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Phoenics Ch1 2 3

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Phoenics Ch1 2 3

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CHAM

PHOENICS

Application of Environment Spatial Information

System

Minkasheva Alena

Thermal Fluid Engineering Lab.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Kangwon National University

2007.05.04

Part 1

Contents

Chapter 1. PHOENICS Overview

1. What PHOENICS is

2.The components of PHOENICS

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

The structure of PHOENICS

The inter-communication files

How the problem is defined

How PHOENICS makes the predictions

How the results are displayed

PHOENICS options

4. Mathematical features of PHOENICS

4.1 Variables

Contents

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

Storage

Grids

The Balance Equation

Auxiliary Equations

Solution of Equations

Boundary Conditions

6. Turbulence models in PHOENICS

7. Radiative-heat-transfer models in PHOENICS

8. Chemical-reaction processes in PHOENICS

9. Simultaneous solid-stress analysis

10. Body-fitting in PHOENICS

11. PHOENICS Application

Contents

1. VR-Editor

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Domain Attributes Menu

Object Management Panel

Object Types and Attributes

The VR Editor Control Panel

2. VR Viewer

Example

Simulation of Contaminant

Flow

Pre-Processor VR-Editor

Chapter 1

PHOENICS Overview

1. What PHOENICS is

package which predicts quantitatively:

how fluids (air, water, steam, oil, blood, etc) flow in and

around:

engines

process equipment

buildings

human beings

lakes, river and oceans, and so on

the associated changes of chemical and physical

composition

the associated stresses in the immersed solids

Numerical Integration Code Series

1. What PHOENICS is

scientists for interpreting their experimental

observations

engineers for the design of aircraft and other vehicles,

and of

equipment which produces power or which processes

materials

architects for the design of buildings

environmental specialists for the prediction, and if

possible

control, of environmental impact and hazards

teachers and students for the study of fluid dynamics,

heat transfer, combustion and related disciplines

2.1 The main functions of PHOENICS

PHOENICS performs three main functions:

1. Problem definition (pre-processing)

in which the user prescribes the situation to be

simulated and

the questions which are to be answered

2. Simulation (data-processing)

by means of computation, of what the laws of science

imply in

the prescribed circumstances

3. Presentation (post-processing)

of the results of the computation, by way of graphical

displays,

tables of numbers, and other means

core of subroutines called EARTH, and a SATELLITE

program, which accepts inputs through the Virtual

Reality (VR) interface corresponded to a particular flow

simulation.

EARTH and SATELLITE are distinct programs.

SATELLITE is a data-preparation program; it writes a data

file which EARTH reads.

PHOENICS users work mainly with SATELLITE, but they

can access EARTH also in controlled ways.

GROUND is the EARTH subroutine which users access

when incorporating special features of their own.

Files which are used for communication between

modules

Q1, the user-readable input-data file, which is written in PIL, the

PHOENICS Input Language, and is the main expression of what

the user wishes to achieve.

EARDAT, an ASCII file which expresses in EARTHunderstandable form what the user has prescribed by way of Q1.

PHI, which is written by EARTH in accordance with a format which

enables PHOTON, AUTOPLOT and the Viewer to display the

results of the computation graphically.

RESULT, which is an ASCII file expressing the results in tabular

and line-printer-plot form

geometry

shapes, definition

sizes and positions

of objects

andstatements

intervening abo

Problem

involves

making

spaces;

materials

thermodynamic, transport and other properties of the

fluids and

solids involved

processes

for example: whether the materials are inert or reactive;

whether turbulence is to be simulated and if so by what

model;

whether temperatures are to be computed in both fluids

and solids;

whether stresses in solids are to be computed

grid

the manner and fineness of the sub-division of space and

time,

what is called the "discretization"

other numerical (non-physical) parameters

expressing the relevant laws of physics and chemistry,

and the "models" which supplement them, in the form of

equations linking the values of pressure, temperature,

concentration, etc which prevail at clusters of points

distributed through space and time

computational grid) sufficiently close to each other to

represent adequately the continuity of actual objects and

fluids

solving the equations by systematic, iterative, errorreduction methods, the progress of which is made visible

on the VDU screen

terminating when the errors have been sufficiently

reduced affecting the speed, accuracy and economy of

the simulation

in a wide variety of forms

It has its own stand-alone graphics package called

PHOTON; and it can also export results to such third-party

packages as TECPLOT, AVS, and FEMVIEW.

PHOENICS can also take the results of its flow predictions

back into the same VIRTUAL-REALITY environment as is

used for setting up the problem at the start.

Numerical results are provided, in the RESULT file. This,

when the appropriate commands in the Q1 file, can

provide either sparse or voluminous information

1. Advanced-multiphase

2. Body-fitted-coordinate

3. Advanced-chemistry

4. GENTRA (particle tracking)

5. Multi-block and fine-grid-embedding

6. Multi-fluid

7. Advanced-algorithms

8. MIGAL, the multi-grid solver

9. PLANT fortranizer

10. Advanced-radiation

11. Simultaneous-solid-stress

12. Advanced-turbulence

13. Two-phase

laminar or turbulent

compressible or incompressible

steady or unsteady

chemically inert or reactive

single- or multi-phase

in respect of thermal radiation:

- transparent

- participating by way of absorption and emission

- participating by way of scattering

empty of solids, or

wholly or partially filled by finely-divided solids at rest (as

in 'porous-medium' flows), or

partially occupied by solids which are not small compared

with the size of the local computational cells

The solids may interact thermally with the solids.

