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Computer Simulation of Fluid Flow, Heat Flow,

Chemical Reactions and Stress in Solids.

CHAM

PHOENICS
Application of Environment Spatial Information
System
Minkasheva Alena
Thermal Fluid Engineering Lab.
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Kangwon National University
2007.05.04
Part 1

Contents
Chapter 1. PHOENICS Overview
1. What PHOENICS is
2.The components of PHOENICS
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

The main functions of PHOENICS


The structure of PHOENICS
The inter-communication files
How the problem is defined
How PHOENICS makes the predictions
How the results are displayed
PHOENICS options

3. Physical content of PHOENICS


4. Mathematical features of PHOENICS
4.1 Variables

Contents
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

Storage
Grids
The Balance Equation
Auxiliary Equations
Solution of Equations
Boundary Conditions

5. Simulation of multi-phase flow in PHOENICS


6. Turbulence models in PHOENICS
7. Radiative-heat-transfer models in PHOENICS
8. Chemical-reaction processes in PHOENICS
9. Simultaneous solid-stress analysis
10. Body-fitting in PHOENICS
11. PHOENICS Application

Contents

Chapter 2. The Virtual-Reality Interface


1. VR-Editor
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

What the Virtual-Reality Editor creates


Domain Attributes Menu
Object Management Panel
Object Types and Attributes
The VR Editor Control Panel

2. VR Viewer

Chapter 3. PHOENICS Application


Example
Simulation of Contaminant
Flow
Pre-Processor VR-Editor

Chapter 1

PHOENICS Overview

1. What PHOENICS is

PHOENICS is a general-purpose software


package which predicts quantitatively:
how fluids (air, water, steam, oil, blood, etc) flow in and
around:
engines
process equipment
buildings
human beings
lakes, river and oceans, and so on
the associated changes of chemical and physical
composition
the associated stresses in the immersed solids

PHOENICS - Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic


Numerical Integration Code Series

1. What PHOENICS is

PHOENICS is employed by:


scientists for interpreting their experimental

observations
engineers for the design of aircraft and other vehicles,
and of
equipment which produces power or which processes
materials
architects for the design of buildings
environmental specialists for the prediction, and if
possible
control, of environmental impact and hazards
teachers and students for the study of fluid dynamics,
heat transfer, combustion and related disciplines

PHOENICS is a CFD code

2. The Components of PHOENICS


2.1 The main functions of PHOENICS
PHOENICS performs three main functions:
1. Problem definition (pre-processing)
in which the user prescribes the situation to be
simulated and
the questions which are to be answered
2. Simulation (data-processing)
by means of computation, of what the laws of science
imply in
the prescribed circumstances
3. Presentation (post-processing)
of the results of the computation, by way of graphical
displays,
tables of numbers, and other means

2.2 The structure of PHOENICS

2.2 The structure of PHOENICS

PHOENICS has a planetary arrangement, with a central


core of subroutines called EARTH, and a SATELLITE
program, which accepts inputs through the Virtual
Reality (VR) interface corresponded to a particular flow
simulation.
EARTH and SATELLITE are distinct programs.
SATELLITE is a data-preparation program; it writes a data
file which EARTH reads.
PHOENICS users work mainly with SATELLITE, but they
can access EARTH also in controlled ways.
GROUND is the EARTH subroutine which users access
when incorporating special features of their own.

2.3 The inter-communication files


Files which are used for communication between
modules
Q1, the user-readable input-data file, which is written in PIL, the
PHOENICS Input Language, and is the main expression of what
the user wishes to achieve.
EARDAT, an ASCII file which expresses in EARTHunderstandable form what the user has prescribed by way of Q1.
PHI, which is written by EARTH in accordance with a format which
enables PHOTON, AUTOPLOT and the Viewer to display the
results of the computation graphically.
RESULT, which is an ASCII file expressing the results in tabular
and line-printer-plot form

2.4 How the problem is defined

geometry
shapes, definition
sizes and positions
of objects
andstatements
intervening abo
Problem
involves
making
spaces;
materials
thermodynamic, transport and other properties of the
fluids and
solids involved
processes
for example: whether the materials are inert or reactive;
whether turbulence is to be simulated and if so by what
model;
whether temperatures are to be computed in both fluids
and solids;
whether stresses in solids are to be computed
grid
the manner and fineness of the sub-division of space and
time,
what is called the "discretization"
other numerical (non-physical) parameters

2.5 How PHOENICS makes the predictions


expressing the relevant laws of physics and chemistry,
and the "models" which supplement them, in the form of
equations linking the values of pressure, temperature,
concentration, etc which prevail at clusters of points
distributed through space and time

PHOENICS simulates physical phenomena by:

locating these point-clusters (which constitute the


computational grid) sufficiently close to each other to
represent adequately the continuity of actual objects and
fluids
solving the equations by systematic, iterative, errorreduction methods, the progress of which is made visible
on the VDU screen
terminating when the errors have been sufficiently
reduced affecting the speed, accuracy and economy of
the simulation

2.6 How the results are displayed

PHOENICS can display the results of its flow simulat


in a wide variety of forms
It has its own stand-alone graphics package called
PHOTON; and it can also export results to such third-party
packages as TECPLOT, AVS, and FEMVIEW.
PHOENICS can also take the results of its flow predictions
back into the same VIRTUAL-REALITY environment as is
used for setting up the problem at the start.
Numerical results are provided, in the RESULT file. This,
when the appropriate commands in the Q1 file, can
provide either sparse or voluminous information

2.7 PHOENICS options:


1. Advanced-multiphase
2. Body-fitted-coordinate
3. Advanced-chemistry
4. GENTRA (particle tracking)
5. Multi-block and fine-grid-embedding
6. Multi-fluid
7. Advanced-algorithms
8. MIGAL, the multi-grid solver
9. PLANT fortranizer
10. Advanced-radiation
11. Simultaneous-solid-stress
12. Advanced-turbulence
13. Two-phase

3. Physical content of PHOENICS

PHOENICS simulates flow phenomena which are:


laminar or turbulent
compressible or incompressible
steady or unsteady
chemically inert or reactive
single- or multi-phase
in respect of thermal radiation:
- transparent
- participating by way of absorption and emission
- participating by way of scattering

3. Physical content of PHOENICS

The space in which the fluid flows may be:


empty of solids, or
wholly or partially filled by finely-divided solids at rest (as
in 'porous-medium' flows), or
partially occupied by solids which are not small compared
with the size of the local computational cells
The solids may interact thermally with the solids.
Such immersed solids can also participate in radiative heat
transfer.
The thermally and mechanically-induced stresses and
strains in the immersed solids can also be computed by
PHOENICS.
The thermodynamic, transport (including radiative),
chemical and other properties of the fluids and solids may

