available in Module-Map grid-Site Data- Backdrop


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Elevation View

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Option is available in Module-Map grid-Site Data- Elevation View

208

Backdrop Configuration

Directory and Index File


has to be configured for:
1. Backdrop Image
2. Terrain Elevation Data
3. Clutter Height Data

Backdrop Image must be in .TIF


format

Datum or Ellipsoid as well


As UTM Zone must correspond
to that of the GIS source
Option is available in ModuleMap grid-Site Data- Backdrop

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Microwave Wave Radio File Definition

Files for well known


radio manufacturers
are available on
Pathloss CD-ROM,
in Equipment/mrs
directory.

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Microwave Wave Antenna File Definition

Files for well known antenna manufacturers


are available on Pathloss CD-ROM, in
Equipment /mas directory.
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Step by Step Procedure on MW RR Hop Design


1. Perform sites selection (map study, finding of coordinates)
2. Choose transmission capacity and HW protection (as per customer, # of
BTS, etc.)
3. Choose frequency band (based on distance and TRM capacity)
4. Generate profile (DTM, map, determine HASL)
5. Suggest preliminary antenna heights (use clearance criteria)
6. Perform site survey, path survey (verify HASL, find CP, clutter)
7. LOS OK/not OK! (for realistic minimum antenna height)
8. Perform diffraction analysis (if needed in exceptional cases)
9. Perform reflection analysis (if needed for specular reflections)
10. SD for reflection mitigation needed/not needed??
11. Determine precise minimum main (and SD) antenna heights
12. Determine radio and feeder type

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Step by Step Procedure on MW RR Hop Design (cont.)

Determine preliminary Tx power and Antenna Size/Type (based on frequency


band, TRM capacity and distance of the hop)
Apply SD if needed of FD/HD if applicable (2nd run)
Check clearance criteria for SD antenna (2nd run)
Calculate the link budget and fade margin
Calculate the percentages of outage due to the rain and multipath fading
(SES, ES, BBER, UAT)
Compare with performance allocations from the ITU standard (Rule of
thumb, scalable G.821 green table)
Complies with standard? (If not, change antenna and/or Tx power, add SD
and repeat 13-19)
Perform End-to-end performance calculation for the complete link (standard
G. 826)
Complies with standard? (If not, change antenna and/or Tx power, add SD
and repeat 13-21)

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Step by Step Procedure on MW RR Hop Design (cont.2)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Allocate a frequency channel and choose polarization


Decide upon co-channel operation (if needed)
Decide upon ATPC range
Perform intra-system interference analysis
Threshold degradations less then 3 dB? (If not, repeat 22-26 with different
frequency channel and/or polarization)
6. Print the performance calculation report and profile
7. Allocate [IP] address for network management (if applicable)
8. END
Note: The above is a generic procedure. Some steps can be cancelled in particular
cases. For example, designing 30 hops in 23, 26 GHz band in the city, that are
just 1-2 km long, doesnt require comprehensive performance analysis, since
there will be no fading. Designing just one MW hop in the middle of a desert,
obviously doesnt require intra-system interference analysis.

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Process Flowchart: MW Link Design


Receive Customer Input
RPF
Budgetary Quote

Perform Preliminary Analysis and Design


Path Calculations
Routing
Equipment Determination
System Layout

Review Input
Understand
Clarify
Recommend

Profiles
Available
?

Obtain Min. Information


Protection Scheme
Coordinates or Path Length
Capacity

NO

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Min.
Information
Obtained?

YES

NO

YES

Perform Field Survey


Verify Sites
Path Clearance
Antenna Centerlines
Mounting Conditions
Storage Capability

215

ContProcess Flowchart

YES

Meet
Clearance
Criteria
?

NO

Modify Design
Change
Centerline

YES
Meet
SES/any month
Objective
?
NO
Modify Design
Wave guide Type
Dish Size
Tx Output Power
Diversity Scheme

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YES
Begin Frequency
Interference Study
Intra-System
Inter-System

216

ContProcess Flowchart

Begin Frequency
Interface Study
Intra-System
Inter-System

HL-Low
Violations
?