Such immersed solids can also participate in radiative heat

transfer.

The thermally and mechanically-induced stresses and

strains in the immersed solids can also be computed by

PHOENICS.

The thermodynamic, transport (including radiative),

chemical and other properties of the fluids and solids may

4. Mathematical features

4.1 Variables

auxiliary - constant, or derived from an algebraic

expression

Dependent:

Scalars:

Vectors:

- Pressure

- Velocity resolutes

- Temperature

- Radiation fluxes

- Enthalpy

- Displacements

- Mass fractions

- Volume fractions

- Turbulence quantities

- Various potentials

4.1 Variables

Auxiliary:

Scalars:

- Density

- Viscosity

Vectors:

- Various nonisotropic

properties

- Conductivity

- Gravity forces

- Diffusivity

- Specific heat

- Thermal expansion coefficient

- Inter-fluid transport

- Absorptivity

- Compressibility

4.1 Variables

can also be

divided into scalar and vector categories:

Geometric:

Scalars:

- Cell volumes

- Volume porosity factors

- Inter-fluid surface area

per unit volume

Vectors:

- Cell center coordinates

- Cell corner coordinates

- Center to center

distances

- Cell surface areas

- Cell area porosities

4.2 Storage

cells,

with values supposed to be typical of the whole

cell.

Vectors - These are stored at the center points of the six

cell faces

Nomenclature

A compass-point notation:

P = Cell center

N,S,E,W,H,L = Neighbour-cell

centers

SN

= Positive IY

W E = Positive IX

LH

= Positive IZ

step

An array of cells with the same IZ

is referred to as a SLAB

4.3 Grids

Storage locations

Vector quantities are computed by reference to cells which

are

staggered with respect to the scalar cells

(IX,IY,IZ).

Any scalar or vector quantity can only be referenced by a

unique

(IX,IY,IZ) index

4.3 Grids

Types of Grid

Cartesian

brick elements

- Cartesian

- Cylindrical-polar

The grid distribution can be non-uniform in all coordinate

directions

For cylindrical-polar coordinates:

- X (or I) is always the angular direction

- Y (or J) is always the radial direction

- Z (or K) is always the axial direction

Basic form

within cell

which

express

the balances of:

mass

momentum

energy

material (ie chemical species)

other conserved entities (e.g. electrical charge)

over discrete elements of space and time, i.e. 'finite

volumes' known as 'cells'

Terms

- Convection (i.e., directed mass flow)

- Diffusion (i.e., random motion of electrons, molecules

or larger structures e.g., eddies)

- Time variation (i.e., directed motion from past to

present - accumulation within a cell)

- Sources (e.g., pressure gradient or body force for

momentum, chemical reaction for energy or chemical

species)

The single phase conservation equation solved by

PHOENICS can be written as:

( )

U

S

t

x

x

where:

- density

U - vector velocity

- the diffusive exchange coefficient

for

S - the source term

Particular Forms

u, v , w

Momentum

( T L )

p

S

gravity friction ...

x h

Enthalpy

T

L

PrT PrL

Dp

S

heat sources ...

Dt

Continuity

0

S 0 boundary sources

where

,

are the turbulent and laminar viscosities,

T L

,

are the turbulent and laminar Prandtl/Schmidt

PrT PrL

Numbers

Numerical solution

The balance equations cannot be solved numerically in

differential form. Hence, PHOENICS solves a finitevolume formulation of the balance equation.

The FVE's are obtained by integrating the differential

equation over the cell volume.

Interpolation assumptions are required to obtain scalar

values at cell faces and vector quantities at cell

centers.

No Taylor series expansion or variational principle is

used

After integration, the FVE has the form:

a p p a N N a S S a E E aW W a H H a LL aT T source terms

where:

a p a N a S a E aW a H a L aT

The neighbour links, the a's, have the form

distance

volume density

dt

Correction

The equationForm

is cast into correction form before solution.

In correction form, the sources are replaced by the errors

in the real equation, and the coefficients may be only

approximate. The corrections tend to zero as convergence

is approached, reducing the possibility of round-off errors

affecting the solution.

The neighbor links:

- Increase with inflow velocity, cell area, fluid density

and

transport coefficient

- Decrease with internodal distance

- Are always positive

provided for:

Thermodynamic properties: density, (enthalpy, entropy)

Transport properties: viscosity, diffusivity, conductivity

Source terms: chemical kinetic laws, radiation

absorption, viscous dissipation, Coriolis etc.

Interphase transport: of momentum, energy, mass ,

chemical species etc.

There may also be 'artificial' auxiliary equations, such as

False transients (for relaxation)

Boundary conditions

the

computing

the imbalances

of eachconsisting

of the entities

each

solution

procedure

is iterative,

offor

the

cell

steps of:

represent how the imbalances will change as a consequence

of (small) changes to the solved-for variables;

solving the linear equations;

correcting the values of solved-for variables, and of auxiliary

ones, such as fluid properties, which depend upon them:

repeating the cycle of operations until the changes made to

the variables are sufficiently small

equations:

tri-diagonal matrix algorithm

(a variant of) Stone's 'Strongly Implicit Algorithm',

conjugate-gradient and conjugate-residual solvers

General form

Boundary Conditions are represented in PHOENICS as

linearized sources for cells adjacent to boundaries:

S a BC BC p

BC is termed the VALUE.

a BC is added toa p

and a BC BC

p for

is added to the RHS of the equation

a

h h

a BCBC

a p a BC

Particular forms

aBC

For a fixed value boundary,

effect is:

P

h h

a BCBC

P

very small number a BC

a p a BC

P BC

aBC

is set to the required flux.

source

ahh tiny tiny

P

a p tiny

a BCBC

h h

source

ap

BC

aBC

Linear and non-linear

conditions

can be set by appropriate

5. Simulation of

multi-phase flow in PHOENICS

those in which, within the smallest element of space which

is considered

(the computational cell) several distinguishable materials

Examples:

are

present.

suspensions

of oil droplets in water, or of water droplets

in oil;

the air-snow mixture in an avalanche;

the sand-air mixture in a sandstorm;

the "mushy zone" of mixed solid and liquid metal in a

casting mould;

the water-air mixture in a shower bath;

the gas-oil-water mixture, in the pores within rock, in a

petroleum-recovery process;

droplets of fuel oil mixed with hot gases in a combustion

5. Simulation of

multi-phase flow in PHOENICS

each point in the space-time domain under consideration,

its own:

- velocity components,

- temperature,

- composition,

- density,

- viscosity,

- volume fraction, etc

2. As multiple inter-penetrating continua having the

same variety of properties

3. As two non-interpenetrating continua separated by a

free surface

4. As a particulate phase for which the particle trajectories

are computed as they move through a continuous fluid

more often than not, turbulent, by which is meant that they

exhibit near-random fluctuations, the time-scale of which is

very small compared with the time-scale of the mean-flow,

and of which the distance scale is small compared with the

dimensions of the domain under study

of

the

most-widely-used

turbulence models

is:

- for

predicting

time-average hydrodynamic

phenomena

and

the macro-mixing of fluids marked by conserved scalars,

the models are "not bad"; but

- for the simulation of micro-mixing, which is essential if

chemicalreaction rates are to be predicted, they are very poor

indeed

classified as

1. those which employ the Effective Viscosity Hypothesis

belonging

to one or other of three groups,

(EVH)

namely:

2. those which specifically AVOID the EVH

EVH

made by

reference

to their

handling (or non-handling) of:

heat and mass

transfer

chemical reaction

multi-phase effects

LVEL - EV is computed from the velocity, the laminar viscosity and the

distance from nearby walls

and a prescribed length scale

modification

of turbulence computed from a differential transport equation

used

solved near the wall, where the length scale is treated as known

used

(dissipation rate of KE) are computed from differential transport equations

making the formulae depend upon the energy-production rate P

concept" making the formulae depend upon the energy-production rate P

extension requiring knowledge of the distance from the nearest wall

and W (RMS vorticity fluctuations) are computed from dif. transport eqs.

where KE and OMEGA ("turbulence frequency") are from dif. transport eqs.

used

model; but there are two turbulence- energy variables, KP and KT, and two

themselves the dependent variables of differential transport equations,

usually six in number

motion, the main transfers of momentum being computed by performing

three-dimensional time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations

with the finest affordable space and time sub-divisions

Two-fluid - EV is either not used at all, or is deduced from the local velocity

differences between the two intermingling fluids which are used to describe

the turbulent fluid mixture

Multi-fluid - as for TWO-FLUID, except that, there being many fluids

present, EV can be derived from their various velocities in a wider variety of

ways

7. Radiative-heat-transfer models

in PHOENICS

convenient when radiating surfaces are so numerous, and

variously arranged, that the use of the view-factor-type

model is impractically expensive, is IMMERSOL

computationally inexpensive;

capable of handling the whole range of conditions from

optically-thin (ie transparent) to optically-thick (ie

opaque) media;

mathematically exact when the geometry is simple; and

never grossly inaccurate

8. Chemical-reaction processes

in PHOENICS

(e.g. oil-spray) and solid (e.g. pulverized-coal) fuels.

in several ways, including:

SCRS - "the Simple Chemically Reacting System" built

into user-accessible Fortran coding

CREK - a set of user-callable subroutines which handle

the thermodynamics and finite-rate or equilibrium

chemical kinetics of complex chemical reactions

CHEMKIN 2 - the public-domain code to which

PHOENICS has an interface

PLANT - which enables users to introduce new reaction

schemes and material properties by way of formulae

introduced into the data-input command file, Q1

9. Simultaneous solid-stress

analysis

It is frequently required to simulate fluid-flow and heattransfer processes in and around solids which are, partly as a

consequence of the flow, subject to thermal and mechanical

stresses

fluid and heat flows are of only secondary interest

interactions:

gas-turbine blades under transient conditions

"residual stresses" resulting from casting or welding

thermal stresses in nuclear reactors during emergency

shut-down

manufacture of bricks and ceramics

stresses in the cylinder blocks of diesel engines

the failure of steel-frame buildings during fires

PHOENICS is enable to compute flows around such

bodies by using "body-fitted-coordinate (i.e. BFC) grids"

PHOENICS possesses its own built-in means of

generating such grids; but it can also accept grids

created by specialist packages, for example GeoGrid

PARSOL allows flows around curved bodies to be

computed on cartesian grids; and the solutions are often

just as accurate as those computed on body-fitted grids.

1. Engineering Application:

Aerospace

Automotive

Chemical process

Combustion

Electronics

Marine

Metallurgical

Nuclear

Petroleum

Power

Radiation

Water etc.

2. Environment Application:

Atmospheric pollution

Pollution of natural waters

Safety

Fire spread, etc.