4. Mathematical features

4.1 Variables

Variables may be thought of as being:

dependent - the subject of a conservation equation


auxiliary - constant, or derived from an algebraic
expression

Dependent:
Scalars:

Vectors:

- Pressure

- Velocity resolutes

- Temperature

- Radiation fluxes

- Enthalpy

- Displacements

- Mass fractions
- Volume fractions
- Turbulence quantities
- Various potentials

4.1 Variables

Auxiliary:
Scalars:
- Density
- Viscosity

Vectors:
- Various nonisotropic
properties

- Conductivity

- Gravity forces

- Diffusivity

- Other body forces

- Specific heat
- Thermal expansion coefficient
- Inter-fluid transport
- Absorptivity
- Compressibility

4.1 Variables

The quantities defining the problem geometry


can also be
divided into scalar and vector categories:

Geometric:
Scalars:
- Cell volumes
- Volume porosity factors
- Inter-fluid surface area
per unit volume

Vectors:
- Cell center coordinates
- Cell corner coordinates
- Center to center
distances
- Cell surface areas
- Cell area porosities

4.2 Storage

Scalars - These are stored at the center points of six-sided


cells,
with values supposed to be typical of the whole
cell.
Vectors - These are stored at the center points of the six
cell faces

Nomenclature

A compass-point notation:

P = Cell center
N,S,E,W,H,L = Neighbour-cell
centers
SN

= Positive IY

W E = Positive IX
LH

= Positive IZ

T = Cell center at previous time


step
An array of cells with the same IZ
is referred to as a SLAB

4.3 Grids

Storage locations
Vector quantities are computed by reference to cells which

are
staggered with respect to the scalar cells

3 velocities and 1 scalar share the same cell index


(IX,IY,IZ).
Any scalar or vector quantity can only be referenced by a
unique
(IX,IY,IZ) index

4.3 Grids

Types of Grid

PHOENICS grids are structured - cells are topologically


Cartesian
brick elements

PHOENICS grids may be :


- Cartesian
- Cylindrical-polar

- Body fitted i.e. arbitrarily curvi-linear, orthogonal or nonorthogonal


The grid distribution can be non-uniform in all coordinate
directions
For cylindrical-polar coordinates:
- X (or I) is always the angular direction
- Y (or J) is always the radial direction
- Z (or K) is always the axial direction

4.4 The Balance Equation

Basic form

The basic balance, or conservation equation is just:

Outflow from cell - Inflow into cell = Net source


within cell

The equations solved by PHOENICS are those


which
express
the balances of:

mass

momentum
energy
material (ie chemical species)
other conserved entities (e.g. electrical charge)
over discrete elements of space and time, i.e. 'finite
volumes' known as 'cells'

4.4 The Balance Equation

Terms

The terms appearing in the balance equation are:


- Convection (i.e., directed mass flow)
- Diffusion (i.e., random motion of electrons, molecules
or larger structures e.g., eddies)
- Time variation (i.e., directed motion from past to
present - accumulation within a cell)
- Sources (e.g., pressure gradient or body force for
momentum, chemical reaction for energy or chemical
species)

4.4 The Balance Equation

The Generalized Form


The single phase conservation equation solved by
PHOENICS can be written as:

( )

U
S
t
x
x
where:

- the variable in question


- density

U - vector velocity
- the diffusive exchange coefficient
for
S - the source term

4.4 The Balance Equation

Particular Forms

u, v , w

Momentum

( T L )
p
S
gravity friction ...
x h

Enthalpy

T
L

PrT PrL
Dp
S
heat sources ...
Dt

Continuity

0
S 0 boundary sources
where
,
are the turbulent and laminar viscosities,
T L
,
are the turbulent and laminar Prandtl/Schmidt
PrT PrL
Numbers

4.4 The Balance Equation

Numerical solution
The balance equations cannot be solved numerically in
differential form. Hence, PHOENICS solves a finitevolume formulation of the balance equation.
The FVE's are obtained by integrating the differential
equation over the cell volume.
Interpolation assumptions are required to obtain scalar
values at cell faces and vector quantities at cell
centers.
No Taylor series expansion or variational principle is
used

4.4 The Balance Equation

Finite Volume Form


After integration, the FVE has the form:

a p p a N N a S S a E E aW W a H H a LL aT T source terms
where:

a p a N a S a E aW a H a L aT
The neighbour links, the a's, have the form

area velocity density

area exchange coefficient


distance

convection diffusion transient

volume density

dt

4.4 The Balance Equation

Correction
The equationForm
is cast into correction form before solution.
In correction form, the sources are replaced by the errors
in the real equation, and the coefficients may be only
approximate. The corrections tend to zero as convergence
is approached, reducing the possibility of round-off errors
affecting the solution.
The neighbor links:
- Increase with inflow velocity, cell area, fluid density
and
transport coefficient
- Decrease with internodal distance
- Are always positive

4.5 Auxiliary Equations

To close the equation set, auxiliary equations must be


provided for:
Thermodynamic properties: density, (enthalpy, entropy)
Transport properties: viscosity, diffusivity, conductivity
Source terms: chemical kinetic laws, radiation
absorption, viscous dissipation, Coriolis etc.
Interphase transport: of momentum, energy, mass ,
chemical species etc.
There may also be 'artificial' auxiliary equations, such as
False transients (for relaxation)
Boundary conditions

4.6 Solution of Equations

Because the whole equation system is non-linear,

the

computing
the imbalances
of eachconsisting
of the entities
each
solution
procedure
is iterative,
offor
the
cell
steps of:

computing the coefficients of linear(ised) equations which


represent how the imbalances will change as a consequence
of (small) changes to the solved-for variables;
solving the linear equations;
correcting the values of solved-for variables, and of auxiliary
ones, such as fluid properties, which depend upon them:
repeating the cycle of operations until the changes made to
the variables are sufficiently small

Various techniques are used for solving the linear


equations:
tri-diagonal matrix algorithm
(a variant of) Stone's 'Strongly Implicit Algorithm',
conjugate-gradient and conjugate-residual solvers

4.7 Boundary Conditions

General form
Boundary Conditions are represented in PHOENICS as
linearized sources for cells adjacent to boundaries:

S a BC BC p

a BC is termed the COEFFICIENT.


