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Soil Stabilization

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The soil stabilization means the improvement of

stability

or bearing power of the soil by the use of controlled


compaction, proportioning and/or the addition of suitable
admixture or stabilizers.

Basic Principles of Soil Stabilization.


Evaluating the properties of given soil
Deciding the lacking property of soil and choose
effective and economical method of soil stabilization
Designing the Stabilized soil mix for intended stability
durability values
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and

OBJECTIVES
Reducing the volume of voids =
reducing the porosity.
Filling the voids that cannot be
eliminated = reducing the
permeability.
Increasing the bonding between
grains = increasing the mechanical
strength.

Need for Soil Stabilization


Limited Financial Resources to Provide a
complete network Road System to build in
conventional method

Effective utilization of

locally available

soils and other suitable stabilizing agents.

Encouraging

the

use

of

Industrial

Wastages in building low cost construction


of roads.
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Methods of Soil
Stabilization

Mechanical Stabilization
Soil Cement Stabilization
Soil Lime Stabilization
Soil Bitumen Stabilization
Lime Fly ash Stabilization
Lime Fly ash Bound Macadam.
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Mechanical Stabilization
Mechanical stabilization is accomplished by
mixing or blending soils of two or more
gradations to obtain a material meeting the
required specification. The soil blending may
take place at the construction site, a central
plant, or a borrow area. The blended material is
then spread and compacted to required densities
by conventional means.

Factors Affecting Mechanical


Stabilization
Mechanical Strength of aggregates

Gradation
Properties of the Soil
Mineral Composition
Compaction

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Mechanical Strength
When the soil is used in small proportion to
fill up the voids the crushing strength of
aggregates is important

Gradation
A well graded aggregate soil mix results in a
mix with high dry density and stability values

Properties of soil
A mix with Plasticity Index, results poor
stability under soaking conditions. Hence it is
desirable to limit the plasticity index of the soil
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PHYSICAL
STABILISATION
IN THIS TECHNIQUE MORE THAN TWO OR THREE SOILS ARE
BLENDED TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WEAK SOIL.
QUITE OFTEN SOME ADDITIVES MAY ALSO BE ADDED FOR THE
PURPOSE.
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CEMENT STABILISATION
LIME STABILISATION
BITUMEN STABILISATION
CHEMICAL STABILISATION
RESIN STABILISATION

Soil Cement Stabilization

Soil Cement is an intimate mix of soil,


cement and water, compacted to form a
strong base course

Cement treated or cement modified soil


refers to the compacted mix when cement
is used in small proportions to impart some
strength

Soil Cement can be used as a sub-base or


base course for all types of Pavements

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Factors affecting soil cement


stabilization

Soil
Cement
Pulverization and Mixing
Compaction
Curing
Additives
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Soil
THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Particle Size Distribution
Clay content
Specific Surface
Liquid limit and Plasticity Index

Cement
A increase in cement content
generally causes increase in strength and
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durability

Pulverisation and Mixing


Better the Pulverisation and degree of
mixing, higher is the strength
Presence of un pulverised dry lumps reduces
the strength

Compaction
By increasing the amount of compaction dry
density of the mix, strength and durability
also increases
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Curing
Adequate Moisture content is to be retained
in
order to accelerate the strength
Additives
There are some additives to improve
properties
Lime
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium Carbonate
Calcium Chloride
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Soil Lime Stabilization


Soil- Lime has been widely used as a
modifier or a binder
Soil-Lime is used as modifier in high
plasticity
soils
Soil Lime also imparts some binding
action
even in granular soils

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When lime reacts with soil there is


exchange of
cations in the absorbed water layer
and a decrease
in the plasticity of the soil occurs.
The resulting material is more friable
than the
original clay, and is, therefore more
suitable as subwww.ustudy.in

Factors affecting Properties of SoilLime


Lime Content
Generally increase in lime content causes
slight change in liquid limit and
considerable increase in Plasticity index
The rate of increase is first rapid and then
decreases beyond a certain limit
The point is often termed as lime fixation
point
This is considered as design lime content
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Type of Lime
After long curing periods all types of limes
produce same effects. However quick lime
has been found more effective than hydrated
lime
Calcium Carbonate must be heated at higher
temperature to form Quick lime calcium
oxide( CaO)
Calcium oxide must be slaked ( by the
addition of water) to form Hydrated lime

Compaction
Compaction is done at OMC and maximum
dry density.
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Curing
The strength of soil-lime increases with
curing
period upto several years. The rate of
increase is rapid during initial period
The humidity of the surroundings also
affects the strength

Additives
Sodium metasilicate, Sodium hydroxide and
Sodium Sulphate are also found useful
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additives

Soil- Bituminous
Stabilization

The Basic Principles of this stabilization are


Water Proofing and Binding
By Water Proofing inherent strength and
other properties could be retained
Most Commonly used materials are
Cutback and Emulsion
Bitumen Stabilized layer may be used as
Sub-base or base course for all the roads
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Factors affecting properties of soilbitumen


Soil

The particle size, shape and gradation of the


soil influence the properties of the soilbitumen mix.

Types of Bitumen

Cutbacks of higher grade should be preferred


Emulsions generally gives slightly inferior
results than Cutback.
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Amount of Mixing
Increasing proportion of bitumen causes a
decrease in dry density but increases the
stability after a certain bitumen content
The optimum bitumen content for maximum
stability generally ranges from 4 to 6%

Mixing
Improved type of mixing with low mixing
period
may be preferred
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Compaction
Effective Compaction results higher
stability and resistance to absorb
water
Additives
Anti stripping and reactive chemical
additives have been tried to
improve the properties of the mixes
Portland cement can also be used
along with the soil bitumen
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The
End

..Thank
you.

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