External flows ( e.g. Flow around bus shelter)

Internal flows (e.g. Ventilation of a Concert Hall)

Physical Models

Chemical Processes

Numerical Methods

Grid Generation, etc.

Chapter 2

The Virtual-Reality

Interface

1. VR-Editor

The Virtual-Reality user interface assists users to set up

flow-simulation calculations, without having to learn the

PIL.

This data-input mode is called the VR-Editor

creates

during his editing session in an ASCII file known as Q1.

This file can be read, understood and edited. Usually,

however, it will simply be stored for later use.

In any case, the flow-simulation can begin immediately, if

the user wishes, because two other files will also have

been automatically written, one of which (FACETDAT)

conveys the necessary geometrical information, while the

other (EARDAT) carries everything else that the solver

module needs to know.

The switching from the VR-Editor to the solver, and for that

matter to any other PHOENICS module, is rendered

particularly easy by the pull-down menus accessible from

the top bar of the VR-Editor screen.

creates

Defining the position, size and properties of objects

which are to be introduced into it;

Specifying the material which otherwise occupies the

domain;

Specifying the inlet and outlet boundary conditions;

. Specifying the initial conditions, necessary if the problem

is a time-dependent one, and desirable otherwise for

economy;

Selecting a turbulence model, if the situation calls for it;

Specifying the fineness of the computational grid;

Specifying other parameters influencing the speed of

convergence of the solution procedure

The Main Menu is where all the domain-related settings,

numerical and output controls are set. Any source which

operates over the whole domain is also set from here

- clicking the Main Menu

- clicking the

the main graphics window

- double-clicking the Domain entry in the Object

Management

Panel

Top panel

This is the top panel of the main menu, it can be reached from

any other panel by clicking on Top menu. It is the panel displayed

whenever the Main menu is activated from the hand-set, and it is

the only panel from which it is possible to return to the main VREditor environment

Top panel

The buttons along the top of the panel allow the setting and

modification of the case. In general, it is best to start at the top

left, and work from left to right, as this minimises the chances of

missing out settings

Geometry

For Cartesian and Polar co-ordinates, this is the same dialog that

is displayed by clicking on the Grid mesh button

on the handset

Geometry

Geometry

Inner radius (only for cylindrical-polar): Sets the inner radius for

a cylindrical-polar grid

Geometry

Geometry

managing the time-step distribution

Geometry

special treatment of partially-blocked cells, PARSOL

Geometry

Partial solids treatment settings: Dialog from which the min

and max fluid volume fractions for PARSOL can be set. Any cell in

which the fluid volume fraction is below the min value is

considered fully-blocked, and any cell in which it is above the max

is considered full-open

Geometry

each of the domain directions

Geometry

Domain size: Sets the total extent of the domain in the X, Y and

Z directions. In cylindrical-polar co-ordinates, the X size is set in

radians

Geometry

Number of cells: Sets the total number of cells in the X, Y and Z

directions. If all regions are 'Set', or the grid is 'auto' this value

cannot be changed directly as there are no 'Free' regions to

accommodate the change

Geometry

Number of regions: This displays the current number of regions

in each direction. This can only be changed by modifying objects

or modifying the tolerance

Geometry

Modify region: This is the number of the region selected for

modification. To modify a different region, enter its number

directly and click 'Apply', or click OK, then click on the new region

Geometry

Size: This displays the size (in meters or radians) of the region

selected for modification. The size of a region can only be

changed by modifying objects or modifying the tolerance

Geometry

Distribution: This toggles between Power law and

Geometrical progression. It controls how the cells within the

region are spaced

Geometry

Cell and Power: This toggles between Free and Set.

Free: the number of cells can be automatically adjusted as the

total number of cells is changed, so as to keep the grid as uniform

as possible.

Set: the number of cells in this region, and their distribution, have

been set by the user and cannot be automatically changed

Geometry

Cells in region: This initially displays the number of cells

allocated to this region by the automatic meshing algorithm. The

number of cells in this region can be changed by typing in a

different value. Cells will be taken from, or distributed amongst

other 'Free' regions to keep the total number constant

Geometry

Power/ratio: This sets the expansion power, or geometric

expansion common ratio. The default setting of 1.0 gives a

uniform mesh.

Positive values mean that the expansion goes from the start of the

region towards the end, negative values mean the expansion

starts at the end and goes to the beginning

Geometry

Symmetric: This toggles between No and Yes.

If Yes, the expansion specified by Distribution and Power/ratio is

applied symmetrically from each end of the region

Geometry

Edit all regions: This displays a dialog which shows all the

region settings in a particular direction and allows them to be

changed. This is where the Auto-meshing parameters can be

adjusted

Models

used

Models

Equation Formulation

Models

Equation Formulation

- The main choice is between elliptic, parabolic and fullydeveloped formulation. Elliptic is the most usual form, as it

allows for recirculation.

- There is a further choice of staggered or collocated velocity

formulation. In the staggered formulation, velocities are stored at

cell face centers, in the collocated form they are stored at cell

centers, just like pressure and temperature.

- The staggered form is usually best for Cartesian and polar grids,

the GCV collocated for BFC.

- Parabolic performs a marching integration suitable for flows with

no recirculation, e.g. developing pipe flows or jet spreading.

- Fully-developed calculations will give the flow rate for a given

pressure-drop, or the pressure-drop for a given flow, without any

information on how the flow developed

Models

Single / Multi-Phase

Models

Single / Multi-Phase

This option switches between single and multi-phase operation. If

the domain is occupied by a single fluid, which does not change

phase, or by several fluids which ARE ALWAYS SEPARATED by

solid, the flow can be treated as single phase. If the fluid changes

phase, or there are several MIXED fluids, then the flow must be

treated as multi-phase.