BC is termed the VALUE.
a BC is added toa p
and a BC BC

p for
is added to the RHS of the equation
a

h h

a BCBC

a p a BC

4.7 Boundary Conditions

Particular forms

aBC
For a fixed value boundary,
effect is:
P

h h

a BCBC

is made very big. The

very small number a BC BC


P
very small number a BC

a p a BC

P BC
aBC

For a fixed flux boundary,


is set to the required flux.

source
ahh tiny tiny
P
a p tiny

a BCBC

is made very small, and

h h

source

ap

BC
aBC
Linear and non-linear
conditions
can be set by appropriate

5. Simulation of
multi-phase flow in PHOENICS

Multi-phase-flow phenomena are, for PHOENICS,


those in which, within the smallest element of space which
is considered
(the computational cell) several distinguishable materials
Examples:
are
present.

suspensions
of oil droplets in water, or of water droplets
in oil;
the air-snow mixture in an avalanche;
the sand-air mixture in a sandstorm;
the "mushy zone" of mixed solid and liquid metal in a
casting mould;
the water-air mixture in a shower bath;
the gas-oil-water mixture, in the pores within rock, in a
petroleum-recovery process;
droplets of fuel oil mixed with hot gases in a combustion

5. Simulation of
multi-phase flow in PHOENICS

Simulation methods in PHOENICS:

1. As two inter-penetrating continua, each having at


each point in the space-time domain under consideration,
its own:
- velocity components,
- temperature,
- composition,
- density,
- viscosity,
- volume fraction, etc
2. As multiple inter-penetrating continua having the
same variety of properties
3. As two non-interpenetrating continua separated by a
free surface
4. As a particulate phase for which the particle trajectories
are computed as they move through a continuous fluid

6. Turbulence models in PHOENICS

The flows which PHOENICS is called upon to simulate are,


more often than not, turbulent, by which is meant that they
exhibit near-random fluctuations, the time-scale of which is
very small compared with the time-scale of the mean-flow,
and of which the distance scale is small compared with the
dimensions of the domain under study

A broad-brush summary of the satisfactoriness


of
the
most-widely-used
turbulence models
is:
- for
predicting
time-average hydrodynamic
phenomena
and
the macro-mixing of fluids marked by conserved scalars,
the models are "not bad"; but
- for the simulation of micro-mixing, which is essential if
chemicalreaction rates are to be predicted, they are very poor
indeed

6. Turbulence models in PHOENICS

Turbulence models in PHOENICS can be


classified as
1. those which employ the Effective Viscosity Hypothesis
belonging
to one or other of three groups,
(EVH)
namely:
2. those which specifically AVOID the EVH

3. those which may make some INESSENTIAL use of the


EVH

Further distinction between models can be


made by
reference
to their
handling (or non-handling) of:
heat and mass
transfer
chemical reaction
multi-phase effects

6. Turbulence models in PHOENICS

Group 1 - which employ the EVH

Sub-group 1.1 in which no differential equations are used

prescribed EV - EV is given a uniform value

LVEL - EV is computed from the velocity, the laminar viscosity and the
distance from nearby walls

Prandtl mixing-length - EV is computed from the velocity gradient length


and a prescribed length scale

Van-Driest - as for Prandtl mixing length, but with low-Reynolds-number


modification

Sub-group 1.2 in which one differential equation is used

Prandtl energy - EV is prescribed-length * SQRT(KE) where KE is energy


of turbulence computed from a differential transport equation

Sub-group 1.3 in which 1 or 2 differential equations are


used

TWO-LAYER KE-EP - as for KE-EP except that only the KE equation is


solved near the wall, where the length scale is treated as known

6. Turbulence models in PHOENICS

Sub-group 1.4 in which two differential equations are


used

k-epsilon (KE-EP) - EV is proportional to KE**2/EP, where KE and EP


(dissipation rate of KE) are computed from differential transport equations

CHEN-KIM KE-EP - as for KE-EP, but with a "dual-time-scale concept"


making the formulae depend upon the energy-production rate P

RNG-derived KE-EP - as for KE-EP, but with a "re-normalization- group


concept" making the formulae depend upon the energy-production rate P

LAM-BREMHORST - as for KE-EP, but with low-Reynolds number


extension requiring knowledge of the distance from the nearest wall

Saffman-Spalding KE-VO - EV is proportional to KE/W**0.5, where KE


and W (RMS vorticity fluctuations) are computed from dif. transport eqs.

Kolmogorov-Wilcox KE-OMEGA - EV is proportional to KE/OMEGA,


where KE and OMEGA ("turbulence frequency") are from dif. transport eqs.

Sub-group 1.5 in which four differential equations are


used

TWO-SCALE KE-EPEV - is computed in a similar manner to that of KE-EP


model; but there are two turbulence- energy variables, KP and KT, and two

6. Turbulence models in PHOENICS

Group 2 - not employing the EVH

REYNOLDS-stress - EV is not used. Instead, the shear stresses are


themselves the dependent variables of differential transport equations,
usually six in number

Group 3 - which may or may not employ the EVH

Smagorinsky - EV is used only to resolve the small-scale subgrid-scale


motion, the main transfers of momentum being computed by performing
three-dimensional time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations
with the finest affordable space and time sub-divisions
Two-fluid - EV is either not used at all, or is deduced from the local velocity
differences between the two intermingling fluids which are used to describe
the turbulent fluid mixture
Multi-fluid - as for TWO-FLUID, except that, there being many fluids
present, EV can be derived from their various velocities in a wider variety of
ways

7. Radiative-heat-transfer models
in PHOENICS

A method which is unique to PHOENICS, and is especially


convenient when radiating surfaces are so numerous, and
variously arranged, that the use of the view-factor-type
model is impractically expensive, is IMMERSOL

IMMERSOL method is:

computationally inexpensive;
capable of handling the whole range of conditions from
optically-thin (ie transparent) to optically-thick (ie
opaque) media;
mathematically exact when the geometry is simple; and
never grossly inaccurate

8. Chemical-reaction processes
in PHOENICS

PHOENICS can handle the combustion of gaseous, liquid


(e.g. oil-spray) and solid (e.g. pulverized-coal) fuels.

