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# Quantitative

Studies
Curriculum Designed by
Dorothy Kropf

Module 1

## Instructor: Dorothy Kropf, M.A.

Doctoral Student of Education at Walden University
Specialization: Educational Technology
Area of Interest: Research and Higher Educational Issues

Quantitative Research
Design

## In a quantitative research design, the researcher

poses several hypotheses to analyze the cause and
effects of specific variables in order to predict and
explain certain phenomenon (Creswell, 2009).

Theoretical Framework
To conduct a study, you must have a theoretical framework.
What are you basing your research on?

Deductive Reasoning
What new questions or observations do you have?
Do you want to investigate a phenomenon?
Do you want to see if an intervention that worked for a small
school will work in a larger school?

Deductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning
question that stimulates a response through scientific inquiry.

Quantitative Research
Design

observations that need further explanations and
theories. They make predictions that can

Quantitative Research
Design

## Quantitative research designs are structurally

scientific methods, utilizing deductive reasoning in
forms of hypotheses (Price & Oswald, 2009).

Quantitative Research
Design

## The outcomes measured in a quantitative research

design are factual and based on data-driven
information from specific measurement
instrument(s) rather than from perceptions
(Frankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias, 2008).

Quantitative Research
Design

## The overarching goal of a quantitative research

design is to draw relationships between dependent
and independent variables, thereby assisting the
researcher in developing generalizations that
explain or predict certain phenomenon (Creswell,
2009).

Quantitative Research
Design
Wow! My kite flies higher
when the wind blows harder!

## Variables and Unit of Analysis

According toFrankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias (2008),
the variable whose changes the researcher wishes to
explain is known as the dependent variable, while the
variable the researcher thinks induces or explains the
change is the independent variable (p. 49).

Quantitative Research
Design

## There are 3 types of measures in quantitative research designs:

1. Nominal
2. Ordinal
3. Interval
4. Ratio

Quantitative Research
Design

## Example of Nominal measures:

01 = Female
02 = Male

Quantitative Research
Design

## Example of ordinal measures:

College Education
1=some college courses taken
2=Associates Degree conferred
3=Bachelors Degree conferred
4= Masters Degree conferred
5= Doctoral Degree conferred

Quantitative Research
Design

Example of Intervals:
Test Scores:
A: =90-100%
B = 80-89%
C= 75-79%
D= 70-74%
F= 69% and below

## Types of Quantitative Research

Designs

Quantitative Research
Design

Experimental Design
manipulates variables to determine cause and effects.

Quantitative Research
Design

## Balanced Experimental Design: allows equal

number of observations despite of the
randomness of the study (University of Texas at
Austin, n.d.)

Quantitative Research
Design

## Correlational Research Design: A study that examines

the relationship between variables and outcomes.
Hypothetical Example: There is a strong correlation (or
link) with income and the type of car one drives.
Again, this is only hypothetical the more income a
salesperson makes, the nicer his car....

Quantitative Research
Design
Quasi-experimental Design:

## The researcher has control over the selected participants and

the selected instrumentation. However, the researcher
doesnt have control over who will be exposed and when will
the exposure occur.

Quantitative Research
Design

## Continuous study of human behavior over time. Example: an

intervention study

Quantitative Research
Design

Meta-analysis research
The researcher studies the aggregation of results with other
relevant studies.
This type of research usually explores the effectiveness of a
specific method (Frankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias, 2008).
.

Variables

## Properties or attributes a researcher would like to identify and

measure.
Types of variables:
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Control variable

Independent Variable

## Independent variable is the variable that the

Researcher has control over. This means that this variable can
be manipulated.

Dependent Variable

## Is not a variable that a researcher can manipulate. Instead, a

dependent variable can be observed and measured as a result
of the variations of the independent variable.

Control Variable

constant.

End of
Module 1

## Review the terminologies in this module then decide

on a quantitative study you would like to conduct.

## Identify what type of research design it is, what your

variables are, and your research questions

Bibliography
Creswell, J. W. (2009).Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods
approaches(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Frankfort-Nachmias, C., & Nachmias, D. (2008).Research methods in the social
sciences(7th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.