The available options are:

One phase only one phase present (or several completely

separated fluids).

IPSA Full.This solves the full momentum equations for two

phases, allowing for inter-phase heat and mass transfer.

IPSA Equal vel. This assumes that the velocities of the two

phases are always equal, but allows inter-phase heat and mass

transfer.

Algebraic Slip. This solves reduced equations for several

dispersed phases in a carrier. Inter-phase heat and mass transfer

are not included

Models

Lagrangian Particle Tracker (GENTRA)

The particle tracker is an alternative way of treating multi-phase

flows.

It is suitable for dilute suspensions, where volume-fraction effects

are small. Packets of particles are tracked through the domain.

Each packet represents a large number of particles following this

path.

The particles can exchange heat, mass and momentum with the

carrier fluid

Models

Pressure And Velocity

This option switches ON or OFF the solution for the pressure

variable P1, and the velocities U1, V1 and W1. If the simulation is

two-phase, then the second phase velocities U2, V2 and W2 will

also be activated. If the grid dimensionality is changed later, the

required velocity component(s) will be added or removed as

needed.

Pressure and velocity must be ON before it becomes possible to

select Multi-Phase or Free-Surface models

Models

Free Surface Models

The available free surface models are:

Scalar equation

Height of liquid

The Scalar Equation Method (SEM) is good for overturning or

breaking interfaces, but is restricted to very small time steps.

Height of Liquid (HOL) can run steady-state, or with larger time

steps but cannot deal with overturning interfaces

Models

Energy Equation

The energy equation can be solved in one of two forms:

Temperature (TEM1/TEM2), or

Enthalpy (H1/H2)

The enthalpy form is often more suited to combustion

applications, the temperature form to conjugate heat transfer.

Internally, the equation is always cast in enthalpy form, so the

units of the sources are always Watts

Models

Energy Equation, Total/Static

By default, the Temperature form is set to 'Total', the enthalpy

form to 'Static'. The static form includes the substantial derivative

of the pressure and the kinetic heating terms in the energy

conservation equation as additional source terms, the Total form

does not.

If the flow is highly compressible (high Mach number) the

Temperature form should be switched to 'Static' otherwise

incorrect solutions will be obtained. This is because all the

property formulae require the static temperature.

The Enthalpy form can be used in 'Total' form as long as a suitable

temperature derivation is selected in the properties panel

Models

Turbulence Models

Models

Turbulence Models

The

available turbulence

models

are

divided

following

LAMINAR

- The flow is

laminar

and

thereinto

is nothe

turbulence

groups:

model.

CONSTANT-EFFECTIVE - The turbulent viscosity is constant.

The default setting is 200 times the laminar viscosity.

LVEL - Generalised length-scale zero-equation model, useful

when there are many objects and the grid is coarse.

KEMODL - Classical two-equation high Reynolds number. k-

model

KOMODL - Kolmogorov-Wilcox two- equation k-f model.

Useful for transitional flows and flows with adverse pressure

gradients.

USER - User-defined model for advanced users.

KE Variants - Several Models

variants of the K-E model usually

- KECHEN - Chen-Kim two-equation k- model.

Turbulence

Models

Gives better

prediction of separation and vortexes.

- KERNG - RNG derived two-equation k-e model.

Gives better prediction of separation and vortexes.

However, the

user is advised that the model results in substantial

deterioration in

the prediction of plane and round free jets in stagnant

surroundings.

- KEMMK - Murakami, Mochida and Kondo k-e model for flow

around

bluff bodies as encountered for example in windengineering

applications.

- KEKL - Kato-Launder k-e model for flow around bluff bodies

as

encountered for example in wind-engineering applications.

- KEMODL-YAP - k-e model with Yap correction for separated

flows.

Models

model:

Turbulence

Models - Lam-Bremhorst low Reynolds version of

- KEMODL-LOWRE

k-.

- KEMODL-LOWRE-YAP - Lam-Bremhorst low Reynolds k-

with

Yap correction for separated flows.

- KECHEN-LOWRE - Low Reynolds variant of Chen-Kim

model.

- KEMODL-2L - Two layer k- model, which uses the high-Re

k- model only away from the wall in the fully-turbulent

region, and

the near-wall viscosity- affected layer is resolved with a

oneequation model involving a length-scale prescription.

This saves mesh points and improves convergence rates.

- KOMODL-LOWRE - Low Reynolds Kolmogorov-Wilcox model

Models

Re Stress (REYSTRS),

including a Sub-Grid-Scale LES model

Turbulence

Models

(SGSMOD):

- MIXLEN - Prandtl mixing-length model. Simple model for

unbounded flows.

- MIXLEN-RICE - Mixing-length model for bubble-column

reactors.

- KLMODL - Prandtl energy model. One-equation k-l model

for

wall-dominated flows.