Chemical reactions are simulated by PHOENICS


in several ways, including:
SCRS - "the Simple Chemically Reacting System" built
into user-accessible Fortran coding
CREK - a set of user-callable subroutines which handle
the thermodynamics and finite-rate or equilibrium
chemical kinetics of complex chemical reactions
CHEMKIN 2 - the public-domain code to which
PHOENICS has an interface
PLANT - which enables users to introduce new reaction
schemes and material properties by way of formulae
introduced into the data-input command file, Q1

9. Simultaneous solid-stress
analysis

It is frequently required to simulate fluid-flow and heattransfer processes in and around solids which are, partly as a
consequence of the flow, subject to thermal and mechanical
stresses

Often it is the stresses which are of major concern, while the


fluid and heat flows are of only secondary interest

Engineering examples of fluid/heat/stress


interactions:
gas-turbine blades under transient conditions
"residual stresses" resulting from casting or welding
thermal stresses in nuclear reactors during emergency
shut-down
manufacture of bricks and ceramics
stresses in the cylinder blocks of diesel engines
the failure of steel-frame buildings during fires

10. Body-fitting in PHOENICS


PHOENICS is enable to compute flows around such
bodies by using "body-fitted-coordinate (i.e. BFC) grids"

10. Body-fitting in PHOENICS


PHOENICS possesses its own built-in means of
generating such grids; but it can also accept grids
created by specialist packages, for example GeoGrid

10. Body-fitting in PHOENICS


PARSOL allows flows around curved bodies to be
computed on cartesian grids; and the solutions are often
just as accurate as those computed on body-fitted grids.

11. PHOENICS Application


1. Engineering Application:
Aerospace
Automotive
Chemical process
Combustion
Electronics
Marine
Metallurgical
Nuclear
Petroleum
Power
Radiation
Water etc.

11. PHOENICS Application


2. Environment Application:
Atmospheric pollution
Pollution of natural waters
Safety
Fire spread, etc.

3. Architecture and building science


External flows ( e.g. Flow around bus shelter)
Internal flows (e.g. Ventilation of a Concert Hall)

4. Other phenomena or features


Physical Models
Chemical Processes
Numerical Methods
Grid Generation, etc.

Chapter 2

The Virtual-Reality
Interface

1. VR-Editor
The Virtual-Reality user interface assists users to set up
flow-simulation calculations, without having to learn the
PIL.
This data-input mode is called the VR-Editor

1.1 What the Virtual-Reality Editor


creates

The VR-Editor records the settings made by the user


during his editing session in an ASCII file known as Q1.
This file can be read, understood and edited. Usually,
however, it will simply be stored for later use.
In any case, the flow-simulation can begin immediately, if
the user wishes, because two other files will also have
been automatically written, one of which (FACETDAT)
conveys the necessary geometrical information, while the
other (EARDAT) carries everything else that the solver
module needs to know.
The switching from the VR-Editor to the solver, and for that
matter to any other PHOENICS module, is rendered
particularly easy by the pull-down menus accessible from
the top bar of the VR-Editor screen.

1.1 What the Virtual-Reality Editor


creates

The VR-Editor is used for:

Setting the size of the computational domain;


Defining the position, size and properties of objects
which are to be introduced into it;
Specifying the material which otherwise occupies the
domain;
Specifying the inlet and outlet boundary conditions;
. Specifying the initial conditions, necessary if the problem
is a time-dependent one, and desirable otherwise for
economy;
Selecting a turbulence model, if the situation calls for it;
Specifying the fineness of the computational grid;
Specifying other parameters influencing the speed of
convergence of the solution procedure

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


The Main Menu is where all the domain-related settings,

such as domain size, variables solved, physical properties,


numerical and output controls are set. Any source which
operates over the whole domain is also set from here

The main menu is reached by:


- clicking the Main Menu
- clicking the

button on the hand-set

icon on the toolbar

- clicking Settings Domain attributes on the top bar of


the main graphics window
- double-clicking the Domain entry in the Object
Management
Panel

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Top panel

This is the top panel of the main menu, it can be reached from
any other panel by clicking on Top menu. It is the panel displayed
whenever the Main menu is activated from the hand-set, and it is
the only panel from which it is possible to return to the main VREditor environment

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Top panel

The buttons along the top of the panel allow the setting and
modification of the case. In general, it is best to start at the top
left, and work from left to right, as this minimises the chances of
missing out settings

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
For Cartesian and Polar co-ordinates, this is the same dialog that
is displayed by clicking on the Grid mesh button
on the handset

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry

Co-ordinate system: Toggles between Cartesian, cylindricalpolar and Body-Fitted (BFC)

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry

Inner radius (only for cylindrical-polar): Sets the inner radius for
a cylindrical-polar grid

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry

Time dependence: Toggles between Steady and Transient

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry

Time step settings (only for transient): Displays a dialog for


managing the time-step distribution

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry

Partial solids treatment (only for Cartesian): This activates the


special treatment of partially-blocked cells, PARSOL

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Partial solids treatment settings: Dialog from which the min
and max fluid volume fractions for PARSOL can be set. Any cell in
which the fluid volume fraction is below the min value is
considered fully-blocked, and any cell in which it is above the max
is considered full-open

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry

Auto Meshing: Toggles between auto and manual meshing in


each of the domain directions

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Domain size: Sets the total extent of the domain in the X, Y and
Z directions. In cylindrical-polar co-ordinates, the X size is set in
radians

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Number of cells: Sets the total number of cells in the X, Y and Z
directions. If all regions are 'Set', or the grid is 'auto' this value
cannot be changed directly as there are no 'Free' regions to
accommodate the change

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Number of regions: This displays the current number of regions
in each direction. This can only be changed by modifying objects
or modifying the tolerance

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Modify region: This is the number of the region selected for
modification. To modify a different region, enter its number
directly and click 'Apply', or click OK, then click on the new region

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Size: This displays the size (in meters or radians) of the region
selected for modification. The size of a region can only be
changed by modifying objects or modifying the tolerance

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Distribution: This toggles between Power law and
Geometrical progression. It controls how the cells within the
region are spaced

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Cell and Power: This toggles between Free and Set.
Free: the number of cells can be automatically adjusted as the
total number of cells is changed, so as to keep the grid as uniform
as possible.
Set: the number of cells in this region, and their distribution, have
been set by the user and cannot be automatically changed

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Cells in region: This initially displays the number of cells
allocated to this region by the automatic meshing algorithm. The
number of cells in this region can be changed by typing in a
different value. Cells will be taken from, or distributed amongst
other 'Free' regions to keep the total number constant

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Power/ratio: This sets the expansion power, or geometric
expansion common ratio. The default setting of 1.0 gives a
uniform mesh.
Positive values mean that the expansion goes from the start of the
region towards the end, negative values mean the expansion
starts at the end and goes to the beginning

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Symmetric: This toggles between No and Yes.
If Yes, the expansion specified by Distribution and Power/ratio is
applied symmetrically from each end of the region

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Geometry
Edit all regions: This displays a dialog which shows all the
region settings in a particular direction and allows them to be
changed. This is where the Auto-meshing parameters can be
adjusted