YES

NO

YES
Frequency Pairs
Assigned?
NO
Determine Pairs
ITU-T Channel Plans
Minimum T/R Spacing

Perform Frequency
Interference Study
T/I Curves
Antenna Type/Size
and patterns
Tx Output Power
Polarization
Radio Capacities
Coordinates (or
Azmuths
and Distance)

Modify Design
Move Frequency pairs

Modify Design
Move Frequency pairs
Obtain Additional Pairs
Change Polarization
Upgrade Antennas
YES
Intra-System
Interference

NO

DONE

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Difficult Areas for Microwave Links


In areas with lots of rain, use the lowest frequency band
allowed for the project.
Microwave hops over or in the vicinity of the large water
surfaces and flat land areas can cause severe multipath
fading. Reflections may be avoided by selecting sites that are
shielded from the reflected rays.
Hot and humid coastal areas.

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Troubleshooting Procedure
Isolate the problem to the specific link with BER test, internal network management
system reports, etc.
Isolate modules by switching off-line (substitution) by local or remote command.
Is the ES impairment two-way?
Does it correlate with nighttime power fade activity?
If the ES events are daytime occurrences with no fade activity, do open door alarms
or other reports suggest manual intervention?
Are the ES events seen in both diversity receivers? Simultaneously?
If so, does a far-end transmit chain switch correct the problem?
If not, does it follow an antenna feeder system (Receiver, Demodulator, Decoder,
Multiplexer)?
Are the ES Continuous or Random, Recurring or Periodic?
Are there events like Unavailability (>10 CSES), Outage (SES), Burst ES, Dribbling
ES (excessive RBER)? What is their statistical distribution?
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Important Recommendations
Use higher frequency bands for shorter hops and lower
frequency bands for longer hops.
Avoid lower frequency bands in urban areas.
Use star and hub configurations for smaller networks and ring
configuration for larger networks.
In areas with heavy precipitation , if possible, use frequency
bands below 10 GHz.
Use protected systems (1+1) for all important and/or highcapacity links.
Leave enough spare capacity for future expansion of the
system.

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Important Recommendations
Space diversity is a very expensive way of improving the
performance of the microwave link and it should be used
carefully and as a last resort.
The activities of microwave path planning and frequency
planning preferably should be performed in parallel with line of
sight activities and other network design activities for best
efficiency.
Use updated maps that are not more than a year old. The
terrain itself can change drastically in a very short time period.
Make sure everyone on the project is using the same maps,
datums and coordinate systems.

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Important Recommendations
Perform detailed path surveys on ALL microwave hops. Maps
are used only for initial planning, as a first approximation.
Below 10 GHz , multipath outage increases rapidly with path
length. It also increases with frequency , climatic factors and
average annual temperature. Multipath effect can be reduced
with higher fade margin. If the path has excessive path outage
the performance can be improved by using one of the diversity
methods.

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Channel Table 1 (1.4 6 GHz)

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223

Channel Table 2 (7-13 GHz)

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224

Channel Table 3 (14-23 GHz)

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225

Channel Table 4 (27-55 GHz)

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226

Case Studies

Design of MW 16E1 PDH Hop in 15 GHz


Diffraction Loss on PDH hop in 8 GHz
Reflection Analysis for Over-water 6 GHz hop
Rain Attenuation for PDH 8E1 hop in 18 GHz
MW PDH Link from BTS to BSC
Design of a MW SDH Transmission Link 4+0
Interference Analysis in Multan City, Pakistan
Backdrop Image of Sanaa, Yemen

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Where to find the Case Studies?


Go to the files copied from the CD-ROM you have received from the trainer:

Beside the individual Case Studies, there are some other radio and antenna
definition files in this directory.
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Acronyms 1
1+1
1:N, 2:N

-Single line protection switching (FD, HS, etc.)


