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THE COMMONWEALTH AND

RESTORATION
(1649 1713)
GROUP 4 CLASS XZ ENGLISH LITERATURE
Diar Riska Andriani (201212501206)
Irti Nova Andraini (201212501321)
Indah Anggraini Saputri (201212501246)
Rina Anindita (201312570068)

The Rulers
QUEEN ELIZABETH

OLIVER CROMWELL
(commonwealth
era)

CHARLES II
(Restoration era)

JAMES IV (JAMES I)
JAMES II

CHARLES I

KING
WILLIAM
OF
ORANGE &
QUEEN
MARY

The Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell

The death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, made certain changes


lead by the new ruler, King James VI (well known as James I).
With James I new rules (absolute monarch and the Church of
England religion), many English people migrated to America,
to make financial profits, and to find religious freedom and
free-land.
In Charles I reign, the religious discrimination and absolute
monarch broke a civil war between The Royalist or The
Cavalier (those who support the monarch) and The
Roundheads or The Puritans (also known as the nonconformist, who supported parliamentary side)
After Puritan succeeded in civil war, led by Oliver Cromwell
that made England became commonwealth (republic). In
this era all theaters were closed, and entertainment like
dramas were banned because it was not suitable for
Christianity.

The Restoration King Charles II

Charles II was the son of Charles I, and became the king


after the Commonwealth collapsed in Cromwells son era.
The monarchy then restored, but most of the power of
held by the Parliament; two parties, the Whigs and the
Tories, and a prime minister governed the country.
King Charles II was replaced by King James II, and King
James II reign was ended with the Glorious or Bloodless
Revolution of 1688
Under the reign of King William of Orange and Queen
Mary, the main concern was to avoid another revolution,
and the time of economic and scientific growth, including
in Literature.

Leviathan by Thomas
Hobbes

Leviathan was the main


philosophical text in the
second half of the century,
written while Thomas Hobbes
in exile in France in 1651.
Leviathan reflects the society
of Britain after the
Restoration: a strong
government to prevent the
risk of another revolution, and
self-interest as the driving
force behind the individual
and the new middle classes.

POETRY, POLITICS and


JOHN MILTON

The period between the execution of King Charles I in 1649


and the Restoration of the monarchy with his son Charles II in
1660 is called the Commonwealth.
The theme of the poem is strength and strong government.
One of the main texts of the Commonwealth is the poem by
Andrew Marvel, An Horation Ode upon Cromwells Return from
Ireland (1650)
The political side of literature became important during the
Commonwealth in a way never was before.
The new society of the Restoration gave much more
importance than before to stable values, and much less
importance to the search for new values, or the exploration of
new worlds, as in the Renaissance.
The major figure who links Renaissance and the Restoration is
John Milton.

John

POETRY AND THE WRITERS


WRITER

TITLE

Andrew
Marvel

THEME
Political poem

YEAR
1650

Richard
Lovelace

To Lucasta,
Going to the
Wars

Love, politic

1649

John Milton

Lycidas

Elegy

1637

Paradise Lost

Epic Poem

1667

Paradise
Regained and
Samson
Agonistes

Humanity,
superhuman
heroes

Paradise
Regained,
Jesus Christ

Hero, religion

PROSE AND JOHN BUNYAN

The best-known prose text of the second half of the


seventeenth century was also a return to medieval
rather than Renaissance forms.
The Pilgrims Progress (1678) by John Bunyan is possibly
the most widely read of all books in English literature
Satire became an important kind of poetry : it looks at
the manners and behavior of society and very often uses
real people and situations to make its humors point.
The long satirical poem Hudibras by Samuel Butler,
published in three pars between 1863 and 1678, was
one of the first of such poems.

John Drydens Literary Work


WRITER
John Dryden

TITLE
Heroic Stanza
Absolom and
Achitophel

THEME
Poem about
Cromwell
Satirical Poem

YEAR
1650
1681
1682

MacFlecknoe
The Medal

Satirical Poem

1682

Of Dramatic
Pocsy

drama

1668

the Secular
Masque

Drama

1770

RESTORATION DRAMA - COMEDY

Dryden wrote more than twenty plays, from comedy to tragedy. And
was especialy sucessful in the new genre of Tragi-Comedy, of
which the best-known example is Marriage-a-la-a-mode
(Fashionable Marriage) <1672>. And his famous tragedy is All for
Love < 1678 >.

After the Restoration, drama and the theater were quite different
from what they had been during the Renaissance.

The teather Royal moved to convent garden in 1732. And the


audience was at first-upper-class or upper-middle-class.
- The plays reflect the manners and

morals of the men and women who


had returned with the king of
france. The restoration comedy is
often called the Comedy of
Dryde
Manners.
n

COMEDY DRAMA
WRITER

TITLE

THEME

YEAR

George
Etherege

The Comical
Revenge

Comedy

1664

William
Wycherley

The Country Wife

Comedy abut 1675


morality

Sir John
Vanbrugh

The Relapse

Comedy

1696

The Provokd Wife

Comedy

1697

William
Congreve

The Way of The


world

Comedy

1700

Farquhar

The Recruiting
Officer
The Beaux
Stratagem

Comedy

1706
1707

Susannah

A Bold Stroke for a

Comedy

1718

COMEDY

As the century came to an end there were more and more


objections of moral seen in Restoration Comedy. These
protest led to the publication of phamplet by Jerremy
Collier. The title is A short view of the profaneness
and immorality of the english stage

Collier attacked the plots of plays like Whycherleys The


Country Wife

One of the playwrights whose work offended Collier was Sir


John Vanbrugh, who was later also very famous as an
architect. Vanbrughs plays, such as The Relapse
(1696) and The Provokd Wife ( 1697 ).

Many Playwrights spoke againts Collier, just as strongly as


he citizen them. Among them was William Congreve he
wrote of the great dramatists in english. The way of The
World (1700)

After Congreve stopped writing, at the highest point of his

TRAGEDY AND SERIOUS DRAMA


The main tragic form of the Restoration was heroic
tragedy.
a. Venice Preservd (1682) a play written by Thomas
Otway: the tragedy where death and disaster
could destroy the whole of society.
b. The Beggars Opera; a play with music written by
John Gay: one of the most popular works to
satirize politicians and the false values of society.
c. The Historical Register for The Year 1936; a play
by Henry Fielding: a political comedy that made
the prime minister censored all plays at that time.

Richard Sheridan

With the Stage Licensing Act (1737) and the


censoring of the plays, theatre and drama werent
any longer the main forms of literary exploration
The novel was becoming the most important
literary genre
But in 1770s, the plays of Richard Sheridan
became successful again

Richard Sheridan works of


art:
-The Rivals (1775)
-The Critic (1779)
-The School for Scandal
(1777) was the most

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