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

This panel controls the variables to be solved, and the models


used

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

Equation Formulation

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

Equation Formulation
- The main choice is between elliptic, parabolic and fullydeveloped formulation. Elliptic is the most usual form, as it
allows for recirculation.
- There is a further choice of staggered or collocated velocity
formulation. In the staggered formulation, velocities are stored at
cell face centers, in the collocated form they are stored at cell
centers, just like pressure and temperature.
- The staggered form is usually best for Cartesian and polar grids,
the GCV collocated for BFC.
- Parabolic performs a marching integration suitable for flows with
no recirculation, e.g. developing pipe flows or jet spreading.
- Fully-developed calculations will give the flow rate for a given
pressure-drop, or the pressure-drop for a given flow, without any
information on how the flow developed

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

Single / Multi-Phase

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

Single / Multi-Phase
This option switches between single and multi-phase operation. If
the domain is occupied by a single fluid, which does not change
phase, or by several fluids which ARE ALWAYS SEPARATED by
solid, the flow can be treated as single phase. If the fluid changes
phase, or there are several MIXED fluids, then the flow must be
treated as multi-phase.
The available options are:
One phase only one phase present (or several completely
separated fluids).
IPSA Full.This solves the full momentum equations for two
phases, allowing for inter-phase heat and mass transfer.
IPSA Equal vel. This assumes that the velocities of the two
phases are always equal, but allows inter-phase heat and mass
transfer.
Algebraic Slip. This solves reduced equations for several
dispersed phases in a carrier. Inter-phase heat and mass transfer
are not included

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models
Lagrangian Particle Tracker (GENTRA)
The particle tracker is an alternative way of treating multi-phase
flows.
It is suitable for dilute suspensions, where volume-fraction effects
are small. Packets of particles are tracked through the domain.
Each packet represents a large number of particles following this
path.
The particles can exchange heat, mass and momentum with the
carrier fluid

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models
Pressure And Velocity
This option switches ON or OFF the solution for the pressure
variable P1, and the velocities U1, V1 and W1. If the simulation is
two-phase, then the second phase velocities U2, V2 and W2 will
also be activated. If the grid dimensionality is changed later, the
required velocity component(s) will be added or removed as
needed.
Pressure and velocity must be ON before it becomes possible to
select Multi-Phase or Free-Surface models

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models
Free Surface Models
The available free surface models are:
Scalar equation
Height of liquid
The Scalar Equation Method (SEM) is good for overturning or
breaking interfaces, but is restricted to very small time steps.
Height of Liquid (HOL) can run steady-state, or with larger time
steps but cannot deal with overturning interfaces

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models
Energy Equation
The energy equation can be solved in one of two forms:
Temperature (TEM1/TEM2), or
Enthalpy (H1/H2)
The enthalpy form is often more suited to combustion
applications, the temperature form to conjugate heat transfer.
Internally, the equation is always cast in enthalpy form, so the
units of the sources are always Watts

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models
Energy Equation, Total/Static
By default, the Temperature form is set to 'Total', the enthalpy
form to 'Static'. The static form includes the substantial derivative
of the pressure and the kinetic heating terms in the energy
conservation equation as additional source terms, the Total form
does not.
If the flow is highly compressible (high Mach number) the
Temperature form should be switched to 'Static' otherwise
incorrect solutions will be obtained. This is because all the
property formulae require the static temperature.
The Enthalpy form can be used in 'Total' form as long as a suitable
temperature derivation is selected in the properties panel

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models
Turbulence Models

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

Turbulence Models
The
available turbulence
models
are
divided
following
LAMINAR
- The flow is
laminar
and
thereinto
is nothe
turbulence
groups:
model.
CONSTANT-EFFECTIVE - The turbulent viscosity is constant.
The default setting is 200 times the laminar viscosity.
LVEL - Generalised length-scale zero-equation model, useful
when there are many objects and the grid is coarse.
KEMODL - Classical two-equation high Reynolds number. k-
model
KOMODL - Kolmogorov-Wilcox two- equation k-f model.
Useful for transitional flows and flows with adverse pressure
gradients.
USER - User-defined model for advanced users.

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


KE Variants - Several Models
variants of the K-E model usually

giving enhanced performance for recirculating flow.


- KECHEN - Chen-Kim two-equation k- model.
Turbulence
Models
Gives better
prediction of separation and vortexes.
- KERNG - RNG derived two-equation k-e model.
Gives better prediction of separation and vortexes.
However, the
user is advised that the model results in substantial
deterioration in
the prediction of plane and round free jets in stagnant
surroundings.
- KEMMK - Murakami, Mochida and Kondo k-e model for flow
around
bluff bodies as encountered for example in windengineering
applications.
- KEKL - Kato-Launder k-e model for flow around bluff bodies
as
encountered for example in wind-engineering applications.
- KEMODL-YAP - k-e model with Yap correction for separated
flows.

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

Low-Re models - Several Low-Re Number variants of the K-E


model:
Turbulence
Models - Lam-Bremhorst low Reynolds version of
- KEMODL-LOWRE
k-.
- KEMODL-LOWRE-YAP - Lam-Bremhorst low Reynolds k-
with
Yap correction for separated flows.
- KECHEN-LOWRE - Low Reynolds variant of Chen-Kim
model.
- KEMODL-2L - Two layer k- model, which uses the high-Re
k- model only away from the wall in the fully-turbulent
region, and
the near-wall viscosity- affected layer is resolved with a
oneequation model involving a length-scale prescription.
This saves mesh points and improves convergence rates.
- KOMODL-LOWRE - Low Reynolds Kolmogorov-Wilcox model

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

Others - A range of models, from simple one-eq. models to


Re Stress (REYSTRS),
including a Sub-Grid-Scale LES model
Turbulence
Models
(SGSMOD):
- MIXLEN - Prandtl mixing-length model. Simple model for
unbounded flows.
- MIXLEN-RICE - Mixing-length model for bubble-column
reactors.
- KLMODL - Prandtl energy model. One-equation k-l model
for
wall-dominated flows.
- KWMODL - Saffman-Spalding two-equation. k-vorticity
model
- REYSTRS - Reynolds stress model
- SGSMOD - Smagorinsky sub-grid scale LES model with wall
damping
- SGSMOD-NOWD - Smagorinsky sub-grid scale LES model
with
no wall damping
- SGSMOD-VDWD - with Van Driest wall damping function