-Multiline protection switching (N = no. of bearer channels)

ABL
ACO
ACU
A/D
ADM
ADPCM
ADSL
AGC
AIS
AMI
AMPS
ANSI
APS
ASAE/AFDE
ASCII
ATDE
ATM
ATPC
AU
AZD

-Atmospheric Boundary Layer


-Alarm Cutoff
-Antenna Coupling Unit
-Analog-to-Digital (conversion)
-Add/Drop Multiplexer
-Adaptive Differential PCM
-Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
-Automatic Gain Control
-Alarm Indication Signal (All Ones at DS1, Blue at DS3)
-Alternate Mark Inversion (DS1)
-Advanced Mobile Phone System (FDMA -Analog Cellular)
-American National Standards Institute
-Automatic Protection Switching
-Adaptive [Frequency Domain] Slope Amplitude Equalizer
-American Standard Code for Information Interchange
-Adaptive Time Domain (transversal) Equalizer
-Asynchronous Transfer Mode
-Automatic Transmitter Power Control (also APC)
-Administration Unit (SDH)
-Ambiguity Zone (error) Detection (QPR Radios)

B3ZS
B6ZS
B8ZS
BBER
BER
BERTS
BISDN
BITS
BLSR
BPV
BWA

-Bipolar with 3-Zero Substitution (DS3)


-Bipolar with 6-Zero Substitution (DS2)
-Bipolar with 8-Zero Substitution (DS1)
-Background Block Error Rate (EB/time period)
-Bit Error Ratio or Rate (Errors/time period)
-BER Test Set (being replaced with internal NMS)
-Broadband ISDN
-Building Integrated Timing Supply
-Bi-directional Line-Switched Ring
-Bipolar Violation
-Broadband Wireless Access

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CAD/CAM
CB
CBR
CCC
CCDP
CCIR
CCITT
CDMA
CDPD
CDV
CEPT
CFM
CGA
CIR
CIT
CLR
CMI
CMISE
CNR
CO
CODEC
CPE
CRC
CSMA/CD
CSU/DSU
CV
DACS
DADE
DCC

-Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing


- Channel Bank (1st order mux)
- Constant Bit Rate (ATM)
-Clear Channel Capability
-Co-Channel Dual Polarized link
-International Radio Consultative Committee (now ITU-R)
-International Telephone and Telegraph
Consultative Committee (now ITU-T)
-Code Division Multiple Access (spread spectrum)
-Cellular Digital Packet Data
-Cell Delay Variation (ATM)
-Conference of European Postal and
Telecommunications administrations
-Composite Fade Margin
-Carrier Group Alarm
-Carrier-to-Interference Ratio (also C/I Ratio)
-Craft Interface Terminal
-Cell Loss Ratio (ATM)
-Coded Mark Inversion (E4)
-Common Management Information Service Element
-Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (also C/N Ratio)
-Central Office
-Coder/Decoder
-Customer Premises Equipment
-Cyclic Redundancy Check (on ESF T1 trunks)
-Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
-Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit
-Coding Violation
-Digital Access Crossconnect System ( Lucent
Technologies ). See DCS.
-Diversity Antenna Differential Equalization or
Differential Absolute Delay Equalization
-Digital Communications Channel (e.g., SONET OAM&P)

229

Acronyms 2
DCE
DCS
DLC
DFM
DRRS
DS0, 1,2,3
DSP
DS
DSX
DTE

-Data Circuit-Termination Equipment


-Digital Access Crossconnect System (also DXC, TCS,
DACCS, DACS - Lucent)
-Digital Local Loop Carrier (fiber)
-Dispersive Fade Margin
-Digital Radio-Relay System
-North American Digital Signals levels 0, 1, 2, 3
-Digital Signal Processing
-Direct Sequence (spread spectrum - CDMA)
-Digital Cross-Connect panel (-1, -3 for DS1, DS3)
-Data Terminating Equipment

E1, E2, E3, E4


EB
%EFS
ESR
EIRP
EIA
EMC
EMI
EPROM
EPO
ERP
ES
ESF
ESR
ETSI

-CEPT Digital Trunks or Signals


-Errored Block (Sonet and SDH)
-%Error-free seconds (over a measurement period)
-Errored Second Ratio (ES/time period)
-ERP ref. to an Isotropic Antenna (= ERP+2.2 dB)
-Electronic Industries Association (assn w/TIA)
-Electromagnetic Compatibility
-Electromagnetic Interference
-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
-Error Performance Objective
-Effective Radiated Power ref. to a Dipole Antenna
-Errored Second
-Extended Super Frame
-Errored Second Ratio (ES/Time Period)
-European Telecommunication Standards
Institute (ANSI equivalent)

