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Quantitative

Studies
Curriculum Designed by
Dorothy Kropf

Module 1

Instructor: Dorothy Kropf, M.A.


Doctoral Student of Education at Walden University
Specialization: Educational Technology
Area of Interest: Research and Higher Educational Issues

Quantitative Research
Design

In a quantitative research design, the researcher


poses several hypotheses to analyze the cause and
effects of specific variables in order to predict and
explain certain phenomenon (Creswell, 2009).

Theoretical Framework
To conduct a study, you must have a theoretical framework.
What are you basing your research on?

Deductive Reasoning
What new questions or observations do you have?
Do you want to investigate a phenomenon?
Do you want to see if an intervention that worked for a small
school will work in a larger school?

Deductive Reasoning
Start with a research problem.

Deductive Reasoning
Start with a research problem. A research problem is a
question that stimulates a response through scientific inquiry.

Quantitative Research
Design

Quantitative research designs start with


observations that need further explanations and
theories. They make predictions that can
potentially answer the hypotheses.

Quantitative Research
Design

Quantitative research designs are structurally


scientific methods, utilizing deductive reasoning in
forms of hypotheses (Price & Oswald, 2009).

Quantitative Research
Design

The outcomes measured in a quantitative research


design are factual and based on data-driven
information from specific measurement
instrument(s) rather than from perceptions
(Frankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias, 2008).

Quantitative Research
Design

The overarching goal of a quantitative research


design is to draw relationships between dependent
and independent variables, thereby assisting the
researcher in developing generalizations that
explain or predict certain phenomenon (Creswell,
2009).

Quantitative Research
Design
Wow! My kite flies higher
when the wind blows harder!

Variables and Unit of Analysis


According toFrankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias (2008),
the variable whose changes the researcher wishes to
explain is known as the dependent variable, while the
variable the researcher thinks induces or explains the
change is the independent variable (p. 49).

Quantitative Research
Design

There are 3 types of measures in quantitative research designs:


1. Nominal
2. Ordinal
3. Interval
4. Ratio

Quantitative Research
Design

Example of Nominal measures:


01 = Female
02 = Male

Quantitative Research
Design

Example of ordinal measures:


College Education
1=some college courses taken
2=Associates Degree conferred
3=Bachelors Degree conferred
4= Masters Degree conferred
5= Doctoral Degree conferred

Quantitative Research
Design

Example of Intervals:
Test Scores:
A: =90-100%
B = 80-89%
C= 75-79%
D= 70-74%
F= 69% and below

Types of Quantitative Research


Designs

Quantitative Research
Design

Experimental Design
A design in which the researcher controls and
manipulates variables to determine cause and effects.

Quantitative Research
Design

Balanced Experimental Design: allows equal


number of observations despite of the
randomness of the study (University of Texas at
Austin, n.d.)

Quantitative Research
Design

Correlational Research Design: A study that examines


the relationship between variables and outcomes.
Hypothetical Example: There is a strong correlation (or
link) with income and the type of car one drives.
Again, this is only hypothetical the more income a
salesperson makes, the nicer his car....

Quantitative Research
Design
Quasi-experimental Design:

The researcher has control over the selected participants and


the selected instrumentation. However, the researcher
doesnt have control over who will be exposed and when will
the exposure occur.

Quantitative Research
Design

Single case research:

Continuous study of human behavior over time. Example: an


intervention study

Quantitative Research
Design

Meta-analysis research
The researcher studies the aggregation of results with other
relevant studies.
This type of research usually explores the effectiveness of a
specific method (Frankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias, 2008).
.

Variables

Properties or attributes a researcher would like to identify and


measure.
Types of variables:
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Control variable

Independent Variable

Independent variable is the variable that the


Researcher has control over. This means that this variable can
be manipulated.

Dependent Variable

Is not a variable that a researcher can manipulate. Instead, a


dependent variable can be observed and measured as a result
of the variations of the independent variable.

Control Variable

A variable that the researcher will keep


constant.

End of
Module 1

To prepare for module 2:

Review the terminologies in this module then decide


on a quantitative study you would like to conduct.

Identify what type of research design it is, what your


variables are, and your research questions

Bibliography
Creswell, J. W. (2009).Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods
approaches(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Frankfort-Nachmias, C., & Nachmias, D. (2008).Research methods in the social
sciences(7th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Price & Oswald (2008). Experimental research. Retrieved from
http://psych.csufresno.edu/psy144/Content/Design/Types/experimental.html
Price & Oswald (2009). Developmental research. Retrieved from
http://psych.csufresno.edu/psy144/Content/Design/Types/experimental.html
Simon, M. (n.d.) Quantitative research: The N side in the paradigm war [PowerPoint
slides]. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?
sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=12&ved=0CDIQFjABOAo&url=http%3A%2F
%2Fmyweb.cebridge.net%2Fkimblum%2FQuantitative
%2520Researchpresentation.ppt&ei=x9cpU9_hMo7eoASg5oCwDw&usg=AFQjCNGnys3Q6t6
w5sgnIyTIvd8rqcqmww&sig2=Eum26gRrDj_vW_RKKdtlwg
University of Texas at Austin (n.d.).The statistics glossary.Retrieved from University of
Texas at Austin website: http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/glossary/?q=node/543