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models
Radiation Models
IMMERSOL
provides
an economically-realisable
The
available radiation
models
are:
approximation to the precise mathematical representation of
radiative transfer
6-Flux (Composite-Flux Model): the discretisation of angle is
such that the effects of radiation are accounted for by
reference to the positive and negative radiation fluxes in each
of the coordinate directions
Radiosity represents the average of the incoming and
outgoing radiation fluxes over all directions of the solid angle

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models
Combustion Models

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

Combustion Models
The following combustion models are available:
3 GASES - Simple Chemically-Reacting System (SCRS), mixing
controlled or kinetically controlled
7 GASES -Extended SCRS
Wood - Wood combustion model
Coal - Coal combustion model
Oil - Oil combustion model
Chemkin - Interface to Sandia Labs CHEMKIN program

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models
Solution Control / Extra Variables

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Models

Solution Control / Extra Variables


This panel gives options to:
Activate storage of user-named variables
Activate solution of user-named variables
Set the solution control switches (SOLUTN command) for all
stored and solved variables. The settings are: Store, Solve,
Whole-field, Point-by-point, Explicit, Harmonic
Set the terms in the equation for each variable (TERMS
command). The settings are: Built-in source, Convection,
Diffusion, Transient, Phase 1 variable, Interphase transfer

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties

This panel controls the materials and properties

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties
Use property tables
The main domain material can be chosen from the property
libraries

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties
Use property tables
Turning the Use property tables OFF allows the individual
properties to be set directly

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties

Domain Material
The individual properties loaded from the library for the domain
fluid can then be edited - changed

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties
Domain Material
Gases:

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties
Domain Material
Liquids:

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties
Domain Material
Solids:

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties
Domain Material
Other Materials:

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties
Edit properties of current material
For each property, a pull-down list of all available options is
provided

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties
Reference pressure and Reference temperature
These values are always added to the calculated pressure and
temperature before use in property calculations

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Properties
Property storage
Allows the field values of the properties to be placed in the EARTH
output file PHI, so that they can be plotted in the viewer

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Lists the properties used in PHOENICS

PIL variable

SI units

Nature

RHO1

kg/m**3

first-phase density

DRH1DP

m**2/Newton

proportionate change with pressure

RHO2

kg/m**3

second-phase density

DRH1DP

m**2/Newton

proportionate change with pressure

ENUT

m**2/s

kinematic turbulent contribution to effective viscosity

ENUL

m**2/s

kinematic laminar (reference) viscosity

PRNDTL
(indvar) > 0

dimensionless

the Prandtl or Schmidt number

PRNDTL
(indvar) < 0

dimensionless or
watts/(m*degC)

if indvar is enthalpy or temperature

PRNDTL
(indvar) < 0

m**2/s

if indvar represents another scalar

PHINT
(indvar)

according to indvar

equilibrium interface value for the first phase

PHINT
(indvar)

according to indvar

equilibrium interface value for the second phase

TMP1

degCelsius

temperature when first-phase enthalpy is solved for

TMP2

degCelsius

temperature when second-phase enthalpy is solved for

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Lists the properties used in PHOENICS

Property
PIL variable
SI units
EL1
EL2

storage
Nature
Allows
the field values
of turbulence
the properties
to be placed in the EARTH
m
first-phase
length
output
file PHI, sosecond-phase
that they turbulence
can be plotted
in the viewer
m
length

CP1

joule/(kg*degC)

constant-pressure specific heat of phase 1

CP2

joule/(kg*degC)

constant-pressure specific heat of phase 2

DVO1DT

1/degC

proportionate change of first-phase specific volume


(i.e. reciprocal of density) with temperature

DVO2DT

1/degC

proportionate change of second-phase specific volume


(i.e. reciprocal of density) with temperature

EMISS

1/m

absorptivity = proportion of radiation which is absorbed per unit length

SCATT

1/m

proportion of radiation which is scattered per unit length

CFIPS

Newton*s/m**4

momentum-transfer rate from one phase to another per unit volume


and per unit of velocity difference

CMDOT

kg*s/m**4

mass-transfer rate per unit volume and per unit of velocity difference

CINT
(indvar)

dimensionless

ratio of exchange coefficient to inter-phase friction factor for


first-phase side of interface

CINT
(indvar)

dimensionless

ratio of exchange coefficient to inter-phase friction factor for


second-phase side of interface

CVM

dimensionless

virtual-mass coefficient for two-phase flow.

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Initialisation

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Initialisation

This panel provides options to:


Activate a restart run

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Initialisation

This panel provides options to:


Set all initial values to default. This is 1.0E-10 for all variables
except:
- R1,R2, RS : 0.5
- EPOR, NPOR, HPOR, VPOR : 1.0
- PRPS : -1.0

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Initialisation

This panel provides options to:


Set individual whole-domain initial values for all stored and
solved variables

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Initialisation

This panel provides options to:


Start the In-Form editor with Group 11 selected as the current
Group

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Initialisation

This panel provides options to:


Unless explicitly set in this panel, initial values for Temperature,
Enthalpy, turbulence model quantities and solved-for passive
scalars will be taken from the inlet values supplied at the first inlet
defined

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Initialisation

This
panel aprovides
options to:
Activate
restart run
Set all initial values to default. This is 1.0E-10 for all variables
except:
- R1,R2, RS : 0.5
- EPOR, NPOR, HPOR, VPOR : 1.0
- PRPS : -1.0

Set individual whole-domain initial values for all stored and


solved variables
Start the In-Form editor with Group 11 selected as the current
Unless
explicitly set in this panel, initial values for Temperature,
Group
Enthalpy, turbulence model quantities and solved-for passive
scalars will be taken from the inlet values supplied at the first inlet
defined

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Sources

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Sources

This panel allows the creation of whole-domain sources, which are


not attached to an object.
All sources or boundary conditions which do not apply to the whole
domain must be attached to an object, and set through the object
attribute dialog box

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Sources

Gravitation forces

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Sources

Cyclic boundary conditions button gives the options:


Turn cyclic boundaries ON for all IZ slabs
Turn cyclic boundaries OFF for all IZ slabs
Turn cyclic boundaries on and off for individual slabs

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Sources

Moving Bodies (MOFOR)

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Sources

Moving Bodies (MOFOR)


The MOFOR ON/OFF button activates the Moving Frames Of
Reference model, which allows objects to move through the
domain. When turned ON, two extra buttons are displayed. One
allows the user to browse for the MOF file, and the other to edit
it using the currently-selected file editor. The MOF file controls
the motion of the objects.
MOFOR buttons only appear for Transient cases

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Sources

Rotation speed for rotating coordinate system


Rotation causes the rotation of the plot about an arbitrary axis
in 3D
The axis may be specified in the same way as for VIEW and UP;
angles are in degrees, and may be positive or negative