FD
FDDI
FDM
FDMA
FEC
FH
FITS

-Frequency Diversity
-Fiber Distributed Data Interface
-Frequency Division Multiplex
-Frequency Division Multiple Access (also FM-FDM)
-Forward Error Correction
-Frequency Hopping (spread spectrum)
-Failures In Time (109 hours)

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FM
FM-FDM
FSK
FTTC
FTTH
FWL
FXO, FXS

-Frequency Modulation
-FM radio with FDM multiplex (also FDMA)
-Frequency Shift Keying
-Fiber To The Curb
-Fiber To The Home
-Fixed Wireless Local Loop (also WLL)
-Foreign eXchange unit at CO, subscriber (VF)

Gbit/s
GHz
GPS
GUI

-Gigabits per second (also Gb/s, Gbps)


-Gigahertz(109 Hz)
-Global Positioning Satellite system
-Graphical User Interface

HD
HDB3
HFC
HDSL
HNM
HP
HS
HSSI

-Hybrid Diversity
-High Density Bipolar order 3 (E1-E3)
-Hybrid Fiber/Coax cable (see FTTH and FTTC)
-High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
-Harris Network Management System
- High Performance (e.g., shrouded antenna)
- Monitored Hot Standby (also MHSB)
- High Speed Serial Interface

IEC
IF
IFM
IP
ISDN
ISI
ISO
ITU-R

- International Electrotechnology Commission


- Intermediate Frequency
-Interference Fade Margin
- Internet Protocol
- Integrated Services Digital Network
- Intersymbol Interference
- International Standards Organization
- International Telecommunication UnionRadiocommunications Sector
- International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunication Standardization Sector

ITU-T
kbit/s
kHz

-kilobits per second (also kb/s, kbps)


-kilohertz (103 Hz)

230

Acronyms 3
LAN
LED
LNC
LOS
LOF
LOP
LSB

-Local Area Network


-Light Emitting Diode
-Low Noise Converter
-Loss Of Signal, Line Of Sight
-Loss Of Frame synchronization
-Loss Of Pointer (SONET)
-Least Significant Bit

MAN
Mbit/s
MHz
micron
MIS
MODEM
MPEG
mrad
msec
MTBF
MTBMA
MTBO
MTR
MTSO
MTTR
MUX

-Metropolitan Area Network


-Megabits per second (also Mb/s, Mbps)
-Megahertz (106 Hz)
-10-6 meter (= 1000 nm - lightwave)
-Management Information System
-MODulator/DEModulator
-Motion Picture Experts Group
-milliradian (also mr)
-millisecond (also ms)
-Mean Time Between Failure
-Mean Time Between Maintenance Activities
-Mean Time Between Outage
-Mean Time to Restore (after failure)
-Mobile Telephone Switching Office (also MSO,
MTX, MSC)
-Mean Time To Repair (at the site)
-Multiplexer

ND
NE
Node
nm
NMS
NNI
NP
NPL
NRZ
nsec

-Non-Diversity
-Near-End or transport Network Element
-SONET/SDH line terminating device
-nanometer (10-9 meter), lightwave
-Network Management System
-Network Node Interface
-Non-Protected
-Net Path Loss
-Non-Return to Zero
-nanosecond (10-9 sec) - also ns

Imran Siddiqui copy right reserved

OAM&P
OC-1,-3
OC-3c
OCUDP
OOF
OPX
OQPSK
OSI

-Operations, Administration, Maintenance,


and Provisioning functions (usually SONET/SDH)
-Optical Carrier Level 1, 3 Signal (51, 155 Mbit/s)
-OC-3 Concatenated Signal for Broadband/ATM
-Office Channel Unit Data Port
-Out Of Frame
-Off-Premises eXtensions (VF)
-Offset QPSK
-Open Systems Interconnection