- KWMODL - Saffman-Spalding two-equation. k-vorticity

model

- REYSTRS - Reynolds stress model

- SGSMOD - Smagorinsky sub-grid scale LES model with wall

damping

- SGSMOD-NOWD - Smagorinsky sub-grid scale LES model

with

no wall damping

- SGSMOD-VDWD - with Van Driest wall damping function

Models

Radiation Models

IMMERSOL

provides

an economically-realisable

The

available radiation

models

are:

approximation to the precise mathematical representation of

radiative transfer

6-Flux (Composite-Flux Model): the discretisation of angle is

such that the effects of radiation are accounted for by

reference to the positive and negative radiation fluxes in each

of the coordinate directions

Radiosity represents the average of the incoming and

outgoing radiation fluxes over all directions of the solid angle

Models

Combustion Models

Models

Combustion Models

The following combustion models are available:

3 GASES - Simple Chemically-Reacting System (SCRS), mixing

controlled or kinetically controlled

7 GASES -Extended SCRS

Wood - Wood combustion model

Coal - Coal combustion model

Oil - Oil combustion model

Chemkin - Interface to Sandia Labs CHEMKIN program

Models

Solution Control / Extra Variables

Models

This panel gives options to:

Activate storage of user-named variables

Activate solution of user-named variables

Set the solution control switches (SOLUTN command) for all

stored and solved variables. The settings are: Store, Solve,

Whole-field, Point-by-point, Explicit, Harmonic

Set the terms in the equation for each variable (TERMS

command). The settings are: Built-in source, Convection,

Diffusion, Transient, Phase 1 variable, Interphase transfer

Properties

Properties

Use property tables

The main domain material can be chosen from the property

libraries

Properties

Use property tables

Turning the Use property tables OFF allows the individual

properties to be set directly

Properties

Domain Material

The individual properties loaded from the library for the domain

fluid can then be edited - changed

Properties

Domain Material

Gases:

Properties

Domain Material

Liquids:

Properties

Domain Material

Solids:

Properties

Domain Material

Other Materials:

Properties

Edit properties of current material

For each property, a pull-down list of all available options is

provided

Properties

Reference pressure and Reference temperature

These values are always added to the calculated pressure and

temperature before use in property calculations

Properties

Property storage

Allows the field values of the properties to be placed in the EARTH

output file PHI, so that they can be plotted in the viewer

Lists the properties used in PHOENICS

PIL variable

SI units

Nature

RHO1

kg/m**3

first-phase density

DRH1DP

m**2/Newton

RHO2

kg/m**3

second-phase density

DRH1DP

m**2/Newton

ENUT

m**2/s

ENUL

m**2/s

PRNDTL

(indvar) > 0

dimensionless

PRNDTL

(indvar) < 0

dimensionless or

watts/(m*degC)

PRNDTL

(indvar) < 0

m**2/s

PHINT

(indvar)

according to indvar

PHINT

(indvar)

according to indvar

TMP1

degCelsius

TMP2

degCelsius

Lists the properties used in PHOENICS

Property

PIL variable

SI units

EL1

EL2

storage

Nature

Allows

the field values

of turbulence

the properties

to be placed in the EARTH

m

first-phase

length

output

file PHI, sosecond-phase

that they turbulence

can be plotted

in the viewer

m

length

CP1

joule/(kg*degC)

CP2

joule/(kg*degC)

DVO1DT

1/degC

(i.e. reciprocal of density) with temperature

DVO2DT

1/degC

(i.e. reciprocal of density) with temperature

EMISS

1/m

SCATT

1/m

CFIPS

Newton*s/m**4

and per unit of velocity difference

CMDOT

kg*s/m**4

mass-transfer rate per unit volume and per unit of velocity difference

CINT

(indvar)

dimensionless

first-phase side of interface

CINT

(indvar)

dimensionless

second-phase side of interface

CVM

dimensionless

Initialisation

Initialisation

Activate a restart run

Initialisation

Set all initial values to default. This is 1.0E-10 for all variables

except:

- R1,R2, RS : 0.5

- EPOR, NPOR, HPOR, VPOR : 1.0

- PRPS : -1.0

Initialisation

Set individual whole-domain initial values for all stored and

solved variables

Initialisation

Start the In-Form editor with Group 11 selected as the current

Group

Initialisation

Unless explicitly set in this panel, initial values for Temperature,

Enthalpy, turbulence model quantities and solved-for passive

scalars will be taken from the inlet values supplied at the first inlet

defined

Initialisation

This

panel aprovides

options to:

Activate

restart run

Set all initial values to default. This is 1.0E-10 for all variables

except:

- R1,R2, RS : 0.5

- EPOR, NPOR, HPOR, VPOR : 1.0

- PRPS : -1.0

solved variables

Start the In-Form editor with Group 11 selected as the current

Unless

explicitly set in this panel, initial values for Temperature,

Group

Enthalpy, turbulence model quantities and solved-for passive

scalars will be taken from the inlet values supplied at the first inlet

defined

Sources

Sources

not attached to an object.

All sources or boundary conditions which do not apply to the whole

domain must be attached to an object, and set through the object

attribute dialog box

Sources

Gravitation forces

Sources

Turn cyclic boundaries ON for all IZ slabs

Turn cyclic boundaries OFF for all IZ slabs

Turn cyclic boundaries on and off for individual slabs

Sources

Sources

The MOFOR ON/OFF button activates the Moving Frames Of

Reference model, which allows objects to move through the

domain. When turned ON, two extra buttons are displayed. One

allows the user to browse for the MOF file, and the other to edit

it using the currently-selected file editor. The MOF file controls

the motion of the objects.