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Sources

Potential flow
"Potential flow", also called "ideal-fluid flow" or "irrotational
flow", is a mathematical concept to which real flows
approximate only in special circumstances, namely those in
which:
the flow is steady;
viscous effects are absent; and
compressibility effects are small

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics
The main entries on this panel allow the total number of iterations
(sweeps) over the whole domain, and the global convergence
criterion to be set

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Relaxation Settings

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Relaxation
Settings
Relaxation
is a technique
for
slowing down possibly
excessive rates of change. It
does not affect the final
solution.
The default relaxation
settings turn the Automatic
Convergence Control ON.
MAXINC sets the maximum
increment from iteration to
iteration for each variable.
The DTFALS settings for
velocities are ignored - the
solver will set linear
relaxation of 0.5 for all
velocities
Reset solution defaults
resets all the solver control
variables to their default
values, so that the Automatic

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Relaxation Settings
If the Automatic
Convergence Control is
turned OFF, the relaxation
settings can be set
individually
Typical values for DTFALS
may be estimated from the
governing time-scale of the
process under consideration.
Very often, values based on
residence time work well
For the velocity variables, it
can be advantageous to use
the Self-Adjusting Relaxation
AlgoritHm (SARAH). This is
activated by setting SARAH to
a value > 0. Values in the
range 0.001 - 0.01, typically
0.005, have been found to
work well

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Iteration Control

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Iteration Control

The default linear equation


solver is based on Stone's
Strongly Implicit method. To
use the Conjugate - Residuals
- Gradient solver for any
variable, set ENDIT for that
variable to GRND1.
Circumstances under which
this may be advantageous
include:
Pressure correction equation
(P1) in buoyancy-driven
flows, especially with
complex geometry; and
Temperature (TEM1) in
complex conjugate heat
transfer cases (except when
PARSOL is active)

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Limits on Variables

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Limits on Variables
This panel allows minimum
and maximum values for all
SOLVEd and STOREd
variables to be set

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Differencing Schemes

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Differencing Schemes

By default, the selected


differencing scheme applies
to all SOLVEd variables. The
default scheme is the HYBRID
scheme

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

Differencing Schemes
Set schemes individually
allows the selection of
different schemes for
different variables

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

MIGAL
The MIGAL multi-grid convergence accelerator can be used for the
hydrodynamics, the k-e based turbulence models, the energy
equation and individual scalars

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

MIGAL
MIGAL dialog (MIGAL OFF)

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Numerics

MIGAL

MIGAL dialog (MIGAL ON)

Settings button leads to a dialog from which all the MIGAL controls
can be set

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


GROUND

This panel sets special variables for use in GROUD.


The switch for PLANT is also on this panel

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

Output panel gives options to:


Set the monitoring cell location in terms of cell numbers.
Set the monitoring cell location in terms of physical space.
The nearest cell is chosen as the monitor cell.
Control the solver end-of-run behaviour.
Control the solver convergence monitoring output
Set field print out controls.
Select the frequency of field-dumping in terms of sweeps for
steady-state cases, or time-steps for transient cases, and select
which variables are written to the save file.
Activate storage of derived quantities and print-out of wall
function information.
Activate the calculation and printing of forces on objects.
Start the In-Form editor with Group 20, 21, 22, 23 or 24 selected
as the current Group

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

Pause at End of Run


This has three settings:
Default - obey the settings in CHAM.INI
On - always stop at the end of the run and wait for OK,
whatever is in CHAM.INI
Off - never stop at the end of the run, whatever is in CHAM.INI

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

Monitor Graph Style


The solver can display convergence-monitoring information on
the screen as graphs of:
Spot values and residuals vs. sweep (the default)
Minimum and maximum field values vs. sweep
Maximum absolute correction and residual vs. sweep

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

The
Field
Printout
settings
for OUTPUT
are:
1. Field print-out
2. Correction-equation
monitor print-out
4. Whole-field residual printout
5. Spot-value table and/or
plot
6. Residual table or plot

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

Dump Settings

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

Dump Settings

This controls the sweep (for


steady-state) or time-step (for
transient) frequency with which
flow fields are written to disk file.
The setting for OUTPUT for each
variable determines whether that
variable is written to the saved file
or not. This can potentially save a
lot of disk space by only writing
the variables of real interest, but
would also prevent such a
'thinned-out' file from being used
as an Earth restart file.
In transient cases, intermediate
flow fields can be dumped at
regular time-step intervals

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

Derived Variables

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

Derived Variables
Placing the Skin friction coefficient, Stanton Number, Shear
stress (actually friction velocity squared, equivalent to shear
stress divided by density), Yplus (non-dimensional distance to
the wall) and heat transfer coefficient (in W/m2/K) into 3-D
storage allows them to be plotted in the Viewer or PHOTON, as
well as appearing in the RESULT file.
Note that the heat-transfer coefficients are only calculated for
turbulent flow. To make them appear for laminar cases, the
turbulent viscosity should be set to a very small value - say
1.0E-10. The Stanton Number must be stored for the heattransfer coefficients to be calculated.
The friction force components SHRX, SHRY and SHRZ are used
in the force-integration routines to add the friction force to the
pressure force acting on each object. If they are not stored, the
integrated force will only contain the pressure component.
The Total or Stagnation Pressure (PTOT) is only calculated if the
Mach Number is stored. If the Reference Pressure is set to zero,
the total pressure may go below zero, leading to an error-stop

1.2 Domain Attributes Menu


Output

Forces on Objects
When this is 'On', the Earth solver will integrate the pressure
forces over all objects and print the force information to the
RESULT file. If the friction force components (SHRX, SHRY and
SHRZ) have been placed in 3D store, the force integration will
include them
The moments about the X, Y and Z axes are calculated, and the
point of action of the force is deduced

1.3 Object Management Panel

In the VR-Editor, all geometrical features are represented by


objects.
They may represent for example: blockages, inlets, outlets or heat
sources. Complex objects can often be represented by suitable
combinations of simpler objects.
Objects can be volumes or areas, but never lines. Even in a twodimensional case, PHOENICS requires a depth in the third
dimension, or in a one-dimensional case, width and depth. This is
because of the finite-volume numerical solution method
Objects are manipulated via the Object Management Panel (OMP),
which is reached by:
- clicking on the
- clicking on the

button on the hand set;


icon on the toolbar; or,

- clicking Settings - Object attributes from the Top Menu bar

1.3 Object Management Panel

Object Management Dialog


The OMP contains a list of the object names along with associated
key data for each object .
By default the objects are sorted by their reference number,
column two. They may also be sorted by name, type, geometry or
colour by clicking on the appropriate column header. The colour
number listed is the palette entry for the first facet in the
geometry file