PA
PAD
PBX
PCM
PCR
PCS
PDH
PLL
P-MP
PN
P-P
POH
POTS
PSTN
PTE
PVC

-Power Amplifier
-Packet Assembler/Disassembler
-Private Branch eXchange (also PABX)
-Pulse Code Modulation
-Peak Cell Rate (ATM), Paperless Chart Recorder
-Personal Communications Services (also PCN)
-Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
-Phased-Locked Loop
-Point-to-Multipoint access radio
-Psuedo-Noise sequence code (spread spectrum/CDMA)
-Point-to-Point radio-relay link
-Path Overhead (SONET/SDH)
-Plain Old Telephone Service
-Public Switched Telephone Network
-Path Terminating Equipment (SONET)
-Permanent Virtual Circuit/Connection (ATM)

QAM
QD
QoS
QPRS
QPSK

-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


-Quadruple Diversity
-Quality of Service (ATM)
-Quadrature Partial Response Signaling (also QPR)
-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

231

Acronyms 4
RBER
Ring
RF
RR-STM
RRRP
RSL
RSVP
RTU
RZ

-Residual (dribbling) BER


-Circular configuration of nodes
-Radio Frequency
-STM-0 (51 Mbit/s) for Radio Relay. Also sub-STM-1
-Radio-Relay Reference Point (SDH)
-Receive Signal Level
-Resource reSerVation Protocol (ATM)
-Remote Terminal Unit
-Return to Zero

SCADA
SCU
SDH
SD
SEP
SEPI
SES
SESR
SF
SMDS
SNA
SNMP
SOH
SONET
SPE
SPU
ST
STE
STM-n
STS-n
STS-3c
SVC

-Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition


-Service Channel Unit
-Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (ETSI standard))
-Space Diversity
-Severely Errored Period (G.828). See CSES
-SEP Intensity
-Severely-Errored Second
-Severely-Errored Second Ratio (SES/time period)
-Super Frame (format for DS1 signal)
-Switched Multi-megabit Data Service
-Systems Network Architecture
-Simple Network Management Protocol
-Section Overhead (SONET/SDH)
-Synchronous Optical NETwork (ANSI standard)
-Synchronous Payload Envelope (SONET)
-Signal Processing Unit
-Split Transmitters (to separate antennas)
-Section Terminating Equipment (SONET)
-Synchronous Transport Module (SDH transport)
-Synchronous Transport Signal (SONET transport)
-STS-3 Concatenated Signal (for Broadband/ATM)
-Switched Virtual Circuit (ATM)

T1,T3
-North American digital trunks or facilities
T1M1 & T1X1 -ANSI telecommunications standards committees

Imran Siddiqui copy right reserved

TABS

TL1
TMN
TSA
TSI
TU
TUG

-Telemetry Asynchronous Byte Serial (Protocol) TBOS


-Telemetry Byte-Oriented Serial (Protocol)
-Trellis Code Modulation
-Time Division Multiple Access
-Thermal (flat) Fade Margin (also FFM)
-Telecommunications Industries Association
(assn w/EIA)
-Transaction Language 1
-Telecommunication Management Network
-Time Slot Assignment
-Time Slot Interchange
-Tributary Unit (SDH)
-Tributary Unit Group (SDH)

UAS
UBR
UNI
UPSR

-UnAvailable (failed) Seconds (also NAS)


-Unspecified Bit Rate (ATM)
-User-to-Network Interface
-Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring

VBR
VC
VCI
VDSL
VF
VP
VSAT
VT
VTG

-Variable Bit Rate (ATM)


-Virtual Container (SDH)
-Virtual Channel Indicator (ATM)
-Very high speed Digital Subscriber Line
-Voice Frequency
-Virtual Path (ATM)
-Very Small Aperture Terminal (satellite)
-Virtual Tributary (SONET)
-Virtual Tributary Group (SONET)

WAN
WLL
www

-Wide Area Network


-Wireless Local Loop (also FWL)
-World Wide Web

XPD
XPIC
XPU

-Cross-Pol antenna Discrimination


-Cross-Pol Interference Canceller for CCDP links
-Expansion Unit

TCM
TDMA
TFM
TIA

232