MOFOR buttons only appear for Transient cases

Sources

Rotation causes the rotation of the plot about an arbitrary axis

in 3D

The axis may be specified in the same way as for VIEW and UP;

angles are in degrees, and may be positive or negative

Sources

Potential flow

"Potential flow", also called "ideal-fluid flow" or "irrotational

flow", is a mathematical concept to which real flows

approximate only in special circumstances, namely those in

which:

the flow is steady;

viscous effects are absent; and

compressibility effects are small

Numerics

The main entries on this panel allow the total number of iterations

(sweeps) over the whole domain, and the global convergence

criterion to be set

Numerics

Relaxation Settings

Numerics

Relaxation

Settings

Relaxation

is a technique

for

slowing down possibly

excessive rates of change. It

does not affect the final

solution.

The default relaxation

settings turn the Automatic

Convergence Control ON.

MAXINC sets the maximum

increment from iteration to

iteration for each variable.

The DTFALS settings for

velocities are ignored - the

solver will set linear

relaxation of 0.5 for all

velocities

Reset solution defaults

resets all the solver control

variables to their default

values, so that the Automatic

Numerics

Relaxation Settings

If the Automatic

Convergence Control is

turned OFF, the relaxation

settings can be set

individually

Typical values for DTFALS

may be estimated from the

governing time-scale of the

process under consideration.

Very often, values based on

residence time work well

For the velocity variables, it

can be advantageous to use

the Self-Adjusting Relaxation

AlgoritHm (SARAH). This is

activated by setting SARAH to

a value > 0. Values in the

range 0.001 - 0.01, typically

0.005, have been found to

work well

Numerics

Iteration Control

Numerics

Iteration Control

solver is based on Stone's

Strongly Implicit method. To

use the Conjugate - Residuals

- Gradient solver for any

variable, set ENDIT for that

variable to GRND1.

Circumstances under which

this may be advantageous

include:

Pressure correction equation

(P1) in buoyancy-driven

flows, especially with

complex geometry; and

Temperature (TEM1) in

complex conjugate heat

transfer cases (except when

PARSOL is active)

Numerics

Limits on Variables

Numerics

Limits on Variables

This panel allows minimum

and maximum values for all

SOLVEd and STOREd

variables to be set

Numerics

Differencing Schemes

Numerics

Differencing Schemes

differencing scheme applies

to all SOLVEd variables. The

default scheme is the HYBRID

scheme

Numerics

Differencing Schemes

Set schemes individually

allows the selection of

different schemes for

different variables

Numerics

MIGAL

The MIGAL multi-grid convergence accelerator can be used for the

hydrodynamics, the k-e based turbulence models, the energy

equation and individual scalars

Numerics

MIGAL

MIGAL dialog (MIGAL OFF)

Numerics

MIGAL

Settings button leads to a dialog from which all the MIGAL controls

can be set

GROUND

The switch for PLANT is also on this panel

Output

Output

Set the monitoring cell location in terms of cell numbers.

Set the monitoring cell location in terms of physical space.

The nearest cell is chosen as the monitor cell.

Control the solver end-of-run behaviour.

Control the solver convergence monitoring output

Set field print out controls.

Select the frequency of field-dumping in terms of sweeps for

steady-state cases, or time-steps for transient cases, and select

which variables are written to the save file.

Activate storage of derived quantities and print-out of wall

function information.

Activate the calculation and printing of forces on objects.

Start the In-Form editor with Group 20, 21, 22, 23 or 24 selected

as the current Group

Output

This has three settings:

Default - obey the settings in CHAM.INI

On - always stop at the end of the run and wait for OK,

whatever is in CHAM.INI

Off - never stop at the end of the run, whatever is in CHAM.INI

Output

The solver can display convergence-monitoring information on

the screen as graphs of:

Spot values and residuals vs. sweep (the default)

Minimum and maximum field values vs. sweep

Maximum absolute correction and residual vs. sweep

Output

The

Field

Printout

settings

for OUTPUT

are:

1. Field print-out

2. Correction-equation

monitor print-out

4. Whole-field residual printout

5. Spot-value table and/or

plot

6. Residual table or plot

Output

Dump Settings

Output

Dump Settings

steady-state) or time-step (for

transient) frequency with which

flow fields are written to disk file.

The setting for OUTPUT for each

variable determines whether that

variable is written to the saved file

or not. This can potentially save a

lot of disk space by only writing

the variables of real interest, but

would also prevent such a

'thinned-out' file from being used

as an Earth restart file.

In transient cases, intermediate

flow fields can be dumped at

regular time-step intervals

Output

Derived Variables

Output

Derived Variables

Placing the Skin friction coefficient, Stanton Number, Shear

stress (actually friction velocity squared, equivalent to shear

stress divided by density), Yplus (non-dimensional distance to

the wall) and heat transfer coefficient (in W/m2/K) into 3-D

storage allows them to be plotted in the Viewer or PHOTON, as

well as appearing in the RESULT file.

Note that the heat-transfer coefficients are only calculated for

turbulent flow. To make them appear for laminar cases, the

turbulent viscosity should be set to a very small value - say

1.0E-10. The Stanton Number must be stored for the heattransfer coefficients to be calculated.

The friction force components SHRX, SHRY and SHRZ are used

in the force-integration routines to add the friction force to the

pressure force acting on each object. If they are not stored, the

integrated force will only contain the pressure component.

The Total or Stagnation Pressure (PTOT) is only calculated if the

Mach Number is stored. If the Reference Pressure is set to zero,

the total pressure may go below zero, leading to an error-stop

Output

Forces on Objects

When this is 'On', the Earth solver will integrate the pressure

forces over all objects and print the force information to the

RESULT file. If the friction force components (SHRX, SHRY and

SHRZ) have been placed in 3D store, the force integration will

include them

The moments about the X, Y and Z axes are calculated, and the

point of action of the force is deduced

objects.