1.3 Object Management Panel

Object Management Dialog


The OMP has four pull-down menus which enable objects to be
created, updated or deleted. The updating and deleting actions
are performed on all the selected objects. Each column also has
its own context menu, displayed by right-clicking in the column.
Object Menu, Action Menu, View Menu, Group Menu,
Context Menu

1.3 Object Management Panel


Object Menu
Object Management - Object Menu

1.3 Object Management Panel


Object Menu

New Object
Creates a new object at the origin and opens the Object Dialog for
it
Import Object
Creates a sequence of objects from the contents of a POB file. The
first object is always an ASSEMBLY object, which acts as a
'container' for the component objects
Copy Object(s)
This makes a copy of the selected object(s), including all attributes.
Objects and active groups can also be duplicated by clicking on the
Duplicate Object or Group button of the hand-set
Array Object(s)
Arraying is a variation on duplication. It allows the creation of an
entire array of objects or groups, all copied from the original
Select All
Selects all objects (except the domain) in the object management
panel.
Refresh
It is possible for the object management to become out of sync
with the current status of the model, in these cases use refresh to
update its contents

1.3 Object Management Panel


Action Menu
Object Management - Action Menu

1.3 Object Management Panel


Action Menu

Open object dialog


This opens the object dialog box for the current object. The current
object is the one highlighted in the list. If more than one object has
been selected, the dialog box for the last object to be selected is
opened. When the object dialog is closed, the changes made can
be optionally propagated through all the other selected objects
which are of the same type
Hide object(s)
This hides (makes invisible) all the currently selected objects
Reveal object(s)
This reveals (makes visible) all the currently selected objects
Delete object(s)
This deletes all the currently selected objects. The user will be
prompted for confirmation before objects are deleted
Modify colour
Opens the object dialog for the current object on the options page;
click on the object colour button to modify the colour. The object
transparency may also be set from here. When the object dialog is
closed the colour changes will be applied to all selected objects
Objects affects grid
Objects interact with the computational mesh. Turning the mesh
toggle on the hand-set ON causes the current grid to be displayed

1.3 Object Management Panel


Action Menu

Object constrained by domain


By default, objects cannot pass through the faces of the domain.
Similarly, the domain cannot be made smaller than the largest
object. But sometimes it can be convenient to allow objects to
partially lie outside the domain - for example to model one half of a
body
Surface contours (Viewer only)
Check menu item toggles whether surface contours are displayed
on the current items
Dump surface values (Viewer only if Surface contour ticked)
Dump object profile (Viewer only if Surface contour ticked)
Show results (Viewer only)
Displays sources and sinks for the selected object in a pop-up
window. The values are read from the 'Sources and sinks' section of
the RESULT file. Force and moment data for blockages is also
displayed if present.

1.3 Object Management Panel


View Menu
Object Management - View Menu
The first seven check menu
entries indicate whether the
corresponding column is visible
in the listbox. The final check
menu item 'Assembly objects'
indicates whether the child
assembly objects are visible in
the list of objects

1.3 Object Management Panel


Group Menu
Object Management - Group Menu

1.3 Object Management Panel


Group Menu
Object Management - Group Menu
Save
When more than one object is selected, a temporary group is
created. This group may be saved to be recalled later by
using this option. Any saved group will subsequently be listed
in the list of objects in the object management panel. Details
of any saved groups will be written to the Q1
Delete
If the current object is a saved group then this option
becomes active and may be used to delete the group
Modify
This option may be used to modify the membership of a
saved group

1.3 Object Management Panel


Context Menu
Object Management - Context Menu

1.3 Object Management Panel


Context Menu

Object Management - Context Menu


The context menu is an extension to the Action menu. The items
in the menu depend on the column. It enables the rapid selection
of objects of a single type or geometry, and also provides a
shortcut access to the geometry generation program
Shapemaker.
A similar context menu is accessed by right-clicking on an object
in the graphics window.
The context menu for the 'Reference' column is different from the
others - it allows the sequence number of the selected object(s)
to be changed

1.4 Object Types and Attributes


Object Type

Brief Description

Blockage

3D, solid or fluid. Can apply heat and momentum sources.

Inlet

2D, fixed mass source.

Angled-in

3D, fixed mass source.

Wind_Profile

2D, fixed mass source following atmospheric boundary layer.

Outlet

2D, fixed pressure.

Angled-out

3D, fixed pressure.

Plate

2D, zero thickness obstacle to flow. May be porous.

Thin Plate

2D, nominal thickness for heat transfer.

Fan

2D, fixed velocity

Point_history

single cell transient monitor point.

Fine Grid Vol

3D region of fine grid.

User Defined

2D or 3D, for setting user-defined sources (PATCH/COVAL).

Celltype

2D or 3D, for setting user-defined sources (cannot affect grid).

Null

2D or 3D. Used to cut the grid for mesh control.

PCB

3D, solid or fluid with non-isotropic thermal conductivity

Pressure Relief

single cell fixed pressure point.

Drag_lift

3D, region over which momentum imbalance (force) will be calculated.

Assembly

2D or 3D container object for multi-component object

Transfer

2D, transfers sources between calculations

1.5 The VR Editor Control Panel

Movement Controls

1.5 The VR Editor Control Panel

Domain and Object Controls

2. VR Viewer

Vectors
To
view: - click on the 'Vector toggle'

.
Vectors are colored by the current plotting variable, but
their length is always related to the absolute velocity.

Contours - click on the 'Contour toggle'


Streamlines - click on the 'Streamline management'
button
Iso-surfaces - click on the 'Iso-Surface toggle'

To select the plotting variable:

To select Pressure - click on the 'Select Pressure button'


To select Velocity - click on the 'Select Velocity button'
To select Temperature - click on the 'Select Temperature
button'
To select any other variable - click on the 'Select a

2. VR Viewer

To change the direction of the plotting plane, set the slice


direction to X, Y or Z
To change the position of the plotting plane, move the
probe using the probe position buttons

Alternatively, click on the probe icon


on the toolbar or
double-click the probe itself to bring up the Probe Location
dialog

Chapter 3

PHOENICS Application Example


Simulation of Contaminant Flow

Simulation of Contaminant Flow

Geometry of flow
The flow is two-dimensional

Pre-Processor VR-Editor

Pre-Processor VR-Editor

Main Solver Earth

Post-Processor VR-Viewer

THE END