They may represent for example: blockages, inlets, outlets or heat

sources. Complex objects can often be represented by suitable

combinations of simpler objects.

Objects can be volumes or areas, but never lines. Even in a twodimensional case, PHOENICS requires a depth in the third

dimension, or in a one-dimensional case, width and depth. This is

because of the finite-volume numerical solution method

Objects are manipulated via the Object Management Panel (OMP),

which is reached by:

- clicking on the

- clicking on the

icon on the toolbar; or,

The OMP contains a list of the object names along with associated

key data for each object .

By default the objects are sorted by their reference number,

column two. They may also be sorted by name, type, geometry or

colour by clicking on the appropriate column header. The colour

number listed is the palette entry for the first facet in the

geometry file

The OMP has four pull-down menus which enable objects to be

created, updated or deleted. The updating and deleting actions

are performed on all the selected objects. Each column also has

its own context menu, displayed by right-clicking in the column.

Object Menu, Action Menu, View Menu, Group Menu,

Context Menu

Object Menu

Object Management - Object Menu

Object Menu

New Object

Creates a new object at the origin and opens the Object Dialog for

it

Import Object

Creates a sequence of objects from the contents of a POB file. The

first object is always an ASSEMBLY object, which acts as a

'container' for the component objects

Copy Object(s)

This makes a copy of the selected object(s), including all attributes.

Objects and active groups can also be duplicated by clicking on the

Duplicate Object or Group button of the hand-set

Array Object(s)

Arraying is a variation on duplication. It allows the creation of an

entire array of objects or groups, all copied from the original

Select All

Selects all objects (except the domain) in the object management

panel.

Refresh

It is possible for the object management to become out of sync

with the current status of the model, in these cases use refresh to

update its contents

Action Menu

Object Management - Action Menu

Action Menu

This opens the object dialog box for the current object. The current

object is the one highlighted in the list. If more than one object has

been selected, the dialog box for the last object to be selected is

opened. When the object dialog is closed, the changes made can

be optionally propagated through all the other selected objects

which are of the same type

Hide object(s)

This hides (makes invisible) all the currently selected objects

Reveal object(s)

This reveals (makes visible) all the currently selected objects

Delete object(s)

This deletes all the currently selected objects. The user will be

prompted for confirmation before objects are deleted

Modify colour

Opens the object dialog for the current object on the options page;

click on the object colour button to modify the colour. The object

transparency may also be set from here. When the object dialog is

closed the colour changes will be applied to all selected objects

Objects affects grid

Objects interact with the computational mesh. Turning the mesh

toggle on the hand-set ON causes the current grid to be displayed

Action Menu

By default, objects cannot pass through the faces of the domain.

Similarly, the domain cannot be made smaller than the largest

object. But sometimes it can be convenient to allow objects to

partially lie outside the domain - for example to model one half of a

body

Surface contours (Viewer only)

Check menu item toggles whether surface contours are displayed

on the current items

Dump surface values (Viewer only if Surface contour ticked)

Dump object profile (Viewer only if Surface contour ticked)

Show results (Viewer only)

Displays sources and sinks for the selected object in a pop-up

window. The values are read from the 'Sources and sinks' section of

the RESULT file. Force and moment data for blockages is also

displayed if present.

View Menu

Object Management - View Menu

The first seven check menu

entries indicate whether the

corresponding column is visible

in the listbox. The final check

menu item 'Assembly objects'

indicates whether the child

assembly objects are visible in

the list of objects

Group Menu

Object Management - Group Menu

Group Menu

Object Management - Group Menu

Save

When more than one object is selected, a temporary group is

created. This group may be saved to be recalled later by

using this option. Any saved group will subsequently be listed

in the list of objects in the object management panel. Details

of any saved groups will be written to the Q1

Delete

If the current object is a saved group then this option

becomes active and may be used to delete the group

Modify

This option may be used to modify the membership of a

saved group

Context Menu

Object Management - Context Menu

Context Menu

The context menu is an extension to the Action menu. The items

in the menu depend on the column. It enables the rapid selection

of objects of a single type or geometry, and also provides a

shortcut access to the geometry generation program

Shapemaker.

A similar context menu is accessed by right-clicking on an object

in the graphics window.

The context menu for the 'Reference' column is different from the

others - it allows the sequence number of the selected object(s)

to be changed

Object Type

Brief Description

Blockage

Inlet

Angled-in

Wind_Profile

Outlet

Angled-out

Plate

Thin Plate

Fan

Point_history

User Defined

Celltype

Null

PCB

Pressure Relief

Drag_lift

Assembly

Transfer

Movement Controls

2. VR Viewer

Vectors

To

view: - click on the 'Vector toggle'

.

Vectors are colored by the current plotting variable, but

their length is always related to the absolute velocity.

Streamlines - click on the 'Streamline management'

button

Iso-surfaces - click on the 'Iso-Surface toggle'

To select Velocity - click on the 'Select Velocity button'

To select Temperature - click on the 'Select Temperature

button'

To select any other variable - click on the 'Select a

2. VR Viewer

direction to X, Y or Z

To change the position of the plotting plane, move the

probe using the probe position buttons

on the toolbar or

double-click the probe itself to bring up the Probe Location

dialog

Chapter 3

Simulation of Contaminant Flow

Geometry of flow

The flow is two-dimensional

Pre-Processor VR-Editor

Pre-Processor VR-Editor

Post-Processor VR-Viewer

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